Browsing by Subject "leaching"

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  • Kareinen, Timo; Nissinen, Ari; Ilvesniemi, Hannu (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1998)
    In this study we analyze how the ion concentrations in forest soil solution are determined by hydrological and biogeochemical processes. A dynamic model ACIDIC was developed, including processes common to dynamic soil acidification models. The model treats up to eight interacting layers and simulates soil hydrology, transpiration, root water and nutrient uptake, cation exchange, dissolution and reactions of Al hydroxides in solution, and the formation of carbonic acid and its dissociation products. It includes also a possibility to a simultaneous use of preferential and matrix flow paths, enabling the throughfall water to enter the deeper soil layers in macropores without first reacting with the upper layers. Three different combinations of routing the throughfall water via macro- and micropores through the soil profile is presented. The large vertical gradient in the observed total charge was simulated succesfully. According to the simulations, gradient is mostly caused by differences in the intensity of water uptake, sulfate adsorption and organic anion retention at the various depths. The temporal variations in Ca and Mg concentrations were simulated fairly well in all soil layers. For H+, Al and K there were much more variation in the observed than in the simulated concentrations. Flow in macropores is a possible explanation for the apparent disequilibrium of the cation exchange for H+ and K, as the solution H+ and K concentrations have great vertical gradients in soil. The amount of exchangeable H+ increased in the O and E horizons and decreased in the Bs1 and Bs2 horizons, the net change in whole soil profile being a decrease. A large part of the decrease of the exchangeable H+ in the illuvial B horizon was caused by sulfate adsorption. The model produces soil water amounts and solution ion concentrations which are comparable to the measured values, and it can be used in both hydrological and chemical studies of soils.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sallantaus, Tapani (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232 (2021), 371
    Contradictory results for the long-term evolution of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in waters discharging from drained peatland forests need reconciliation. We gathered long-term (10–29 years) water quality data from 29 forested catchments, 18 forestry-drained and 11 undrained peatlands. Trend analysis of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration data indicated variable trends from clearly decreasing to considerably increasing temporal trends. While the variations in phosphorus concentration trends over time did not correlate with any of our explanatory factors, trends in nitrogen concentrations correlated positively with tree stand volume in the catchments and temperature sum. A positive correlation of increasing nitrogen concentrations with temperature sum raises concerns of the future evolution of nitrogen dynamics under a warming climate. Furthermore, the correlation with tree stand volume is troublesome due to the generally accepted policy to tackle the climate crisis by enhancing tree growth. However, future research is still needed to assess which are the actual processes related to stand volume and temperature sum that contribute to increasing TN concentrations.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Haahti, Kersti; Sallantaus, Tapani; Koskinen, Markku; Ojanen, Paavo (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo - tutkimusartikkelit
    Viime vuosina julkaistujen tutkimusten mukaan metsäojitettujen soiden vesistö kuormituksen epäillään olevan moninkertaisesti aiemmin arvioitua suurempaa. Syynä tähän on se, että kuormitusta syntyy aiemmista käsityksistä poiketen silloinkin, kun ojitusalueilla ei ole vuosikausiin tehty mitään toimenpiteitä. Tässä työssä arvioitiin metsäojitusalueilta syntyvä vesistökuormitus ottamalla huomioon sekä tämä nykyisistä metsätaloustoimenpiteistä riippumaton ”ojituslisä” että kunnostusojituksen, lannoituksen ja hakkuiden aiheuttama kuormitus. Tehdyn arvion mukaan metsätaloudesta ojitetuilla soilla syntyy Suomessa vuosittain typpikuormitusta noin 8500 Mg ja fosforikuormi tusta 590 Mg. Kun ojituslisä otetaan huomioon, typpikuormitus on noin 18-kertainen ja fosforikuormitus 6–7-kertainen aiempiin vain eri toimenpiteiden kuormitukset huomioon ottaviin arvioihin verrattuna. Vesiensuojelun kannalta oleellista olisi selvittää, mitkä tekijät ojitusalueilla aiheuttavat ojituslisän muodossa tapahtuvaa pysyvää kuormitusta ja mitä tämän kuormituksen torjumiseksi on tehtävissä.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sallantaus, Tapani (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo 72(1) (2020)
  • Law, Kathleen A.; Parry, Stephen A.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Heath, Sarah L.; Heald, Steven; Knight, Darrell; O'Brien, Luke; Fuller, Adam J.; Bower, William R.; Law, Gareth T. W.; Livens, Francis R. (2019)
    One of the most challenging components of the UK nuclear legacy is Magnox sludge, arising from the corrosion of Mg alloy-clad irradiated metallic U fuel that has been stored in high pH ponds. The sludges mainly comprise Mg hydroxide and carbonate phases, contaminated with fission products and actinides, including Pu. Cementation and deep geological disposal is one option for the long-term management of this material, but there is a need to understand how Pu may be leached from the waste, if it is exposed to groundwater. Here, we show that cemented Mg(OH)2 powder prepared with Pu(IV)aq is altered on contact with water to produce a visibly altered ‘leached zone’, which penetrates several hundred microns into the sample. In turn, this zone shows slow leaching of Pu, with long-term leaching rates between 1.8–4.4 × 10−5% of total Pu per day. Synchrotron micro-focus X-ray fluorescence mapping identified decreased Pu concentration within the ‘leached zone’. A comparison of micro-focus X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS) spectra collected across both leached and unleached samples showed little variation, and indicated that Pu was present in a similar oxidation state and coordination environment. Fitting of the XANES spectra between single oxidation state standards and EXAFS modeling showed that Pu was present as a mixture of Pu(IV) and Pu(V). The change in Pu oxidation from the stock solution suggests that partial Pu oxidation occurred during sample ageing. Similarity in the XAS spectra from all samples, with different local chemistries, indicated that the Pu oxidation state was not perturbed by macro-scale variations in cement chemistry, surface oxidation, sample aging, or the leaching treatment. These experiments have demonstrated the potential for leaching of Pu from cementitious waste forms, and its underlying significance requires further investigation.