Browsing by Subject "leadership"

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  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.
  • Weckström, Elina; Karlsson, Liisa; Pöllänen, Sinikka; Lastikka, Anna-Leena (2021)
    This study reports on critical participatory research in an early childhood education and care centre in Finland. The objective was to study which elements are critical in the development and construction of a culture of participation. The data comprise conversations, team meetings and educators' diaries. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicated that a culture of participation requires four elements: (a) a shared understanding of the image of the child, (b) a shared understanding of professional development, (c) leadership and (d) a shared we-narrative that enables the comprehensive understanding, promotion and maintenance of a culture of participation.
  • Wolff, Lili-Ann (Åbo Akademi, 2015)
    Rapport från Fakulteten för pedagogik och välfärdsstudier vid Åbo Akademi
    Hållbart ledarskap är ett begrepp som allt oftare dykt upp i utbildningssammanhang de senaste åren. Att definiera begreppet är dock inte lätt, eftersom det uttolkas på vitt skilda sätt i olika kontexter. Detta kapitel är därför för det första skrivet för att klargöra förvirringen och underlätta förståelsen för detta mångtydiga begrepp. För det andra vill jag visa hur begreppet ofta används med en mer omfattande innebörd utanför utbildningsfältet. En tredje ambition är att framlägga ett diskussionsunderlag till hur begreppet skulle kunna tillämpas även inom utbildningen med en tydligare betoning på etik och hållbarhet.
  • Lonka, Kirsti; Ketonen, Elina; Marttinen, Kitte; Talvio, Markus (2019)
  • Salimäki, Aino (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    Supervisors’ role in implementing pay systems has become important part of pay systems that aim at supporting the strategy of the organization. This thesis studied supervisor’s role in implementing individual performance-based pay. The study focused on the processes by which supervisors can affect the functionality of a pay system. A pay system is well functioning when the employees and supervisors are satisfied with it and the effects are in line with the objectives for the system. Strategic pay is implemented through performance management processes where goals of the work are aligned with the strategy of the organization. The objective of the research was to create a structural model of the processes by which supervisors could improve the functionality of a pay system. The model is based on theories of knowledge of pay, meaning of pay and procedural justice. To test the model, six hypotheses were generated to study whether knowledge of pay, meaning of pay and procedural justice mediate the relations between supervisor’s role and activity and functionality of the pay system. The data for the study was collected with a survey (N=109) in one Finnish organization from the public sector. The data was analysed by structural equation modelling (LISREL 8.53). The results show that supervisors can improve the functionality of the pay system by performance management process, which is based on mutual trust and open communication. The role of the supervisor is to give feedback and tell how performance is connected to the pay raises. When this is done the pay system is experienced as meaningful, the employees are satisfied with it and it induces effects aspired. In addition, fair procedures in performance appraisal are important for employees to be satisfied with their pay. It is discussed whether power to make decisions and the responsibilities of the supervisors are in balance in this organization.
  • Saarinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This present study analyses quantitatively and qualitatively supervisors’ perceptions and experiences of age management in a metal industry organization in Finland. The study aims to describe supervisors’ thoughts about age management and its implementation in practice: how do they take into consideration different-aged team members in their leadership practices, do they feel they have the necessary skills to support different-aged team members’ working ability, and do they experience the age management as part of organizational culture and strategy. Furthermore, the target of the study is to describe supervisors’ experience of need for an additional support regarding age management. The study is part of an internal career path model –project in the case organization, which emphasizes the diverse expectations that employees representing different age groups have on different stages in their career path. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the concepts of management in matrix organizations, age management, diversity in organizations, working ability, burnout and work engagement, as well as, transitions in career path. The study material consisted of an online survey, which included both open questions and multiple-choice questions. Quantitative data was analyzed with SPSS-program by parametric methods and the content based analyze of qualitative data was carried out according to the phenomenological-hermeneutical tradition based on the theory. According to quantitative data, the participants felt that they take well into consideration different aged employees, their competence development and working ability in practical supervisory work. The supervisors experienced the age management quite strongly as part of the organization's culture and strategy, although the qualitative data indicated that the concept of age management was unknown, and more introduction was hoped. In addition, according to the quantitative and qualitative data, taking into consideration the physical nature of the work appeared as a development area; supervisors experienced that they need practical examples concerning how to use career flexibilities. The descriptions of supervisors also highlighted the fact that supporting the younger team members’ working ability has also been challenging. In addition, less experienced supervisors are more likely to evaluate their skills and resources weaker than those who have more experience from supervisory work and thus, age management themes were hoped to be part of the orientation for supervisors. Furthermore, older supervisors did not experience age management that strongly as part of organization’s culture and strategy.
  • Nataraj, Shalini (2010)
    Abstract: This study aims to understand the identity behind Finnish female leaders. Women in socio-democratic nations tend to enjoy high gender equality, but there are still gender related problems in the labour force. Vertical and some horizontal sex-segregation is a prevalent feature of the Nordic States, a trend which segregates women into the lower and middle ranks of the public sector. Compared to their northern neighbours, more Finnish women tend to enjoy higher ranked jobs but still mainly in the public sphere. Within this context, this study is an aim to understand how and why these Finnish women are so successful. What is leadership and what does a leader require for success? Some feminist literature suggests that gender is an identity created from social norms, but like most political minorities, tend to hold on to the pain of oppression, consequently, recreating their positions in society. Wendy Brown refers to it as wounded attachments, or a continual re-creation of pain. An example of this pain is the imagery of a glass ceiling. The continual struggle for gender equality can be said to create cycles of victimization. Can this be said of women leaders? What is the identity behind a Finnish woman in a professional position of seniority and executive management or directorship? Six Finnish women are interviewed about their status, job satisfaction, work history and ideas behind their leadership. The research design incorporates a textual analysis and a brief questionnaire collected from 14 international students. These data sets are used to understand the identity and discourse of the leaders. Findings indicate that female leadership seems to be a hybrid identity, which has been developed parallel to the gradual shatter of the glass ceiling. Women do not seem to identify with the glass ceiling in the majority of professional situations, but work-life balance still seems to be a problem for some. Research suggests that the ‘think manager, think male’ phenomenon is gradually changing to include female leadership as a norm. Although there are still gender stereotypes when understanding leadership, the six women seem to have a will to be leaders, something that is quite opposite to bearing wounded attachments. This research suggests that leaders do not embody negative attachments, and although they identify themselves as women, they do not identify their paths with glass ceilings or other wounds.
  • Markkula, Marita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The topic of this study is to explore how the senior business leaders construct their attitudes and describe the role of trust in the context of business transformations related to the company's business and organization, for example during mergers or acquisitions (M&A) and hyper-growth. The focus of the study is on attitudes constructed by these leaders and observed through their argumentation when talking about trust. These attitudes and argumentation are examined from the theoretic-methodological approach of qualitative attitude approach, offering a unique angle to trust research, widely dominated by quantitative research. The qualitative attitude approach relies on rhetorical social psychology and constructivist viewpoint, which draws attention to the socially constructed nature of argumentation when examining attitudes. In the qualitative attitude approach, attitude is seen as relationist, where attitude is viewed to be built in argumentation. Examining the argumentation of speech provides new insights into the role of trust in an organization. The research data consisted of five individual interviews of experienced corporate executives in top management positions (members of the company’s executive leadership team or the board of directors). The interviews were conducted in the spring and summer of 2019. These semi-structured interviews consisted of seven attitude prompts to which comments were requested. Five prompts addressed trust within the organization and two addressed leadership. In their speech, the interviewees formed statements and justifications to the questions and topics at hand, substantiating and negotiating their views. The study identified 20 different attitude constructs related to trust and two attitude constructs related to leadership overall. These attitudes were constructed from the classification of statements and justifications that emerged from the interview material. According to the qualitative attitude approach, analysis was conducted on two levels: through classifying and interpretative analysis. Attitudes were interpreted based on six evaluative argumentation patterns when talking about trust, forming six rhetoric versions of trust: Trust as a relational and interactional phenomenon across different organizational levels, Trust as an organizational catalyst, Trust as an outcome of multidimensional elements, Trust as an intentional act, Trust as a collective construct, and Trust-building as a leadership skill. The senior leaders formed these versions of trust from four subject positions - Trustor, Trustee, Observer and Evaluator of Trust, and Active Trust Builder. Positive, conditional, and negative justifications, subject positions, self-reflection, framing, and social influence were used as rhetoric and social resources to form attitudes related to trust. In the trust speech of senior business leaders, trust is described as an atmosphere of common trust, building material, and a bedrock of the company, that must be consciously and collectively built within organizations. Modern leadership was described as a school of fish with collective intelligence, a team jointly creating success. Trust-building needs to be contributed by the whole organization but it’s also seen as a leadership skill just like budgeting. The benefits of trust for organizations are empirically indisputable. Trust helps an organization to bear and share risks, creates psychological safety at all levels of the organization as well as supports risk-taking and decision-making in transformational situations.
  • Kangas, Emilia; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Jyrkinen, Marjut (2019)
    It has been claimed that in the context of organizations and management, fathers are invisible. One source of tension for fathers who work and who want to participate in family life is that even though involved fatherhood is emerging in many western societies, a family-oriented male identity is likely to be problematic for men in organizations. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of a professional and managerial men's work-family relationship using discourse analysis on data from three different media sources in Finland, published during 1990-2015. We identified two competing discourses: one of stasis, the other of change. The stasis discourse is constructed around traditionally masculine management and fatherhood roles, while the changing discourse embodies more diverse masculinities and fatherhood. We conclude that although the discourse on fatherhood in the organizational context is moving towards gender equality, at the same time a strong discourse is putting a brake on such development, especially regarding management.
  • Laukka, Elina; Kujala, Sari; Gluschkoff, Kia; Kanste, Outi; Hörhammer, Iiris; Heponiemi, Tarja (2021)
    Online symptom checkers (SCs) are eHealth solutions that offer healthcare organizations the possibility to empower their patients to independently assess their symptoms. The successful implementation of eHealth solutions, such as SCs, requires a supportive organizational culture and leadership. However, there is limited knowledge about the factors associated with leaders' support for the use of SCs. The aim of the study was to identify the factors associated to primary care leaders' support for SCs in triage and their experiences of the benefits and challenges related to the use of SCs. An online survey was used to collect data from 84 Finnish primary care leaders. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis methods and content analysis. Vision clarity, perceiving efficiency improvements, and considering the service to be beneficial for patients were associated with leaders' support for the service (beta ranging from 0.41 to 0.44, p < 0.001). Leaders' support for the service was also associated with how well the leaders provided information about the service to their subordinates (beta =0.22, p < 0.048). SCs present slightly more challenges than benefits regarding health professionals' work. The developers of SCs should focus more on features that decrease health professionals' workload as well as how the solution can benefit patients.
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Research Reports
    Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and women’s situations, experiences and voices in leadership; organisational culture; communication; divisions of labour, hierarchy, power and authority; imagery and symbolism; information technology; sexuality, harassment, bullying and violence in organisations; home-work relations; men and masculinities in leadership; globalisation, transnationalism, intersectionality and post¬¬colonialism – amongst other issues. Having said that, the vast majority of mainstream work on leadership retains little or no gender analysis. In most business schools and other universities the position of gender-explicit work on leadership is still not well established. Leadership through the Gender Lens brings together critical analyses and debates on gender, leadership and management with contributions from 13 countries and five continents. How leadership and management are gendered can mean more gender equal or more gender unequal conditions for women and men. This includes how education and training can contribute to gendered leadership and management. The volume is organised in three main sections, on: careers and leadership; management, hierarchy and leadership: and interventions in leadership.
  • Lima, Marcus E. O.; de Franca, Dalila X.; Jetten, Jolanda; Pereira, Cicero R.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Hong, Ying-yi; Torres, Ana Raquel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; Ariyanto, Amarina; Autin, Frederique; Ayub, Nadia; Badea, Constantina; Besta, Tomasz; Butera, Fabrizio; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Finchilescu, Gillian; Gaertner, Lowell; Gollwitzer, Mario; Gómez, Ángel; Gonzalez, Roberto; Høj Jensen, Dorthe; Karasawa, Minoru; Kessler, Thomas; Klein, Olivier; Megevand, Laura; Morton, Thomas; Paladino, Maria Paola; Polya, Tibor; Renvik, Tuuli Anna; Ruza, Aleksejs; Shahrazad, Wan; Shama, Sushama; Smith, Heather J.; Teymoori, Ali; van der Bles, Anne Marthe (2021)
    There is evidence that democracies are under threat around the world while the quest for strong leaders is increasing. Although the causes of these developments are complex and multifaceted, here we focus on one factor: the extent to which citizens express materialist and post-materialist concerns. We explore whether objective higher levels of democracy are differentially associated with materialist and post-materialist concerns and, in turn, whether this is related to the wish for a strong leader. Testing this hypothesis across 27 countries (N = 5,741) demonstrated a direct negative effect of democracies' development on the wish for a strong leader. Further, multi-level mediation analysis showed that the relation between the Democracy Index and the wish for a strong leader was mediated by materialist concerns. This pattern of results suggests that lower levels of democracy are associated with enhanced concerns about basic needs and this is linked to greater support for strong leaders.
  • Heikkilä, Hanna (2002)
    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine a role of a manager and role conflicts in his work. The study is conducted in a high-technology company, and one aim of it is also to find concrete development solutions in order to improve the communication between Human Resources department and line management. The theory of role conflicts forms the theoretical framework for the study. A role conflict is a situation where incompatible expectations are held towards a person's behavior, and six different type of role conflicts can be distinguished: an inter-role conflict, two types of intrarole conflicts, a personality-role conflict, role overload and finally, role ambiguity. The data was collected by thematic interviews and the results indicate that line managers in the target organization encounter nearly all kind of role conflicts in their work. Due to their position, they automatically have two roles: a role of an expert and a role of a superior. This leads to an inter-role conflict, which was strongly perceived especially by the female informants. Also intrarole conflicts emerged to some extent. Any personality-role conflicts did not occur, but role overload and role ambiguity came strongly across in the data. The managers are not able to perform all the duties they have, and the expectations of different interest groups are not communicated clearly enough. All conflicts cannot be completely solved, but communication is one way to improve the situation. Human Resources department, like other stakeholders should express the expectations they hold for a manager as explicitly as possible, and different roles should be clearly defined. Also induction and training can prevent role conflicts. The central references were Brown (1965): Social Psychology. Kahn et al. (1964): Organizational stress - Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Katz & Kahn (1978): The social psychology of organizations.
  • Pöllänen, Kari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Economics and Society
    The aim of the study was to explore the importance of evaluating leadership criteria in Finland at leader/subordinate levels of the insurance industry. The overall purpose of the thesis is tackled and analyzed from two different perspectives: - by examining the importance of the leadership criteria and style of Finnish insurance business leaders and their subordinates - by examining the opinions of insurance business leaders regarding leadership criteria in two culturally different countries: the US and Finland. This thesis consists of three published articles that scrutinise the focal phenomena both theoretically and empirically. The main results of the study do not lend support to the existence of a universal model of leadership criteria in the insurance business. As a matter of fact, the possible model seems to be based more on the special organizational and cultural circumstances of the country in question. The leadership criteria seem to be quite stable irrespective of the comparatively short research time period (3–5 years) and hierarchical level (subordinate/leader). Leaders have major difficulties in changing their leadership style. In fact, in order to bring about an efficient organizational change in the company you have to alternate the leader. The cultural dimensions (cooperation and monitoring) identified by Finnish subordinates were mostly in line with those of their managers, whilst emphasizing more the aspect of monitoring employees, which could be seen from their point of view as another element of managers’ optimizing/efficiency requirements. In Finnish surveys the strong emphasis on cooperation and mutual trust become apparent by both subordinates and managers. The basic problem is still how to emphasize and balance them in real life in such a way that both parties are happy to work together on a common basis. The American surveys suggests hypothetically that in a soft market period (buyer’s market) managers employ a more relationship-oriented leadership style and correspondingly adapt their leadership style to a more task-oriented approach in a hard market phase (seller’s market). In making business better Finnish insurance managers could probably concentrate more on task-oriented items such as reviewing, budgeting, monitoring and goal-orientation. The study also suggests that the social safety net of the European welfare state ideology has so far shielded the culture-specific sense of social responsibility of Finnish managers from the hazards of free competition and globalization.
  • Vihantomaa, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The theoretical framework of this study is based on the Innovative School model, which takes a holistic view of school development factors. The purpose of the study was to find out what kind of experiences the school staff have with working in an innovative school and to what extent the school studied represented the dimensions of the innovative school. The study looked at the school staff's experiences and perceptions of the role of the innovative school, orchestration of school activities and cooperation networks. The aim of the study is to increase understanding of the policies that have been developed in the school to support school development and the learning of 21st century skills, and to form a coherent picture of the school culture. Methods. The study is a qualitative case study, which research material consisted of nine semi-structured thematic interviews. The research context was a school, which has been a learning center and development community for many years. The research participants worked in different positions at the school. The research material was analyzed with theory-guided approach using the ATLAS.ti software as a technical aid. Results and Conclusions. According to the results, the main task of the school was to teach students 21st century skills. Team teaching and different learning environments supported this goal. Another task of the school was to build partnership with the parents. School development was identified as important for the school's operations. A significant part of the development took place in the school’s daily operational processes. The results show that the school's practices were based on a collaborative, team-based, way of working. School leadership was based on distributed leadership and the results highlighted the positive experiences associated with it, such as participation in decision-making. The results show that parents and other stakeholders were key part of the collaborative networks. However, the results indicated that not all opportunities for out-of-school stakeholders had yet been identified. This was a topic that requires development. Relying on community resources advances the development of the school. Individuals have different knowledge, ideas and expertise that can evolve by working together.
  • Jussila, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis studies the views of managers working in specialist organizations regarding leadership and emotional intelligence. The purpose of this study is to form an understanding of what views and concepts of the managers in specialist organizations have regarding emotional intelligence and its significance in managerial work. The purpose is to build an understanding of what the challenges are in managing specialist knowledge and to form an understanding of what the understanding and experience of emotional intelligence is in relation to leading an organization with specialist knowledge. The theoretical framework of the study was formed around three concepts: emotional intelligence, leadership and leadership of specialist knowledge. Theories of emotional intelligence, especially the concept of emotional intelligence by David Goleman and concepts of emotionally intelligent leadership were used as a theoretical framework. Concepts and definitions related to leadership and knowledge and theories in leadership of knowledge - such as the concept of transformational leadership presented by Bernard M. Bass – that have been combined with management that furthers learning by Riitta Viitala and Pirjo Kolari were also used in the study. The empirical research material was gathered by interviewing eight people who work or have worked in managerial positions in the specialist organization. The interviews were conducted as theme interviews. The methodological approach of the study was content analysis through which the research material was analyzed. Based on the material of the research, the challenges of managerial emotional intelligence in the specialist organization were the expectations and broad range of tasks related to managerial positions, substance knowledge, the management of strategic specialist knowledge, motivating, supporting and interaction. According to the study, the most important competences of emotional intelligence were emotional self-awareness, good selfassessment, self-control, transparency, ability to perform, empathy, service orientedness, inspirational leadership, ability to develop others and teamwork and collaboration skills. The conclusion of the study is that in the management of specialist knowledge in specialist organizations, matters such as interaction, individual attentiveness, empathy, ability to motivate and support, being present and enabling are highlighted. In a specialist organization a manager needs sufficient substance knowledge, purely emotional leadership is not sufficient. In specialist organizations, succeeding in knowledge management requires emotional intelligence, substance knowledge and transformational leadership. When these are combined by competent managers, they are able to motivate, focus on individuals and enable development.
  • Tuomi, Tytti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Työn tuunaaminen on työntekijästä itsestään lähtöisin oleva prosessi, jossa työntekijä muokkaa työtä itselleen mielekkäämmäksi. Työn tuunauksella työntekijä pyrkii lisäämään työnsä voimavaroja, jotka työn voimavarojen ja vaatimusten mallin mukaisesti vähentävät työn kuormitustekijöiden negatiivisia vaikutuksia. Työn tuunaamisella pyritään myös lisäämään työn imua, joka on työhyvinvoinnin positiivinen tila. Osa Helsingin kaupungin suun terveydenhuollon esimiehistä on tutkimusten, työhyvinvointikyselyiden, palautteiden ja arkiviestinnän mukaan kuormittuneita. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, onko esimiehillä mahdollisuuksia tuunata työtään ja millä keinoin he tuunaavat työtään, jos tuunaavat ja pystyvätkö he vaikuttamaan omaan työhyvinvointiinsa työtä tuunaamalla. Tutkielmassa käsitellään työn tuunaamista, työn imua ja niihin olennaisesti liittyvää työn vaatimusten ja voimavarojen mallia. Lisäksi käsitellään esimiestyötä yleisellä tasolla ja tehtyjä hammaslääkäreiden työhyvinvointiin liittyviä tutkimuksia sekä Helsingin kaupungin suun terveydenhuollon esimiehille toteutettua voimavaroja ja kuormitustekijöitä kartoittavaa tutkimusta, jota käytettiin tukena tämän tutkimuksen aineistonkeruussa käytetyn haastattelurungon muodostamisessa. Aineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla vapaaehtoisia Helsingin kaupungin suun terveydenhuollon esimiehiä. Yksilöhaastatteluja tehtiin yhteensä yhdeksän. Saatu aineisto analysoitiin aineistolähtöistä sisällönanalyysimenetelmää mukaillen. Tulosten mukaan Helsingin kaupungin suun terveydenhuollon esimiehet kokevat työn tuunaamiselle hyvät mahdollisuudet. Toisaalta tuunaamista rajoittavat kuormittuneisuus ja kiire. Esimiehet tuunaavat työtehtäviään, näkökulmaa työhönsä ja työssään tapahtuvaa vuorovaikutusta erilaisin keinoin. Työn tuunaamisella esimiehet voivat muokata työtään itselleen mielekkäämmäksi ja vaikuttaa positiivisesti työyhteisön ilmapiiriin. Esimiehen hyvinvointi heijastuu työyhteisöön ja sen toiminnan tuloksellisuuteen, joten työn tuunaamisella ja sen vaikutuksilla esimiehen hyvinvointiin voi olla positiivisia vaikutuksia koko työyhteisön toimintaan.
  • Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castrén, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica (2020)
    Introduction In South Africa (SA), prehospital emergency care is delivered by emergency medical services (EMS) across the country. Within these services, quality systems are in their infancy, and issues regarding transparency, reliability and contextual relevance have been cited as common concerns, exacerbated by poor communication, and ineffective leadership. As a result, we undertook a study to assess the current state of quality systems in EMS in SA, so as to determine priorities for initial focus regarding their development. Methods A multiple exploratory case study design was used that employed the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's 18-point Quality Program Assessment Tool as both a formative assessment and semistructured interview guide using four provincial government EMS and one national private service. Results Services generally scored higher for structure and planning. Measurement and improvement were found to be more dependent on utilisation and perceived mandate. There was a relatively strong focus on clinical quality assessment within the private service, whereas in the provincial systems, measures were exclusively restricted to call times with little focus on clinical care. Staff engagement and programme evaluation were generally among the lowest scores. A multitude of contextual factors were identified that affected the effectiveness of quality systems, centred around leadership, vision and mission, and quality system infrastructure and capacity, guided by the need for comprehensive yet pragmatic strategic policies and standards. Conclusion Understanding and accounting for these factors will be key to ensuring both successful implementation and ongoing utilisation of healthcare quality systems in emergency care. The result will not only provide a more efficient and effective service, but also positively impact patient safety and quality of care of the services delivered. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • Devkota, Sisir (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This paper will investigate the causes that led David Cameron to declare the Brexit referendum in the year 2013. Given the nature of Brexit results in 2016, there has emerged a vacuum of knowledge regarding political causes that triggered Cameron to declare the referendum in 2013. The paper will utilize deductive positivist methodology and employ Process Tracing as a method to investigate the answer to the research question. This paper will formulate and test five different hypothetical conjectures. The study is significant in the field of World Politics as it will act as a reference to future studies in the field of EU integration and leadership decisions.
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Hanken School of Economics, Department of Management and Organisation, Management and Organisation, 2012)
    Research Report - 72
    Leadership without the full participation of women not only excludes women individually and collectively, but is also a huge waste of talent, knowledge and expertise. And crucially, given the current state of society and the world, this aspect of gender inequality is likely to become even more important in the future. NASTA - Women’s Leadership: A Research and Education Development Project was established in 2005 as a national multi-university project mainly and generously funded by Finnish Ministry of Education. The project aims at producing new knowledge and increasing understanding about women’s leadership, as well as promoting women’s leadership through research, development of teaching, and public outreach. NASTA is a joint effort of three Finnish universities – Hanken School of Economics, University of Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, and the Helsinki School of Economics (now part of Aalto University) – and has been coordinated by Hanken. This report presents research and activities conducted within and around the project. NASTA activities have been many and various. They have examined the position and experiences of women in relation to leadership, management, organisation and work more generally. They have sought new knowledge about gender and leadership, on women leaders’ values, attitudes and behaviour, as well as about values, attitudes and behaviour in relation to women’s leadership. NASTA activities have included teaching, student supervision, research theses, research projects, publishing, networking, seminars, meetings, an international conference, and knowledge transfer into other sectors of society. The first section of the book introduces NASTA joint projects, including web-based teaching material, a survey of gender staffing and teaching on gender in business schools, critical review of previous research literature, and new empirical research. The next section includes research articles on different aspects of gender, leadership and manage¬¬ment from more individual projects conducted by participating researchers and research groups linked to NASTA across the three universities. The final section includes short presentations of other research in progress. The appendix lists publications by NASTA members – journal articles, research reports, books, chapters, journal special issues, popular journal articles, magazine articles - and masters, licentiate and doctoral theses that have been produced. These matters of women, leadership and management are not simply academic concerns but urgent matters for practice, organisations, management, policy, and society more generally.