Browsing by Subject "linja-autot"

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  • Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka; Suomen Akatemian projekti (Helsingin Yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka, 2004)
  • Garcia, Leandro; Johnson, Rob; Johnson, Alex; Abbas, Ali; Goel, Rahul; Tatah, Lambed; Damsere-Derry, James; Kyere-Gyeabour, Elvis; Tainio, Marko; de Sá, Thiago H.; Woodcock, James (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 155, 106680
    Background: Health impact assessments of alternative travel patterns are urgently needed to inform transport and urban planning in African cities, but none exists so far. Objective: To quantify the health impacts of changes in travel patterns in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Methods: We estimated changes to population exposures to physical activity, air pollution, and road traffic fatality risk and consequent health burden (deaths and years of life lost prematurely – YLL) in response to changes in transportation patterns. Five scenarios were defined in collaboration with international and local partners and stakeholders to reflect potential local policy actions. Results: Swapping bus and walking trips for car trips can lead to more than 400 extra deaths and 20,500 YLL per year than travel patterns observed in 2009. If part of the rise in motorisation is from motorcycles, we estimated an additional nearly 370 deaths and over 18,500 YLL per year. Mitigating the rise in motorisation by swapping long trips by car or taxi to bus trips is the most beneficial for health, averting more than 600 premature deaths and over 31,500 YLL per year. Without significant improvements in road safety, reduction of short motorised trips in favour of cycling and walking had no significant net health benefits as non-communicable diseases deaths and YLL benefits were offset by increases in road traffic deaths. In all scenarios, road traffic fatalities were the largest contributor to changes in deaths and YLL. Conclusions: Rising motorisation, particularly from motorcycles, can cause significant increase in health burden in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area. Mitigating rising motorisation by improving public transport would benefit population health. Tackling road injury risk to ensure safe walking and cycling is a top priority. In the short term, this will save lives from injury. Longer term it will help halt the likely fall in physical activity.
  • Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka; Suomen Akatemian projekti (Helsingin Yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka, 2004)
  • Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka; Suomen Akatemian projekti (Helsingin Yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka, 2004)
  • Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, kansatiede (Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, kansatiede, 1974)
  • Tukiainen, Janne (2006)
    This study performs tests developed by Haile et al. (2003) for the common values paradigm in first-price sealed-bid auctions, using data from bus transit auctions in the city of Helsinki. First the bidder's expected costs conditional on winning the auction are estimated using bids following Li et al. (2002). In common costs setting these costs are increasing in the number of bidders whereas with private costs they are invariant. Two tests for stochastic dominance between the cost distributions for different number of bidders are conducted. The first test compares quantile trimmed means and the second is a Kolmogorov-Smirnov type test based on subsampling. This study shows the need for additional robustness checks for some arbitrary choices in these tests. In the means test the choice of quantile does not matter asymptotically and is thus chosen arbitrarily. However the test is not robust to the choice of the quantile in this particular small data set. The second test is not robust to the choice of subsample size, number of subsamples taken or other repetitions of the test in some model specifications. Also pooling and controlling for observed bidder asymmetry are introduced. Results imply that the bus companies that have garages close to the contracted routes operate in an environment where the common costs components dominate the private ones and the bus companies that have garages far from these routes operate in an environment where private cost components dominate the common ones.
  • Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, kansatiede (Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, kansatiede, 1974)
  • Helsingin yliopisto, kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka (Helsingin yliopisto, Kulttuurien tutkimuksen laitos, folkloristiikka, 1981)