Browsing by Subject "lauseet"

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  • Mus, Nikolett (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
    It is well known from the literature that sentences with nominal, adjectival, and adverbial predicates in Tundra Nenets involve the use of copular or copula-like verbs (namely ŋa-, me- tara-, xæ- (xăja-)), at least under certain grammatical conditions. Tundra Nenets existential clauses, in addition, contain a copula-like (so-called existential) verb (tăńa-). Even though the copulas are already identified in the language, and the behavior of the various copular elements is well-documented and described, certain distributional aspects of copulas are not indicated in the existing literature. The present paper is devoted to clarify some cases of the (semantic) distribution of copular verbs in Tundra Nenets that have not been affected in detail so far. My goal is (i) to resolve certain seemingly exceptional cases that show difference from the pattern indicated in the literature, and (ii) to add further observastions to the discussion. The topics covered in the present paper are the followings: the use of the copulas ŋa- vs. tara- in clauses with NP/AP predicates; the distribution of the copulas ŋa- vs. me- in locative clauses, and the copula-distribution in locative and existential clauses.
  • Simula, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Objectives. The sentence span task is a complex working memory span task used for estimating total working memory capacity for both processing (sentence comprehension) and storage (remembering a set of words). Several traditional models of working memory suggest that performance on these tasks relies on phonological short-term storage. However, long-term memory effects as well as the effects of expertise and strategies have challenged this view. This study uses a working memory task that aids the creation of retrieval structures in the form of stories, which have been shown to form integrated structures in longterm memory. The research question is whether sentence and story contexts boost memory performance in a complex working memory task. The hypothesis is that storage of the words in the task takes place in long-term memory. Evidence of this would be better recall for words as parts of sentences than for separate words, and, particularly, a beneficial effect for words as part of an organized story. Methods. Twenty stories consisting of five sentences each were constructed, and the stimuli in all experimental conditions were based on these sentences and sentence-final words, reordered and recombined for the other conditions. Participants read aloud sets of five sentences that either formed a story or not. In one condition they had to report all the last words at the end of the set, in another, they memorised an additional separate word with each sentence. The sentences were presented on the screen one word at a time (500 ms). After the presentation of each sentence, the participant verified a statement about the sentence. After five sentences, the participant repeated back the words in correct positions. Experiment 1 (n=16) used immediate recall, experiment 2 (n=21) both immediate recall and recall after a distraction interval (the operation span task). In experiment 2 a distracting mental arithmetic task was presented instead of recall in half of the trials, and an individual word was added before each sentence in the two experimental conditions when the participants were to memorize the sentence final words. Subjects also performed a listening span task (in exp.1) or an operation span task (exp.2) to allow comparison of the estimated span and performance in the story task. Results were analysed using correlations, repeated measures ANOVA and a chi-square goodness of fit test on the distribution of errors. Results and discussion. Both the relatedness of the sentences (the story condition) and the inclusion of the words into sentences helped memory. An interaction showed that the story condition had a greater effect on last words than separate words. The beneficial effect of the story was shown in all serial positions. The effects remained in delayed recall. When the sentences formed stories, performance in verification of the statements about sentence context was better. This, as well as the differing distributions of errors in different experimental conditions, suggest different levels of representation are in use in the different conditions. In the story condition, the nature of these representations could be in the form of an organized memory structure, a situation model. The other working memory tasks had only few week correlations to the story task. This could indicate that different processes are in use in the tasks. The results do not support short-term phonological storage, but instead are compatible with the words being encoded to LTM during the task.