Browsing by Subject "laterality"

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  • Stoycheva, Polina; Kauramäki, Jaakko; Newell, Fiona N.; Tiippana, Kaisa (2021)
    Laterality effects generally refer to an advantage for verbal processing in the left hemisphere and for non-verbal processing in the right hemisphere, and are often demonstrated in memory tasks in vision and audition. In contrast, their role in haptic memory is less understood. In this study, we examined haptic recognition memory and laterality for letters and nonsense shapes. We used both upper and lower case letters, with the latter designed as more complex in shape. Participants performed a recognition memory task with the left and right hand separately. Recognition memory performance (capacity and bias-free d') was higher and response times were faster for upper case letters than for lower case letters and nonsense shapes. The right hand performed best for upper case letters when it performed the task after the left hand. This right hand/left hemisphere advantage appeared for upper case letters, but not lower case letters, which also had a lower memory capacity, probably due to their more complex spatial shape. These findings suggest that verbal laterality effects in haptic memory are not very prominent, which may be due to the haptic verbal stimuli being processed mainly as spatial objects without reaching robust verbal coding into memory.
  • Kero, Mia; Raunio, Anna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Myllykangas, Liisa (2018)
    Background: There are only few population-based studies that have systemically investigated the prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the very old. The frequency of unilateral versus bilateral HS has been rarely studied. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and laterality of HS and its association with other neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of very elderly. Furthermore, the concomitant presence of immunoreactivity for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau was studied. Methods: The population-based Vantaa 85(+) study includes all inhabitants of the city of Vantaa, who were > 85 years in 1991 (n = 601). Neuropathological assessment was possible in 302 subjects. Severity of neuronal loss of CA sectors and subiculum was determined bilaterally by HE-staining. Immunohistochemistry performed using antibodies for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau. Results: Neuronal loss and pathological changes in the hippocampus sector CA1 and subiculum were observed in 47 of the 302 individuals (16%), and 51% of these changes were bilateral. HS without comorbid neurodegenerative pathology was found in 1/47 subjects with HS (2%). Dementia (p <0.001) and TDP-43 immunopositivity of the granular cell layer of the dentate fascia (p <0.001) were strongly associated with HS. The CERAD score, immunopositivity for HPtau and p62 in the granular cell layer of the fascia dentate were also associated. Conclusion: HS is prevalent (16%) in the oldest old population, but HS without any comorbid neurodegenerative pathology is rare. The high frequency of unilateral HS (49%) implied that bilateral sampling of hippocampi should be routine practice in neuropathological examination.
  • Stoycheva, Polina Lazarova; Kauramaki, Jaakko; Newell, Fiona N.; Tiippana, Kaisa (2020)
    The left hemisphere is known to be generally predominant in verbal processing and the right hemisphere in non-verbal processing. We studied whether verbal and non-verbal lateralization is present in haptics by comparing discrimination performance between letters and nonsense shapes. We addressed stimulus complexity by introducing lower case letters, which are verbally identical with upper case letters but have a more complex shape. The participants performed a same-different haptic discrimination task for upper and lower case letters and nonsense shapes with the left and right hand separately. We used signal detection theory to determine discriminability (d '), criterion (c) and we measured reaction times. Discrimination was better for the left hand for nonsense shapes, close to significantly better for the right hand for upper case letters and with no difference between the hands for lower case letters. For lower case letters, right hand showed a strong bias to respond "different", while the left hand showed faster reaction times. Our results are in agreement with the right lateralization for non-verbal material. Complexity of the verbal shape is important in haptics as the lower case letters seem to be processed as less verbal and more as spatial shapes than the upper case letters.