Browsing by Subject "lichens"

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  • Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Heinrichs, Jochen; Renner, Matthew; Hedenäs, Lars; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Lee, Gaik; Ignatov, Michael; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander (2018)
    Fossil tree resins preserve a wide range of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms in microscopic fidelity. Fossil organisms preserved in an individual piece of amber lived at the same time in Earth history and mostly even in the same habitat, but they were not necessarily parts of the same interacting community. Here, we report on an in situ preserved corticolous community from a piece of Miocene Dominican amber which is composed of a lichen, a moss and three species of leafy liverworts. The lichen is assigned to the extant genus Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and is described as P. magna Kaasalainen, Rikkinen & A. R. Schmidt sp. nov. The moss, Aptychellites fossilis Schaf.-Verw., Hedenas, Ignatov & Heinrichs gen. & sp. nov., closely resembles the extant genus Aptychella of the family Pylaisiadelphaceae. The three leafy liverworts comprise the extinct Lejeuneaceae species Cheilolejeunea antiqua (Grolle) Ye & Zhu, 2010 and Lejeunea miocenica Heinrichs, Schaf.-Verw., M. A. M. Renner & G. E. Lee sp. nov. and the extinct Radulaceae species Radula intecta M. A. M. Renner, Schaf.-Verw. & Heinrichs sp. nov. The presence of five associated extinct cryptogam species, four of which belong to extant genera, further substantiates the notion of a stasis in morphotype diversity, but a certain turnover of species, in the Caribbean since the early Miocene.
  • Vitkainen, Orvo; Ahti, Teuvo; Kuusinen, Mikko; Lommi, Sampsa; Ulvinen, Tauno (Helsingin yliopiston luonnontieeteellisen keskusmuseon kasvimuseo, 1997)
    Norrlinia; 6
  • Oksanen, Ilona (University of Helsinki, 2000)
  • Koster, Kajar; Koster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Pumpanen, Jukka (2018)
    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) is considered to be an important mammalian herbivore, strongly influencing Arctic lichen-dominated ecosystems. There is no wide knowledge about the effect of reindeer on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in northern boreal forests. Ground vegetation plays an important role in absorbing nitrogen (N) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Lately, it has also been found to be a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) and a small source of methane (CH4). We investigated the influence of reindeer grazing on field layer GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) fluxes, ground vegetation coverage and biomass, and soil physical properties (temperature and moisture) in a northern boreal forest. At our study site, the reindeer-induced replacement of lichen by mosses had contrasting effects on the GHG fluxes originating from the field layer. Field layer CO2 efflux was significantly higher in grazed areas. The field layer was a CH4 sink in all areas, but grazed areas absorbed more CH4 compared to non-grazed areas. Although total N2O fluxes remained around 0 in grazed areas, a small N2O sink occurred in non-grazed areas with lower moss biomass. Our results indicated that grazing by reindeer in northern boreal forests affects GHG fluxes from the forest field layer both positively and negatively, and these emissions largely depend on grazing-induced changes in vegetation composition.
  • Räsänen, Veli (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 1943)
    Acta botanica Fennica; 33
  • Launis, Annina; Pykälä, Juha; van den Boom, Pieter; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
    In this study we clarify the phylogeny and reassess the current taxonomy of the Micarea prasina group, focusing especially on the M. byssacea and M. micrococca complexes. The phylogeny was investigated using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions from 25 taxa belonging to the M. prasina group. A total of 107 new sequences were generated. Data were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results reveal five undescribed well-supported lineages. Four of the lineages represent new species described as Micarea pseudomicrococca Launis & Myllys sp. nov., M. czarnotae Launis, van den Boom, Serusiaux & Myllys sp. nov., M. microareolata Launis, Pykala & Myllys sp. nov. and M. laeta Launis & Myllys sp. nov. In addition, a fifth lineage was revealed that requires further study. Micarea pseudomicrococca is characterized by an olive green granular thallus, small cream-white or brownish apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and two types of paraphyses up to 2 mu m wide. Micarea czarnotae forms a granular, densely granular or continuous olive green thallus, convex to hemispherical apothecia often with the Sedifolia-grey pigment and no crystalline granules in the thallus. Micarea microareolata is characterized by a +/- pale green areolate thallus (composed of goniocysts), cream-white apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and narrow spores. Micarea laeta has a vivid to olive green granular thallus, pale apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and wider spores compared to M. microareolata. Descriptions, images and a key are provided for the new species. Crystalline granules are introduced as a novel species-level character for Micarea.
  • Kantelinen, Annina; Hyvärinen, Marko; Kirika, Paul; Myllys, Leena (2021)
    The genus Micarea was studied for the first time in the Taita Hills, Kenya. Based on new collections and existing data, we reconstructed a phylogeny using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions, and generated a total of 27 new sequences. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Based mainly on new collections, we discovered four undescribed well-supported lineages, characterized by molecular and phenotypic features. These lineages are described here as Micarea pumila, M. stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor. Micarea pumila is characterized by a minutely granular thallus, small cream-white or pale brownish apothecia, small ascospores and the production of prasinic acid. Micarea stellaris has a warted-areolate thallus, cream-white apothecia usually darker at the centre, a hymenium of light grey or brownish pigment that dissolves in K, and intense crystalline granules that appear as a belt-like continuum across the lower hymenium when studied in polarized light. Micarea taitensis is characterized by a warted-areolate thallus and cream-white or yellowish apothecia that sometimes produce the Sedifolia-grey pigment. Micarea versicolor is characterized by a warted-areolate, sometimes partly granular thallus and apothecia varying from cream-white to light grey to blackish in colour. This considerable variation in the coloration of its apothecia is caused by an occasional mixture of the Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium and another purplish brown pigment in the hymenium. Micarea stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor produce methoxymicareic acid. The main distinguishing characters are presented in a species synopsis. Three of the new species are nested in the M. prasina group, and the fourth one (M. taitensis) resolves as a basal taxon to the M. prasina group. The new species inhabit montane cloud forests, which have fragmented dramatically throughout the Eastern Arc Mountains in recent decades.
  • Borovichev, Evgeny; Kozhin, Mikhail; Ignashov, Pavel A.; Kirillova, Natalya R.; Kopeina, Ekaterina; Kravchenko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Oleg; Kutenkov, Stanislav; Melekhin, Aleksey V.; Popova, Ksenia B.; Razumovskaya, Anna V.; Sennikov, Alexander; Fadeeva, Margarita; Khimich, Yulia (2020)
  • Launis, Annina; Malicek, Jiri; Svensson, Mans; Tsurykau, Andrei; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
  • Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Ahti, Teuvo T; Inashvili, Tzimi; Batsatsashvili, Ketevan; Kupradze, Inga (2018)
    Through updating of the identifications of 1306 specimens housed at the largest herbarium collection in Tbilisi (TBI) and some new collections made in the summer of 2015 along the Greater Caucasus Range in Georgia, a comprehensive list and a key of forty three Georgian Cladonia species are presented. Cladonia acuminata, C.bacilliformis, C. borealis, C. conista, C. cyanipes, C. cyathomorpha, C. cf. libifera, C. macrophyllodes, C. sulphurina, and C. symphycarpa are reported as new to Georgia. Thirteen species of Cladonia were deleted from the earlier checklists.
  • Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Rosa Burgaz, Ana; Ahti, Teuvo; Stenroos, Soili (2018)
    The lichen species Cladonia angustiloba is characterized by a well-developed primary thallus and narrow squamules which show deep incisions, and the presence of usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Morphologically it is similar to C. foliacea and C. convoluta, from which it can be distiguished by the squamule size and morphology. Since similar characters were used to distinguish C. foliacea from C. convoluta which do not represent different lineages, it is necessary to examine the taxonomic status of C. angustiloba by means of DNA sequences. In this study, the species delimitation within the C. foliacea complex was studied by sequencing three loci, ITS rDNA, cox1 and RPB2. The data were analyzed by means of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods (GMYC, PTP, ABGD and BPP). Our results show that none of the three species is monophyletic. Most of the species delimitation methods did not support the current species as evolutionary lineages. Only some of the BPP analyses supported C. angustiloba as a species distinct from C. foliacea and C. convoluta. However, the hypothesis that considers the C. foliacea complex as constituted by a unique species obtained the best Bayes Factor value. Therefore, C. angustiloba and C. convoluta are synonymized with C. foliacea. A new, thoroughly checked synonymy with typifications of the whole C. foliacea complex is presented. An updated survey of the world distribution data is compiled.
  • Uotila, Pertti; Heikkilä, Ulla (Helsingin yliopiston luonnontieteellisen keskusmuseon kasvimuseo, 1999)
    Norrlinia; 7
  • Kistenich, Sonja; Rikkinen, Jouko K.; Thüs, Holger; Vairappan, Charles S.; Wolseley, Patricia A.; Timdal, Einar (2018)
    Krogia borneensis Kistenich & Timdal, K. isidiata Kistenich & Timdal and K. macrophylla Kistenich & Timdal are described as new species, the first from Borneo and the two latter from New Caledonia. The new species are supported by morphology, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. Krogia borneensis and K. isidiata contain sekikaic and homosekikaic acid, both compounds reported here for the first time from the genus. Krogia macrophylla contains an unknown compound apparently related to boninic acid as the major compound. DNA sequences (mtSSU and nrITS) are provided for the first time for Krogia and a phylogeny of the genus based on 15 accessions of five of the six accepted species is presented. Krogia antillarum is reported as new to Brazil, Guatemala and Mexico.