Browsing by Subject "liikunnanopetus"

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  • Lönnroth, Sara (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    According to basic education national core curriculum (2014) the purpose of basic education is to advance equality, parity and justice. Physical education and its assessment aim to advance the fulfillment of equality by considering every pupil in teaching and with equal assessment. The purpose of this educational sciences study is to describe and analyze class teachers' experiences and perceptions of execution in physical education and assessment in a mainstream physical education group where there are pupils with special needs being integrated. The starting point of this study is to examine the execution of physical education and different evaluation practices and how their impacts show on the pupils and their learning through teachers' eyes. This study is a qualitative research. The focus group of this study consists from ten class teachers that all work in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The material of this study was acquired by a questionnaire that consisted of open questions. Before the actual questionnaire was sent to the participants there was a pre inquiry which was also included in the study. The material was analyzed by using the content analysis. According to the study results almost all of the participants felt that teaching an inclusive physical education group is challenging. The teachers felt that different needs of support bring challenges to the planning and executing of teaching. Teachers felt that integration benefits the pupils with special needs despite of the challenges. Pupils making friendships and understanding differences were seen as the advantages of integration. The teachers felt that the assessment of physical education is also challenging. Assessing pupils with special needs with the same criteria's of assessment was seen as a thing that increases inequality. Especially the assessment of abilities was kept challenging. All of the teachers found trying and activity during class as more important targets of assessment than physical abilities. The teachers used mainly ongoing assessment and giving feedback as a method of assessment. This kind of assessment was seen as a thing that gives the pupil experiences of success which were seen important when it comes to improving self-esteem and inspiring towards sporty lifestyle.
  • Murto, Petri (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The purpose of this study is to review the experiences of four elementary school teachers about physical education classes. How do they perceive and act in a situation, where there is a physically disabled student in the group? The interviewees were chosen specifically, and they all have experience in teaching disabled students. The research questions were divided into four themes. The themes are: Inclusion in physical education, differentiation in physical education, and their pros and cons from the teacher's perspective. The study is a qualitative case study. The data consisted of four interviews with elementary school teachers who teach physical education. The analysis of the collected data was done through content analysis and phenomenographic analysis. In all interviews, the importance of including the disabled student into the activities was emphasized. Also the value of maintaining differences and careful differentiation were highlight-ed. The teachers emphasized that inclusion should not be done only because it sounds good. The inclusion in physical education should always be relevant from the student's perspective. The study focuses on opinions and experiences of the interviewees. The objective was not to reach generalizable results, but to give a thorough description of a phenomenon.
  • Nätkynmäki, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. The aim of inclusive education is to achieve equal participation of all students in general education in spite of the students’ needs. Inclusion generates heterogeneous groups of students. Differentiated instruction means responding to students’ varying needs by enabling the participation of all students. The aim of this study was to examine what kind of factors affect the implementation of inclusive physical education (PE) and the differentiation of physical education, as well as what kind of effects does inclusive PE have. Additionally, the aim was to examine what kind of concrete methods the teachers have to differentiate PE. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of the effects of inclusive PE and teachers’ opportunities to respond to individual needs of students in PE. Methods. This study was carried out as a qualitative case study. The data was collected with a semi-structured theme interview by interviewing five teachers who teach physical education. The data was analysed with theory-guided content analysis. Results. Negative attitudes and lack of motivation, teacher’s poor skills in differentiation, the trouble of differentiation, old habits, benefits of small group instruction, lack of time, large group sizes and lack of adult resources hindered the implementation of inclusiveness and differentiation of PE. The skill to identify each student’s learning needs, teacher’s additional education, early observation of motor learning disabilities, good social relationships of the group, successful scheduling, collaboration with others and good environment and equipment for physical education eased the implementation of inclusiveness and differentiation of PE. The teachers differentiated PE by individualizing the pace of learning, providing various kinds of tasks, modifying equipment and environment, assisting the student and by different kinds of student roles and groupings. The perceived disadvantages of inclusive PE were mental insecurity, the decrease of physical activity in the class, teacher’s inability to pay attention to every student, bullying, challenges in implementing PE and teacher’s disbelief in their skills. The perceived benefits were equality in the community, right to participate, understanding differences, consideration of others, instruction that responds to individual needs, the development of teacher’s professional skills and increase of adult resources.
  • Pursiainen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the values of school-based sports organized by sport clubs. School-based sports has its own value orientation since it falls between physical education in school and junior sport in sport clubs. According to LIITU research (2019), 23 percent of pupils par-ticipate in school sport clubs. In addition, 62 percent of pupil do sports in sport clubs. Instructors in school sport clubs and sport clubs reach a significant portion of the child population and thus the are an important group of educators. The theoretical background of this research is Shalom Schwartz’s Theory of Basic Values (1992) which describes values as desirable transsituational goals, that serve as guiding principles in the life of a person or other social entity. The setting of this study is based on Ilmanen, Jaakkola and Matilainen’s (2010) study of values of Finnish physical education. The data consists of responses from 130 sports club instructors, who responded to an online survey in Spring 2017. Participants were asked to evaluate how much the agree with statements concerning values of school-based sports. The data was analysed with Principal Component Analysis. The re-sult was twelve components of which two were discarded because of low reliability. The remaining ten components were computed into sum of variables which describe values of school-based sports. The association between values and age of respondents was measured using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, the association between values and gender was measured using Mann-Whitney U test, and the association between values and background of educational sector or sport sector was meas-ured using Kruskal-Wallis test. The most important values of instructors in school-based sports were hedonism, physically active way of life and sport skills and self-direction and pro-sociality. The empirical values reflected Schwartz’ motivational value types and value survey of physical education in school. There were no statistical association between values and education or work experience in the educational sector or in the sport sector. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between age and physi-cally active way of life and sport skills and tradition and nature. There was also a statistical signifi-cance between values and gender: conformity was especially important amongst men. According to this research, instructors of school-based sports have similar values to physical education of Finnish comprehensive education, which emphasizes positive experiences, physically active way of life and cooperation.
  • Mäntyaho, Meri-Tuuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Physical activity has a major impact on children's growth and development. Positive movement experience in school can have an influence on lifelong continuation in physical activity. School-aged children spend a lot of time in schools and therefore teachers who teach physical education have a great responsibility on what kind of movement and physical activity experiences children gather during school day. Teachers' conceptions of what good physical education and good physical education teacher are influence their goal adjustment and content of instruction on their physical education. The aim of the present study is to describe what primary school teachers' conceptions of good physical education and good physical education teacher in elementary instruction consist of. In addition, this study tries to investigate how teachers' pedagogical thinking is expressed on their physical education. The methodology of this study is a qualitative research and the objective was to use a theme interview approach to formulate the results. The data of this research consists of five interviews of primary school teachers who teach or have taught physical education in elementary instruction. Four of the interviewees have accomplished a short secondary subject study in physical education (25 c) and one of them has taken an adapted physical activity instructor course (60 c). In addition, one of the five interviewees has taken subject-related studies in physical education (60c). The data was analysed by content analysis with phenomenographic approach. In addition, the researcher's own reflective approach is used. Teachers' conceptions of good physical education and physical education teacher in elementary instruction were varied. Fifteen different categories of the most highlighted conceptions were formed to describe good teaching and good teacher in the physical education of elementary instruction. These categories split into subject related descriptions: physical performance, versatility and methodicalness as well as into descriptions related to instruction climate and teacher's action: positivity, motivational, experiences of success, mental growth, coordination, differentiation, clear communication, performance and effectiveness, athletic lifestyle, patience and understanding, interest and assertiveness. Teachers' conceptions of good teaching in the physical education of elementary instruction could be seen either as thinking on action level or as thinking on 1st thinking level (object theories) depending on one's viewpoint of interpretation. The majority of the teachers' pedagogical thinking could be seen as thinking on 1st thinking level (object theories) though. Instead, no direct thinking on 2nd thinking level (metatheory) appeared.
  • Laukkanen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Goals. In my masters thesis I want to research teachers', whom teach PE, opinions about groupings in PE lessons. I want to find arguments, why PE is usually arranged in Finland so, that boys and girls move in different groups in PE lessons. In addition I want to discuss the aspects of why this kind of boy-girl – grouping can be problematic. Methods. In this thesis I made a pilot study interviewing three (3) teachers who teach PE. Two of them taught PE mainly in a secondary school and one of them taught PE mainly in primary school. I made semistructured interviews with teachers. I wanted to hear both positive and negative arguments about ways to make groups in PE. I transcribed the interviews. I separated meaningful comments from the transcribed interviews and introduced them in my material in the results part. I also supplemented my study with a short interview form targeted to Facebook group members called "Alakoulun aarreaitta". I wanted to know how many of the teachers have faced problems with gender equality in PE classes and what was the nature of these problems. Results and conclusions. As a result I got valuable arguments both ways of dealing groups in PE. As a conclusion may be considered that teachers' preferences about ways to deal the groups in PE correlate with their work experience and their training. Still all three of the teachers found both, positive and negative arguments in both ways of grouping the students. Interview form gave me numbers that one from three teachers had faced the gender equality problems teaching PE.
  • Sairanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret the aims and purposes of physical education in the curriculums of the Finnish comprehensive school. The timeline and data used in the study include all curriculums (POPS 1970, POPS 1985, POPS 1994, POPS 2004 ja POPS 2014) during Finland's comprehensive school's history. There has not been previous studies covering this subject. The method of the study is qualitative, data based, comparative analyzation. The research frame is Grounded Theory in which analyzation and the background theory is built in discourse (Strauss & Corbin, 1994, 273-274). The data is public with unlimited access which increased the credibility of the study. Nine internet based articles were analyzed for the formation of the third research question. For making the data more comprehensible content analyzation method was used. Bereday's comparative method was the main research method (Bereday, 1964, 28). The study shows that the main goals and purposes of the Finnish comprehensive school's curriculums have remained the same during the timeline. However the significance of the social skills has increased during the years. Based on the data, four overreaching goals of the Finnish physical education were found: 1. Educating towards physical lifestyle, 2. Creating positive physical education experiences, 3. Developing social skills, ethical abilities, values and co-operation skills and 4. Practising basic motorical skills. These four goals are in line with Hakala's life management tools (Hakala, 1999, 29-30). The study also shows that even though the literal representation of different sports has changed, the content of the sports remain the same in the most previous curriculum.
  • Berg, Päivi (2001)
    Työ käsittelee yläasteen liikunnanopettajien sukupuolistereotypioita, joita on mitattu Thomas Rublen 1983 tutkimukseen perustuvalla mittarilla. Rublen mittari puolestaan on muodostettu Personal Attributes Questionnairesta. Tutkimus on toteutettu lomakekyselynä 182:lle yläasteen liikunnanopettajalle, joista tutkimukseen vastasi 122. Tämä on n. 10 % kaikista Suomen yläasteen liikunnanopettajista. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, liittävätkö opettajat liikunnallisesti lahjakkaisiin oppilaisiin maskuliiniseksi määriteltyjä ominaisuuksia ja keskivertoa oleviin feminiinisiä ominaisuuksia sekä sitä, miten opettajan sukupuoli, ikä ja opetusryhmäkokemus vaikuttaa arviointeihin. Samalla tutkittiin myös sitä, eroaako vastaustyyli opettajan sukupuolen tai oppilaan lahjakkuustason perusteella. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on mm. piilo-opetussuunnitelman yhteydessä käsitelty opettajan oppilaisiin kohdistamia erilaisia odotuksia sekä kohtelua oppilaan sukupuolen perusteella. Liikunnanopetuksen yhteisopetusryhmissäkin on usein havaittu, että opetus etenee liikaa poikien ehdoilla; korostetaan kilpailullisuutta ja ns. poikien lajeja. Tällöin sukupuolten suorituserot eivät pienene, eivätkä oppilaat itse ole tyytyväisiä yhteisiin liikuntatunteihin. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella näyttää, että maskuliiniset ominaisuudet kuvaavat liikunnallisesti lahjakkaita oppilaita keskivertoa olevia paremmin. Etenkin sellaiset ominaisuudet kuin että oppilas on hyvä urheilussa, sisukas ja itsevarma. Feminiiniset ominaisuudet eivät yhtä selkeästi kuitenkaan liity keskivertoa oleviin oppilaisiin, vaan näyttävät osittain olevan liikunnanopetuksen viitekehyksen kannalta toisarvoisia ominaisuuksia. Opettajalla ei myöskään ehkä ole selkeää käsitystä siitä, millainen keskivertoa oleva oppilas on, koska tämä ei jää yhtä hyvin opettajan mieleen kuin lahjakas. Toisaalta osa feminiiniseksi määritellyistä ominaisuuksista on sellaisia, joita liitetään myös lahjakkaaseen oppilaaseen, koska nähdään tämän yleisesti olevan hyvä kaikessa. Opettajan sukupuolella ei tässä tutkimuksessa näytä olevan vaikutusta vastaustyyliin. Naisopettajien hajontaluvut poikkeavat tilastollisesti merkitsevästi miesten hajonnoista suurempina, mutta kuitenkin vain osassa muuttujista. Oppilaan lahjakkuustason vaikutus vastaustyyliin taas näkyy selvemmin; 27 muuttujassa 54:stä liikunnallisesti lahjakkaista oppilaista annettujen arvioiden hajontaluvut ovat tilastollisesti merkitsevästi suurempia kuin keskivertoa olevien oppilaiden. Tämä tukee oletusta siitä, että lahjakas oppilas nähtäisiin enemmän yksilönä kuin keskivertoa olevat. Opettaja saattaa myös mieltää liikunnallisesti lahjakkaat sisäryhmäkseen, jonka jäseniä arvioidaan enemmän yksilöllisesti ja ulkoryhmää kategorisesti. Eklund, M.1999. Lärarens syn på samundervisning i gymnastik. Åbo Akademis förlag. Hargreaves, J. 1994. Sporting females. London: Routledge. Lahelma, E. 1992. Sukupuolen eriytyminen peruskoulun opetussuunnitelmassa. Helsingin yliopiston kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 132. Ruble, T.L. 1983. Sex Stereotypes: Issues of change in the 1970s. Sex Roles. Vol. 9, No.3, 397-402. Williams, J.E. & Best, D.L. 1982. Measuring Sex Stereotypes. A Thirty-Nation Study. SAGE.