Browsing by Subject "linkage map"

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  • Gutierrez, Alejandro P.; Bean, Tim P.; Hooper, Chantelle; Stenton, Craig A.; Sanders, Matthew B.; Paley, Richard K.; Rastas, Pasi; Bryrom, Michaela; Matika, Oswald; Houston, Ross D. (2018)
    Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV) can cause mass mortality events in Pacific oyster aquaculture. While various factors impact on the severity of outbreaks, it is clear that genetic resistance of the host is an important determinant of mortality levels. This raises the possibility of selective breeding strategies to improve the genetic resistance of farmed oyster stocks, thereby contributing to disease control. Traditional selective breeding can be augmented by use of genetic markers, either via marker-assisted or genomic selection. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to OsHV in Pacific oyster, to identify genomic regions containing putative resistance genes, and to inform the use of genomics to enhance efforts to breed for resistance. To achieve this, a population of approximate to 1,000 juvenile oysters were experimentally challenged with a virulent form of OsHV, with samples taken from mortalities and survivors for genotyping and qPCR measurement of viral load. The samples were genotyped using a recently-developed SNP array, and the genotype data were used to reconstruct the pedigree. Using these pedigree and genotype data, the first high density linkage map was constructed for Pacific oyster, containing 20,353 SNPs mapped to the ten pairs of chromosomes. Genetic parameters for resistance to OsHV were estimated, indicating a significant but low heritability for the binary trait of survival and also for viral load measures (h2 0.12 - 0.25). A genome-wide association study highlighted a region of linkage group 6 containing a significant QTL affecting host resistance. These results are an important step toward identification of genes underlying resistance to OsHV in oyster, and a step toward applying genomic data to enhance selective breeding for disease resistance in oyster aquaculture.
  • Boyle, John H.; Rastas, Pasi M. A.; Huang, Xin; Garner, Austin G.; Vythilingam, Indra; Armbruster, Peter A. (2021)
    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an invasive vector mosquito of substantial public health concern. The large genome size (similar to 1.19-1.28 Gb by cytofluorometric estimates), comprised of similar to 68% repetitive DNA sequences, has made it difficult to produce a high-quality genome assembly for this species. We constructed a high-density linkage map for Ae. albopictus based on 111,328 informative SNPs obtained by RNAseq. We then performed a linkage-map anchored reassembly of AalbF2, the genome assembly produced by Palatini et al. (2020). Our reassembled genome sequence, AalbF3, represents several improvements relative to AalbF2. First, the size of the AalbF3 assembly is 1.45 Gb, almost half the size of AalbF2. Furthermore, relative to AalbF2, AalbF3 contains a higher proportion of complete and single-copy BUSCO genes (84.3%) and a higher proportion of aligned RNAseq reads that map concordantly to a single location of the genome (46%). We demonstrate the utility of AalbF3 by using it as a reference for a bulk-segregant-based comparative genomics analysis that identifies chromosomal regions with clusters of candidate SNPs putatively associated with photoperiodic diapause, a crucial ecological adaptation underpinning the rapid range expansion and climatic adaptation of A. albopictus.
  • Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz; Rastas, Pasi; Steward, Rachel A.; Nylin, Soren; Wheat, Christopher W. (2021)
    The comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album, Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera) is a model insect species, most notably in the study of phenotypic plasticity and plant-insect coevolutionary interactions. In order to facilitate the integration of genomic tools with a diverse body of ecological and evolutionary research, we assembled the genome of a Swedish comma using 10X sequencing, scaffolding with matepair data, genome polishing, and assignment to linkage groups using a high-density linkage map. The resulting genome is 373 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 11.7 Mb and contig N50 of 11,2Mb. The genome contained 90.1% of single-copy Lepidopteran orthologs in a BUSCO analysis of 5,286 genes. A total of 21,004 gene-models were annotated on the genome using RNA-Seq data from larval and adult tissue in combination with proteins from the Arthropoda database, resulting in a high-quality annotation for which functional annotations were generated. We further documented the quality of the chromosomal assembly via synteny assessment with Melitaea cinxia. The resulting annotated, chromosome-level genome will provide an important resource for investigating coevolutionary dynamics and comparative analyses in Lepidoptera.
  • Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha (2016)
    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identity errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F-2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (similar to 6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5-2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (
  • Shikano, Takahito; Laine, Veronika N.; Herczeg, Gabor; Vilkki, Johanna; Merilä, Juha (2013)