Browsing by Subject "liposomes"

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  • Ruokonen, Suvi-Katriina; Sanwald, Corinna; Robciuc, Alexandra; Hietala, Sami; Rantamäki, Antti H.; Witos, Joanna; King, Alistair W. T.; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Wiedmer, Susanne K. (2018)
    This study aims at extending the understanding of the toxicity mechanism of ionic liquids (ILs) using various analytical methods and cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity of eight ILs and one zwitterionic compound was determined using mammalian and bacterial cells. The time dependency of the IL toxicity was assessed using human corneal epithelial cells. Hemolysis was performed using human red blood cells and the results were compared with destabilization data of synthetic liposomes upon addition of ILs. The effect of the ILs on the size and zeta potential of liposomes revealed information on changes in the lipid bilayer. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the penetration of the ILs into the lipid bilayer. Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine whether the ILs occurred as unimers, micelles, or if they were bound to liposomes. The results show that the investigated ILs can be divided into three groups based on the cytotoxicity mechanism: cell wall disrupting ILs, ILs exerting toxicity through both cell wall penetration and metabolic alteration, and ILs affecting solely on cell metabolism.
  • Niemi, Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived vesicles which consist of two lipid layers. Extracellular vesicles involve in intercellular communication, maintaining of homeostase and development of pathophysiological states in human body. Extracellular vesicles are promising biomarkers and drug carriers in future. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on time resolved fluorescence microscopy and autologous extracellular vesicles labelled with environmentally sensitive fluorescent probes for studying the distribution of mitose-inhibitor paclitaxel in prostate cancer cells (PC-3) carried by extracellular vesicles. The efficacy of paclitaxel loaded extracellular vesicles was compared to synthetic liposomes. The two subpopulations of extracellular vesicles, exosome -and microvesicle-enriched, were isolated from the PC-3 cell media by differential ultracentrifugation. The size distribution and particle concentration of extracellular vesicles was determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis. DSPC-Cholesterol liposomes were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method and the size distribution of the liposomes was determined by dynamic laser diffraction and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Paclitaxel was loaded into the liposomes in hydration phase and into the extracellular vesicles by incubating vesicles and paclitaxel. Unbound paclitaxel was removed from samples by ultracentrifugation. The the dose-dependent sytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded extracellular vesicles and liposomes was evaluated with Alamar Blue viability assay. The release and distribution of paclitaxel from extracellular vesicles in living PC-3 cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and time-resolved fluorescence microscopy. The exosomes had approximately 50 nm smaller diameter than microvesicles and exosome particle concentrations were significantly higher compared to microvesicles. According to viability assays conducted with wide range of concentrations, paclitaxel loaded in microvesicles were slightly more effective than paclitaxel loaded in exosomes. The time-resolved fluorescence microscopy was useful method for investigating the release and distribution of extracellular vesicle bound paclitaxel, since we succesfully detected changes in Paclitaxel-OregonGreen fluorescence lifetime in different phases of the drug delivery process. With confocal microscopy we detected that paclitaxel loaded extracellular vesicles were already uptaken inside the cells after two hours of incubation and after few hours, paclitaxel was detected in microtubules of PC-3 cells and killed PC-3 cells. Extracellular vesicles may improve the accumulation of paclitaxel into tumor cells thus preventing the side-effects of paclitaxel. Nevertheless, PC-3 cell derived extracellular vesicles have ability to increase the PC-3 cell viability, which limits their potential use as drug carrier due to safety issues. In addition, extracellular vesicles characterization and isolation methods lack standardization and the isolation of exosomes and microvesicles is impossible due to this fact. Extracellular vesicles involvement in physiological and pathophysiological states should be investigated throughoutly and their safety as drug carriers should be examined both in animal and human.
  • Teirlinck, Eline; Barras, Alexandre; Liu, Jing; Fraire, Juan C.; Lajunen, Tatu; Xiong, Ranhua; Forier, Katrien; Li, Chengnan; Urtti, Arto; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Coenye, Tom; Braeckmans, Kevin (2019)
    Impaired penetration of antibiotics through bacterial biofilms is one of the reasons for failure of antimicrobial therapy. Hindered drug diffusion is caused on the one hand by interactions with the sticky biofilm matrix and on the other hand by the fact that bacterial cells are organized in densely packed clusters of cells. Binding interactions with the biofilm matrix can be avoided by encapsulating the antibiotics into nanocarriers, while interfering with the integrity of the dense cell clusters can enhance drug transport deep into the biofilm. Vapor nanobubbles (VNB), generated from laser irradiated nanoparticles, are a recently reported effective way to loosen up the biofilm structure in order to enhance drug transport and efficacy. In the present study, we explored if the disruptive force of VNB can be used simultaneously to interfere with the biofilm structure and trigger antibiotic release from light-responsive nanocarriers. The antibiotic tobramycin was incorporated in two types of light-responsive nanocarriersliposomes functionalized with gold nanoparticles (Lip-AuNP) and graphene quantum dots (GQD)and their efficacy was evaluated on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Even though the anti-biofilm efficacy of tobramycin was improved by liposomal encapsulation, electrostatic functionalization with 70 nm AuNP unfortunately resulted in premature leakage of tobramycin in a matter of hours. Laser-irradiation consequently did not further improve P. aeruginosa biofilm eradication. Adsorption of tobramycin to GQD, on the other hand, did result in a stable formulation with high encapsulation efficiency, without burst release of tobramycin from the nanocarriers. However, even though laser-induced VNB formation from GQD resulted in biofilm disruption, an enhanced anti-biofilm effect was not achieved due to tobramycin not being efficiently released from GQD. Even though this study was unsuccessful in designing suitable nanocarriers for simultaneous biofilm disruption and light-triggered release of tobramycin, it provides insights into the difficulties and challenges that need to be considered for future developments in this regard.
  • Mäki-Mikola, Eija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Liposomes are nano-sized vesicles, that are composed of a phospholipid bilayer structure. They can be utilized as drug carriers, in which case the drug is incorporated either to their hydrophilic internal cavity, or into their hydrophobic bilayer structure. For anticancer drugs, liposomal formulations have exhibited their capability in reducing adverse effects of anticancer drugs. This is achieved mainly by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, in which liposomes accumulate into tumour tissue. However, the conventional liposomes release their drug content passively, and a proportion of drug is distributed to off-target tissues. Therefore, there is a demand to develop liposomes from which the content can be released in a controlled manner, by an external stimulus. The objectives of this master’s thesis project were to determine the potential of light-activated paclitaxel (PTX) liposomes for the treatment of lung cancer, and to optimize a dynamic cell culture system, QuasiVivo® (QV), to study the off-target effects of light-activated PTX liposomes. The hypothesis was that the induction of the light-activated PTX liposomes would increase the efficiency of paclitaxel treatment. For QV experiments, it was expected that the presence of flow would improve the viability of the cells. The encapsulation efficiency of PTX into the liposomes and the effect of the PTX incorporation into the phase transition temperature of the liposomes were determined. The stability of liposomes was determined by monitoring the liposomal size and light sensitizer absorbance during a storage period. The cells of lung cancer cell line A549 were cultured inside QV system, and their viability was monitored with two commercial cell viability assays. Incorporation of PTX decreased the phase transition temperature, but the liposomes remained stable in the studied conditions. The PTX liposome treatments with and without light activation resulted in the similar efficacy as free PTX treatment did. A549 cells failed to display superior viability inside the QV compared to static conditions. Cells cultured under lower flow rate portrayed modestly higher viability. The light-activated PTX liposomes did not improve the efficacy of PTX treatment. Neither of the flow rates were optimal for A549 cells, as the variation between experiments was high. The EPR effect is the main reason for the improved effects of liposomal anticancer drugs, therefore, it is likely that in vivo experiments would elicit the differences between the efficacy of the liposomal and free PTX. The non-existent effects of light activation on the viability are likely caused by the low total concentration of the light sensitizer in the treatment solution.
  • Joraholmen, May Wenche; Johannessen, Mona; Gravningen, Kirsten; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Acharya, Ganesh; Basnet, Purusotam; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa (2020)
    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections and causes serious reproductive tract complications among women. The limitations of existing oral antibiotics and treatment of antimicrobial resistance require alternative treatment options. We are proposing, for the first time, the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in an advanced delivery system comprising liposomes incorporated in chitosan hydrogel, for the localized treatment of C. trachomatis infection. Both free RES and RES liposomes-in-hydrogel inhibited the propagation of C. trachomatis in a concentration-dependent manner, assessed by the commonly used in vitro model comprising McCoy cells. However, for lower concentrations, the anti-chlamydial effect of RES was enhanced when incorporated into a liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system, with inhibition of 78% and 94% for 1.5 and 3 mu g/mL RES, respectively for RES liposomes-in-hydrogel, compared to 43% and 72%, respectively, for free RES. Furthermore, RES liposomes-in-hydrogel exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, in a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide production in the LPS-induced macrophages (RAW 264.7). The combination of a natural substance exhibiting multi-targeted pharmacological properties, and a delivery system that provides enhanced activity as well as applicability for vaginal administration, could be a promising option for the localized treatment of C. trachomatis infection.
  • Duong, TT; Isomaki, A; Paaver, U; Laidmae, I; Tonisoo, A; Yen, TTH; Kogermann, K; Raal, A; Heinamaki, J; Pham, TMH (2021)
    Berberine (BBR) is a poorly water-soluble quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid of plant origin with potential uses in the drug therapy of hypercholesterolemia. To tackle the limitations associated with the oral therapeutic use of BBR (such as a first-pass metabolism and poor absorption), BBR-loaded liposomes were fabricated by ethanol-injection and thin-film hydration methods. The size and size distribution, polydispersity index (PDI), solid-state properties, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in vitro drug release of liposomes were investigated. The BBR-loaded liposomes prepared by ethanol-injection and thin-film hydration methods presented an average liposome size ranging from 50 nm to 244 nm and from 111 nm to 449 nm, respectively. The PDI values for the liposomes were less than 0.3, suggesting a narrow size distribution. The EE of liposomes ranged from 56% to 92%. Poorly water-soluble BBR was found to accumulate in the bi-layered phospholipid membrane of the liposomes prepared by the thin-film hydration method. The BBR-loaded liposomes generated by both nanofabrication methods presented extended drug release behavior in vitro. In conclusion, both ethanol-injection and thin-film hydration nanofabrication methods are feasible for generating BBR-loaded oral liposomes with a uniform size, high EE and modified drug release behavior in vitro.
  • Cheng, Ruoyu; Fontana, Flavia; Xiao, Junyuan; Liu, Zehua; Figueiredo, Patricia; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Wang, Shiqi; Jin, Jing; Torrieri, Giulia; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Zhang, Hongbo; Chen, Tongtong; Cui, Wenguo; Lu, Yong; Santos, Helder A. (2020)
    Recently, there has been an increasing interest for utilizing the host immune system to fight against cancer. Moreover, cancer vaccines, which can stimulate the host immune system to respond to cancer in the long term, are being investigated as a promising approach to induce tumor-specific immunity. In this work, we prepared an effective cancer vaccine (denoted as vacosome) by reconstructing the cancer cell membrane, monophosphoryl lipid A as a toll-like receptor 4 agonist, and egg phosphatidylcholine. The vacosome triggered and enhanced bone marrow dendritic cell maturation as well as stimulated the antitumor response against breast cancer 4T1 cells in vitro. Furthermore, an immune memory was established in BALB/c mice after three-time preimmunization with the vacosome. After that, the immunized mice showed inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival period (longer than 50 days). Overall, our results demonstrate that the vacosome can be a potential candidate for clinical translation as a cancer vaccine.
  • Mao, Xiyuan; Cheng, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hongbo; Bae, Jinhong; Cheng, Liying; Zhang, Lu; Deng, Lianfu; Cui, Wenguo; Zhang, Yuguang; Almeida Santos, Helder; Sun, Xiaoming (2019)
    The fabrication of highly biocompatible hydrogels with multiple unique healing abilities for the whole healing process, for example, multifunctional hydrogels with injectable, degradation, antibacterial, antihypoxic, and wound healing–promoting properties that match the dynamic healing process of skin flap regeneration, is currently a research challenge. Here, a multifunctional and dynamic coordinative polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel with mangiferin liposomes (MF‐Lip@PEG) is developed for clinical applications through Ag–S coordination of four‐arm‐PEG‐SH and Ag+. Compared to MF‐PEG, MF‐Lip@PEG exhibits self‐healing properties, lower swelling percentages, and a longer endurance period. Moreover, the hydrogel exhibits excellent drug dispersibility and release characteristics for slow and persistent drug delivery. In vitro studies show that the hydrogel is biocompatible and nontoxic to cells, and exerts an outstanding neovascularization‐promoting effect. The MF‐Lip@PEG also exhibits a strong cytoprotective effect against hypoxia‐induced apoptosis through regulation of the Bax/Bcl‐2/caspase‐3 pathway. In a random skin flap animal model, the MF‐Lip@PEG is injectable and convenient to deliver into the skin flap, providing excellent anti‐inflammation, anti‐infection, and proneovascularization effects and significantly reducing the skin flap necrosis rate. In general, the MF‐Lip@PEG possesses outstanding multifunctionality for the dynamic healing process of skin flap regeneration.