Browsing by Subject "listening"

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  • Sipilä, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Purposes. This is an ethnographic case study about elementary school teacher as a listener of a child's voice and about children as ethnographers in the classroom. The current study aims to make visible factors that limit listening child's voice at school and especially in the interaction between the teacher and the student. It also describes children's views and thoughts about school. This study is a part of consortium research "Children tell of their well-being - who listens?" (TelLis, a project number 1134911). Methods. The study was conducted at the school during four weeks at spring 2013. The data was gathered using children as ethnographers -method and consists of 57 classroom diaries written by fifth and sixth grade students and reflected by their four elementary school teachers. In addition, data includes children's drawings, teacher's interviews before the study, two teacher's group interviews and observation notes. In this study I describe teachers as listeners of students' voice during children as ethnographers -period. I ask, what kind of knowledge teachers find in children's classroom diaries. I also ask, how teachers make use of classroom diaries at their work. Analysis is based on qualitative content analysis. Findings and conclusion. Teachers found knowledge of students' culture and knowledge of their action, thoughts and opinions in classroom diaries. In addition, teachers looked for knowledge to evaluate competencies and developmental needs of students' and the class. Teachers used classroom diaries primarily as a tool of evaluating and educating children, but also as a tool for listening children and educating themselves as professionals. According to content analysis, listening to child represented mostly listening based on evaluating and educating children and themselves. There was less listening based on developing the school and the least listening based on encountering a child. Because of teachers' strong aims of evaluating and educating, listening to child was limited. The current study shows, that despite of several factors limiting listening to child's voice in society, school community and class community, teacher with his/her aims, views and actions has an emergent role as a listener of a child's voice. Teachers should create especially those kinds of listening moments that are based on encountering a child naturally and humanely.
  • Peräkylä, Anssi (2010)
    Psychoanalytic interpretation is normally understood as a sequence of two utterances: the analyst gives an interpretation and the patient responds to it. This paper suggests that, in the interpretative sequence, there is also a third utterance where psychoanalytic work takes place. This third interpretative turn involves the analyst’s action after the patient’s response to the interpretation. Using conversation analysis as method in the examination of audio-recorded psychoanalytic sessions, the paper will explicate the psychoanalytic work that gets done in third interpretative turns. Through it, the analyst takes a stance towards the patient’s understandings of the interpretation, which are shown in the patient’s response to the interpretation. The third interpretative turns on one hand ratify and accept the patient’s understandings, but, in addition to that, they also introduce a shift of perspective relative to them. In most cases, the shift of perspective is implicit but sometimes it is made explicit. The shifts of perspective bring to the foreground aspects or implications of the interpretation that were not incorporated in the patient’s response. They recast the description of the patient’s experience by showing new layers or more emotional intensity in it. The results are discussed in the light of Faimberg’s concept of listening to listening and Schlesinger’s concept of follow-up interpretation.