Browsing by Subject "liikuntakasvatus"

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  • Eteläsaari, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    According to previous research, self-esteem has a connection with well-being, behavior and learning of a person. Well accomplished physical education enables supporting positive self-concept. The aim of this research was to study how pupils describe the ways class teachers have supported their self-esteem during physical education classes and to compare the answers to class teachers' methods they had used to build pupils' self-esteem in physical education. Theories and models related to self-esteem, as well as physical education at school, were examined as a theoretical framework. Five-dimensional model of self-esteem by Borba was chosen as the guiding theory of the study. The dimensions are security, selfhood, affiliation, mission and competence. 95 sixth graders participated a questionnaire, which had open questions and statements about building self-esteem in physical education classes. The answers were compared to 19 class teachers' answers about the same subject. In the study, the open questions were analyzed using theory-guided content analysis as a method. The study shows that according to sixth graders class teachers have succeeded to support pupils' self-esteem with several different ways, which also matched well with Borba's theory of building self-esteem. The sixth graders and class teachers had quite similar ways to describe the methods of supporting self-esteem. The corresponding methods were positive attention and feedback, setting easier goals, avoiding competition and emphasizing the significance of exercise. The review of quantitative statements showed that both pupils and their teachers considered creating secure feeling during physical education classes the most successful component. The results are useful when teachers consider methods to support self-esteem of pupils in physical education classes.
  • Toikka, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The object of this study is to examine the qualities and skills of a good coach. The study approaches the subject through the eyes of junior footballers. Coaching children and youth is more than exercising – coach needs to have other abilities too, like interaction and educational skills. The study is looking for answers to the following questions: What kind of qualities the coach should have based on the opinion of junior players? How the skill level of the team and the sex of the player connects with the idea of a good coach? Coaching contains several different sectors, which are examined in the theory section. The essential terms are youth sports, team sports, physical education, coaching and different roles of a coach. Some previous studies considering the theme are introduced in the theory section. The data was collected by a questionnaire which was completed by 1446 junior footballers from Southern Finland. Every fifth answer was randomly selected for closer examination. To help the children to answer, the questionnaire included few open questions about good coaching. The results of the questionnaire were classified by using content analysis after which they were categorised under different themes. The possible divergences between boys and girls as well as different skill levels of the teams were investigated. The results were also examined based on former studies and theories, most importantly the Finnish Coaching Expertise Model (Suomalainen valmennusosaamisen malli). Based on the results of the study the main findings were that there is a connection between a football player's sex and their perception of a good coach, which means that some differences between boys and girls did occur. There was also differences between the results of the players from teams of different skill levels, but they seemed relatively random. When the results of the survey were examined based on the Finnish Coaching Expertise Model, the main finding was that the most important skills that a good coach should have are interaction skills and knowledge of the sport. The results of this study can be used in the future to develop junior coaching and training of the coaches.
  • Pursiainen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the values of school-based sports organized by sport clubs. School-based sports has its own value orientation since it falls between physical education in school and junior sport in sport clubs. According to LIITU research (2019), 23 percent of pupils par-ticipate in school sport clubs. In addition, 62 percent of pupil do sports in sport clubs. Instructors in school sport clubs and sport clubs reach a significant portion of the child population and thus the are an important group of educators. The theoretical background of this research is Shalom Schwartz’s Theory of Basic Values (1992) which describes values as desirable transsituational goals, that serve as guiding principles in the life of a person or other social entity. The setting of this study is based on Ilmanen, Jaakkola and Matilainen’s (2010) study of values of Finnish physical education. The data consists of responses from 130 sports club instructors, who responded to an online survey in Spring 2017. Participants were asked to evaluate how much the agree with statements concerning values of school-based sports. The data was analysed with Principal Component Analysis. The re-sult was twelve components of which two were discarded because of low reliability. The remaining ten components were computed into sum of variables which describe values of school-based sports. The association between values and age of respondents was measured using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, the association between values and gender was measured using Mann-Whitney U test, and the association between values and background of educational sector or sport sector was meas-ured using Kruskal-Wallis test. The most important values of instructors in school-based sports were hedonism, physically active way of life and sport skills and self-direction and pro-sociality. The empirical values reflected Schwartz’ motivational value types and value survey of physical education in school. There were no statistical association between values and education or work experience in the educational sector or in the sport sector. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between age and physi-cally active way of life and sport skills and tradition and nature. There was also a statistical signifi-cance between values and gender: conformity was especially important amongst men. According to this research, instructors of school-based sports have similar values to physical education of Finnish comprehensive education, which emphasizes positive experiences, physically active way of life and cooperation.
  • Haapaniemi, Amanda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of my master’s thesis was to study special education classroom teachers’ views on physical education. I think my thesis is important because it is known that children and youth’s level of physical activity has reduced. I wanted to find out what physical activities special education classroom teachers use in their teaching and how they support the development of a physical lifestyle for their students. Additionally, I wanted to find out if physical education for special needs students is similar to physical education for general education students. The thesis is a qualitative study which was done using a phenomenographic research method. I used categorization and content analysis as the method for analysing the research material. The study was conducted with a survey (n=19) with open questions. The theoretical framework used in the study consists of the study of physical activity relationships and the self-determination theory. In addition, the thesis’ theory part also goes over the effect instruction, environment and motivation have on a person’s physical activity and physical activity relationship. The study yielded empirical data on how special education classroom teachers’ idea of physical education is formed. I divided the different dimensions of physical education to the following categories: teachers’ personal starting points, objectives, experiences, methods and didactics as physical educators. The teachers’ methods of promoting children’s physical activity were diverse, including functional teaching, developing recess activities, teaching outside and adding sessions of physical activity for example as break exercises or as rewards. Related to exercise situations with special needs students the answers highlighted the importance of clarity, time, instruction, structure, routines, safety and planning. All in all, promoting children’s physical activity was seen as an important objective.
  • Järvenpää, Jori (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The requirements of junior sport coaching have changed during the last two decades. Coach is expected not only to teach the sport but to educate and have influence on junior athletes' qualities comprehensively. The expectations of social education in junior coaching are more important especially in team sports. Primary school teacher has pedagogical, educational and group organizing skills because of his training and work experience. The purpose of this study is to examine how junior athletes evaluate the educational coaching skills of their coach who has the primary school teacher's degree. The definition of the educational coaching is based on the master's thesis of Harjunen & Pihlainen (2008). The research was done during the spring 2016 as a quantitative survey to those 14-21-year-old floorball junior players (n = 122) whose coaches have primary school teacher's degrees. The questionnaire used in this study was developed by Harjunen & Pihlainen in the above-mentioned master's thesis. The differences between means and the independent variables affecting them were analyzed by using the SPSS program. From the junior players' point of view coaches that had primary school teachers' degrees were generally very good at educational coaching. Especially they evaluated highly coaches' skills at 1) developing individuals, 2) planning the training, 3) supporting players to train independently and 4) having one-on-one discussions with the players. The youngest players in this study were more negative in their views than the older players who, on the other hand, underlined coaches skills to develop individuals. Views about coach's skills were more positive if player had been playing for a number of years, but the longer player had been under one coach's influence more negative the views changed. Junior player's parents' possible teacher background or junior player's own interest in teacher's profession didn't have significant influence on their views in this study.
  • Mäntyaho, Meri-Tuuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Physical activity has a major impact on children's growth and development. Positive movement experience in school can have an influence on lifelong continuation in physical activity. School-aged children spend a lot of time in schools and therefore teachers who teach physical education have a great responsibility on what kind of movement and physical activity experiences children gather during school day. Teachers' conceptions of what good physical education and good physical education teacher are influence their goal adjustment and content of instruction on their physical education. The aim of the present study is to describe what primary school teachers' conceptions of good physical education and good physical education teacher in elementary instruction consist of. In addition, this study tries to investigate how teachers' pedagogical thinking is expressed on their physical education. The methodology of this study is a qualitative research and the objective was to use a theme interview approach to formulate the results. The data of this research consists of five interviews of primary school teachers who teach or have taught physical education in elementary instruction. Four of the interviewees have accomplished a short secondary subject study in physical education (25 c) and one of them has taken an adapted physical activity instructor course (60 c). In addition, one of the five interviewees has taken subject-related studies in physical education (60c). The data was analysed by content analysis with phenomenographic approach. In addition, the researcher's own reflective approach is used. Teachers' conceptions of good physical education and physical education teacher in elementary instruction were varied. Fifteen different categories of the most highlighted conceptions were formed to describe good teaching and good teacher in the physical education of elementary instruction. These categories split into subject related descriptions: physical performance, versatility and methodicalness as well as into descriptions related to instruction climate and teacher's action: positivity, motivational, experiences of success, mental growth, coordination, differentiation, clear communication, performance and effectiveness, athletic lifestyle, patience and understanding, interest and assertiveness. Teachers' conceptions of good teaching in the physical education of elementary instruction could be seen either as thinking on action level or as thinking on 1st thinking level (object theories) depending on one's viewpoint of interpretation. The majority of the teachers' pedagogical thinking could be seen as thinking on 1st thinking level (object theories) though. Instead, no direct thinking on 2nd thinking level (metatheory) appeared.
  • Lehto, Satu (2018)
    Lasten ja nuorten kasvaneet hyvinvointi- ja terveyserot sekä syrjäytymisen uhka ovat kohdistaneet yhteiskunnallista keskustelua lasten ja nuorten yhdenvertaisuuteen ja suunnanneet resursseja ennaltaehkäisyyn kuten koulun kerhotoiminnan kehittämiseen. Tämän tutkimuksen aineisto on kerätty alakoulun liikuntakerhoista. Niihin olivat saaneet kutsun lapset, joilla ei ollut ohjattua liikuntaharrastusta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on ymmärtää paremmin osallisuuden tukemista liikuntakasvatuksessa. Minkälaiset asiat liikuntakerhossa mahdollistavat lasten mielestä mieluisan liikuntakerhokokemuksen ja miten lasten osallisuutta tuetaan liikuntakerhossa? Tarkastelun apuna käytetään bell hooksin kehittämää osallistavaa pedagogiikkaa (engaged pedagogy), jonka tavoitteena on luoda tasa-arvoinen oppimisyhteisö. Koulun kerhot osoittautuivat osallisuuden tukemiselle otolliseksi liikuntaympäristöksi. Liikuntakerhojen yhdenvertainen ja turvallinen ilmapiiri rohkaisi lapsia oman mielipiteen ilmaisuun ja aktiivisen roolin ottamiseen kerhon toiminnasta sekä tuki yhdessä tekemisen kulttuuria.
  • Sairanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret the aims and purposes of physical education in the curriculums of the Finnish comprehensive school. The timeline and data used in the study include all curriculums (POPS 1970, POPS 1985, POPS 1994, POPS 2004 ja POPS 2014) during Finland's comprehensive school's history. There has not been previous studies covering this subject. The method of the study is qualitative, data based, comparative analyzation. The research frame is Grounded Theory in which analyzation and the background theory is built in discourse (Strauss & Corbin, 1994, 273-274). The data is public with unlimited access which increased the credibility of the study. Nine internet based articles were analyzed for the formation of the third research question. For making the data more comprehensible content analyzation method was used. Bereday's comparative method was the main research method (Bereday, 1964, 28). The study shows that the main goals and purposes of the Finnish comprehensive school's curriculums have remained the same during the timeline. However the significance of the social skills has increased during the years. Based on the data, four overreaching goals of the Finnish physical education were found: 1. Educating towards physical lifestyle, 2. Creating positive physical education experiences, 3. Developing social skills, ethical abilities, values and co-operation skills and 4. Practising basic motorical skills. These four goals are in line with Hakala's life management tools (Hakala, 1999, 29-30). The study also shows that even though the literal representation of different sports has changed, the content of the sports remain the same in the most previous curriculum.
  • Santala, Marjuska (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2014)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tarkastella kahden eri aineiston kautta suomalaisen kansantanssin materiaalia tämän päivän opetusvaatimuksiin ja tavoitteisiin peilaten sekä nostaa esiin nuorten ajatuksia suomalaisesta kansantanssista. Kiinnostuksen kohteena ovat nuoret, jotka eivät harrasta kansantanssia: mitä ajatuksia ja tuntemuksia laji heille tuo? Tavoitteena on myös herättää keskustelua kansantanssimateriaalin käytöstä. Tutkimus on kvalitatiivinen toimintatutkimus, jonka aineistot kerättiin opetustunneilta hämeenlinnalaisessa yläkoulussa ja kyselyllä kansantanssin harrastuskentältä. Suomalaisesta perinteestä kumpuava, uusi tanssiliikuntamuoto FolkJam oli mukana integroituna tunneille suomalaisen perinteisen ja nykykansantanssin lisäksi. Tutkija itse oli osa tutkimusta toimien opettajana tavoitteenaan reflektoida tekemistään ja pyrkiä reagoimaan mahdollisiin ongelmiin. Kansantanssi aiheutti oppilaissa aluksi hämmennystä tai passiivisuutta, mutta tuntien edetessä sosiaalinen kanssakäyminen ja kehon käyttö lisääntyivät taitojen ohella: muutosta voi pitää merkittävänä kahden kuukauden prosessissa. Kyselyaineistossa selvisi, että uutta nykykansantanssimateriaalia käytetään kansantanssin kentällä jonkin verran, mutta samalla se koettiin vaikeaksi työstää ja oppia. Tuloksista löytyy keskusteluaiheita niin koulumaailmaan kuin kansantanssin harrastuskentälle, sillä molemmilla alueilla havaittiin tarpeita uusien toimintatapojen työstämiseen.
  • Kaartinen, Aija (2001)
    Tutkimus keskittyy uimaharrastuksen ja uimataidon levittämisen tarkasteluun, uimavalistukseen vuosina 1880 - 1930. Siinä tarkastellaan, kuinka uimaharrastusta yritettiin tietoisesti levittää ja mitä perusteluja uimataidon oppimisen välttämättömyydelle ja uimaharrastuksen ylivertaisuudelle muihin liikuntamuotoihin nähden esitettiin erityisesti urheilulehdistössä. Helsingin kaupunki toimii tutkimuksessa esimerkkinä uimaharrastuksen leviämisestä, siitä, millaista "uimarielämä" oli konkreettisesti. Tutkimuksessa painottuu urheiluseurojen edustajien ja urheilumiesten sekä -naisten näkökulma. Uimavalistuksen tarkastelun kautta pureudutaan 1880 - 1930-luvun yhteiskuntaan, erityisesti tuona aikana valinneisiin ruumiillisuutta ja urheilua koskeviin mentaliteetteihin. Mentaliteeteilla tarkoitetaan "tavallisten" ihmisten kollektiivisessa tajunnassa vallinneita ajattelutapoja. Mentaliteetit erottaa aate-käsitteestä se, että nämä ajattelutavat ovat olleet tiedostamattomia: niillä ei ole julkilausuttuja pääperiaatteita, jotka olisi kirjoitettu kirjoiksi tai jotka voisivat henkilöityä joihinkin suurmiehiin tai suurteoksiin. Tutkimuksen pääasialliset lähteet ovat kaikki Suomessa vuosina 1880 - 1930 ilmestyneet urheilulehdet: Sporten (1881-1898), Suomen Urheilulehti (1898- ), Finsk Idrottsblad (1904, Idrottsbladet vuodesta 1918), Kisakenttä (1910-), Työväen Urheilulehti (1917-1930), Työläisnaisten Urheilulehti (1922-1946) sekä TUL (1928-) sekä urheilujärjestöjen ja järjestöaktiivien materiaali, historiikit ja arkistot. Vuosille 1891 - 1904 oli tyypillistä uimaharrastuksen levittäminen pääasiallisesti hukkuneiden määrän vähentämiseksi. Sisällissodan (1918) jälkeen valistuksen teemoissa näkyy työväenlehtien ja työväen liikuntakulttuurin esiinmarssi. korostivat uinnista saatavaa nautintoa ja virkistystä. Uinnin käytännön merkitys hengenpelastuksessa jäi toissijaiseksi: uimaharrastus asetettiin muiden terveyttä vaalivien urheilulajien rinnalle. Niin työväen- kuin "porvarilehdetkin", naisten kuin -"miesten"lehdetkin olivat yksimielisiä siitä, että juuri uinti oli sellainen laji, jota naistenkin sopii harjoittaa, ainakin kohtuudella. Biovalta-käsite toimii tässä tutkimuksessa vaikutteiden antajana. Michel Foucault'n mukaan vallankäyttö ei ole pelkkää repressioita, vaan hän kirjoittaa myös vallankäytön "positiivisista" tekniikoista. Sen sijaan, että uimavalistajat olisivat jakaneet kansalle uudenlaista valtaa omaan terveyteensä, elämänsä pituuteen ja onnellisuuteensa vaikuttamiseen verrattuna aikaisempaan, enemmän Jumalan ja kohtalon valtaan luottamiseen, uimavalistusdiskurssissa konstituoitiin kansalaisille vaikutusmahdollisuuden lisäksi myös (kansalais-)velvollisuus huolehtia ruumiistaan, jonka katsottiin kuuluvan ennen kaikkea valtiolle, yhteiskunnalle, isänmaalle, perheelle tai työväenluokalle: ei niinkään yksilölle itselleen. Valituskirjoituksilla vaikutettiin luomalla kontrasteja ja luokitteluja: uimataitoinen - normaali, luonnollinen vs. uimataidoton - epänormaali, luonnoton. Uimataidottomuuteen liitettiin negatiivisia ominaisuuksia: laiskuus, saamattomuus vs. rohkea ja reipas (vuosisadan vaihteen diskurssissa), ruma, sairas vs. kaunis, terve (hygieniadiskurssi vuodesta 1905), onnellinen vs., surullinen (hedonismidiskurssi työväenlehdissä 1920-luvulla). Erityisesti hygieniadiskurssissa naisilla oletettiin olevan luonnostaan enemmän näitä negatiivisia, epänormaaleja ominaisuuksia, joita piti muuttaa uimalla.
  • Neuvonen, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Football club activities play an important role in the physical education of Finnish children. The educational impacts of the activities depend largely on the club’s guidelines and the coaches’ educational skills. The role of the coach as an educator is unavoidable, as sports creates educational situations where it is possible to influence children’s actions and thinking directly or through their parents. The research assignment of this study is to describe the views of football coaches involved in childhood sports on their role in children’s physical education. The objective is to research how children’s coaches view their role as an educator, and the factors influencing their role in the football club. The study was carried out as a qualitative case study, in which the research material consisted of semi-structured thematic interviews with five children’s football coaches. Two full-time and two part-time coaches, and one volunteer coach from different football clubs in the Helsinki metropolitan area were selected for interview by quota sampling. The analysis of the material was carried out using theory-guided content analysis, where the coaches' views on the research topic were described. The coaches described that their role is significant as part of children’s physical education. With their actions, the coaches offered a role model to children, for instance in behavior and attitude to competition. Enjoying football was raised as the most important educational goal. Collaboration with children’s parents and members of the coaching staff influenced the role of the coach as an educator. The clubs guided the coaches in different ways and team sizes defined by the clubs impacted the role of the coaches. Based on the literature and my research, a competent coach enables high-quality physical education in football clubs. The skills of coaches should be developed and means to do so should be further studied. Based on the research, it can be recommended that clubs use team sizes small enough to allow the coach to consider children’s individual needs.