Browsing by Subject "literature review"

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  • Isoaho, Karoliina Laila Hannele; Karhunmaa, Kamilla Mari Amanda (2019)
    This article critically reviews the use of discursive approaches in studies of sustainable energy transitions. The review is motivated by calls to further incorporate social scientific methodologies into energy research and assess their contribution to policy. We strive to answer three questions: (1) which discursive approaches have been used to study sustainable energy transitions; (2) what thematic topics and issue areas have been covered and (3) what is the added value of discursive research designs? Our analysis is based on a review of 77 articles from the years 2004–2016. Our findings show that discursive approaches were mostly used to analyse institutional change and policy strategies at the national level and to examine energy choices through political ideology and the perceptions of publics. Nuclear power received most coverage, while renewable energy technologies were mainly studied through conflicts and opposition. We demonstrate discursive research designs to examine four distinct policy areas and discuss the added value of these approaches for energy policy and research. Discursive methodologies enable scholars to enrich policy discussions through accounting for transitions as complex and dynamic processes of change.
  • Müürisepp, Kerli; Järv, Olle; Tammaru, Tiit; Toivonen, Tuuli (2022)
    The activity space approach is increasingly mobilized in spatial segregation research to broaden its scope from residential neighborhoods to other socio-spatial contexts of people. Activity space segregation research is an emerging field, characterized by quick adaptation of novel data sources and interdisciplinary methodologies. In this article, we present a methodological review of activity space segregation research by identifying approaches, methods and data sources applied. First, our review highlights that the activity space approach enables segregation to be studied from the perspectives of people, places and mobility flows. Second, the results reveal that both traditional data sources and novel big data sources are valuable for studying activity space segregation. While traditional sources provide rich background information on people for examining the social dimension of segregation, big data sources bring opportunities to address temporality, and increase the spatial extent and resolution of analysis. Hence, big data sources have an important role in mediating the conceptual change from a residential neighborhood-based to an activity space-based approach to segregation. Still, scholars should address carefully the challenges and uncertainties that big data entail for segregation studies. Finally, we propose a framework for a three-step methodological workflow for activity space segregation analysis, and outline future research avenues to move toward more conceptual clarity, integrated analysis framework and methodological rigor.
  • Harju, Vilhelmiina; Koskinen, Antti; Pehkonen, Leila (2019)
    Background: The importance of digital technologies for enhancing learning in formal education settings has been widely acknowledged. In the light of this expectation, it is important to investigate the effects of these technologies on students' learning and development. Purpose: This study explores longitudinal empirical research on digital learning in the context of primary and secondary education. By focusing on a small selection of the peer-reviewed literature, the aim is to examine the kinds of longitudinal study published on this topic during the period 2012-2017 and, thorough categorisation, to bring together insights about the reported influences of digital technology use on students' learning. Design and methods: The databases searched for the purposes of this review were Scopus and Web of Science. Of 1,989 articles, 13 were finally included in the review. Using qualitative content analysis, these were analysed, coded and categorised. Results: The reviewed studies were found to have approached digital learning in different ways: they varied, for example, in terms of research methods and design and the digital technologies used. The studies addressed different aspects of learning, which we assigned to six categories: affection, attitude, and motivation; subject-specific knowledge and skills; transversal skills; learning experience; elements of the learning environment; and identity. We identified both positive and negative influences of technology on learning. Conclusions: This review offers a snapshot of the variety of research in this fast-moving area. The studies we explored were found to approach digital learning from several different perspectives, and no straightforward conclusions can be drawn about the influences of digital technology use on students' learning. We conclude that further longitudinal studies of digital learning are needed, and this study assists by highlighting gaps in the existing literature.
  • Jeon, Yunsuk; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Meretoja, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2017)
    Purpose: To identify competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care and to describe the validity and reliability of the instruments. Design: A scoping review in a systematic manner. Methods: A search in CINAHL, MEDLINE, and ERIC was carried out to identify empirical studies from 1994 to 2015. A narrative synthesis approach was undertaken to analyze the data. Findings: Nine competence assessment instruments in perianesthesia nursing care were identified. The instruments used three types of data collection methods: Self-report, observation, and written examinations. The most commonly reported validity method was content validity involving expert panels and reliability tests for internal consistency and inter-rater's consistency. Conclusions: Integrating more than one data collection method may give support to overcoming some of the limitations, such as lack of objectivity and misinterpretation of the assessment results. In an ever-changing environment, perianesthesia nursing competence requires constant reassessment from the perspective of content validity, scoring methods, and reliability.
  • Zhang, Mengzhen; Berghäll, Sami (2021)
    Agricultural e-commerce (AE) has attracted substantial attention within various research disciplines for several years. In this paper, we present a literature review of the recent state of AE research published from 2000 through to 2021 in 83 journals. Based on Service-Dominant Logic (S-D logic) and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), we identify six research themes, and a theoretical continuum is applied to reveal how research themes and scholarly approaches fit into the S-D logic framework. A general increasing trend in the number of articles confirms the escalating interest in AE research; however, different themes perform unevenly with S-D logic. Even though research themes such as Consumer Willingness are getting closer to S-D logic premises, and ideologies that are increasingly approaching S-D logic have been applied to analyzing AE topics, unfortunately, there remains a paucity of papers that wield S-D logic in the AE field. Our research focuses on an innovative emerging AE field and, simultaneously, provides an approach of integrating S-D logic into analyzing academic papers in the AE domain. This research may shed some light on future possibilities that S-D logic could support the co-creation of value between consumers and agribusiness managers, and other broader disciplines such as management and marketing.
  • Hamalainen, Lasse (2022)
    In many online services, we are identified by self-chosen usernames, also known as nicknames or pseudonyms. Usernames have been studied quite extensively within several academic disciplines, yet few existing literature reviews or meta-analyses provide a comprehensive picture of the name category. This article addresses this gap by thoroughly analyzing 103 research articles with usernames as their primary focus. Despite the great variety of approaches taken to investigate usernames, three main types of studies can be identified: (1) qualitative analyses examining username semantics, the motivations for name choices, and how the names are linked to the identities of the users; (2) experiments testing the communicative functions of usernames; and (3) computational studies analyzing large corpora of usernames to acquire information about the users and their behavior. The current review investigates the terminology, objectives, methods, data, results, and impact of these three study types in detail. Finally, research gaps and potential directions for future works are discussed. As this investigation will demonstrate, more research is needed to examine naming practices in social media, username-related online discrimination and harassment, and username usage in conversations.
  • Rosengren, L.M.; Raymond, C.M.; Sell, M.; Vihinen, H. (2020)
    Leverage points from systems research are increasingly important to understand how to support transformations towards sustainability, but few studies have considered leverage points in strengthening adaptive capacity to climate change. The existing literature mainly considers strengthening adaptive capacity as a steady and linear process. This article explores possibilities to fast track positive adaptive capacity trajectories of small-scale farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana. Leverage points were identified by triangulating data from semi-structured interviews with farmers (n=72), key informant interviews (n=7) and focus group discussions (FG1 n=17; FG2 n=20). The results present two ways to approach adaptation planning: 1) using four generic leverage points (gender equality, social learning, information and knowledge, and access to finance) or 2) combining the adaptive capacity and leverage point frameworks, thereby creating 15 associations. The generic points provide a set of topics as a starting point for policy and intervention planning activities, while the 15 associations support the identification of place-specific leverage points. Four benefits of using leverage points for adaptive capacity in adaptation planning were identified: guidance on where to intervene in a system, ability to deal with complex systems, inclusion of both causal and teleological decision-making, and a possibility to target deep, transformative change. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Kallinen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis examines children’s citizenship in recent empirical research in the field of child-hood studies. The thesis will examine the questions, themes and theoretical approaches that have framed the studies of children’s citizenship. Childhood studies is a multidisciplinary field and the research concerning children’s citizenship is embedded within multifaceted social and political contexts. Children’s relationship with the citizenship is unsettled. Children are being given many rights, responsibilities and possibilities to participate but at the same time they are excluded from citizenship. Children’s place as becoming citizens has been persistent in societies where especially political citizenship remains a field fully open only for adults. This under-standing frames the recent research of children’s citizenship. The study data consists of 17 research articles that are examining children’s citizenship through empirical data. These articles were reviewed and analysed applying narrative analysis. The study data shows that children’s citizenship is constructed in social, political and historical contexts. Political and legislative structures are the basis of children’s social participation. In in-stitutionalised settings, children’s participation is enabled in participatory activities. These par-ticipatory settings facilitate children’s agency and advocacy but also demonstrate some re-strictions. The approaches of lived citizenship have opened new interpretations of the ways that children enact citizenship. The studied articles show that citizenship is a concept that illumi-nates the aspects of the relationship between children and adults and may generate some under-standing of ethical encounters. Examining the marginal positions of citizenship is helpful in discussing children’s place in society. Citizenship as a concept unfolds the different aspects of inclusion and exclusion in society.
  • Lehtiniemi, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Computing complex phenomena into models providing information of the causalities and future scenarios is a very topical way to present scientific information. Many claim models to be the best available tool to provide decision making with information about near-future scenarios and the action needed (Meah, 2019; Schirpke et al., 2020). This thesis studies global climate models based on objective data compared to local ecosystem services models combining ecological and societal data offer an extensive overview of modern environmental modelling. In addition to modelling, the science-policy boundary is important when analyzing the societal usefulness of models. Useful and societally-relevant modelling is analyzed with an integrative literature review (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005) on the topics of climate change, ecosystem services, modelling and science-policy boundary, n=58. Literature from various disciplines and viewpoints is included in the material. Since the aim is to create a comprehensive understanding of the multidisciplinary phenomenon of modelling, the focus is not on the technical aspects of it. Based on the literature, types of uncertainty in models and strategies to manage them are identified (e.g. van der Sluijs, 2005). Characteristics of useful models and other forms of scientific information are recognized (e.g. Saltelli et al., 2020). Usefulness can be achieved when models are fit for purpose, accessible and solution-oriented, and sufficient interaction and trust is established between the model users and developers. Climate change and ecosystem services are analyzed as case studies throughout the thesis. The relationship of science and policy is an important discussion especially important when solving the sustainability crisis. Because modelling is a boundary object (Duncan et al., 2020), the role of boundary work in managing and communicating the uncertainties and ensuring the usefulness of models is at the center of the analysis.
  • Hellas, Arto; Ihantola, Petri; Petersen, Andrew; Ajanovski, Vangel V.; Gutica, Mirela; Hynninen, Timo; Knutas, Antti; Leinonen, Juho; Messom, Chris; Liao, Soohyun Nam (ACM, 2018)
    ITiCSE 2018 Companion
    The ability to predict student performance in a course or program creates opportunities to improve educational outcomes. With effective performance prediction approaches, instructors can allocate resources and instruction more accurately. Research in this area seeks to identify features that can be used to make predictions, to identify algorithms that can improve predictions, and to quantify aspects of student performance. Moreover, research in predicting student performance seeks to determine interrelated features and to identify the underlying reasons why certain features work better than others. This working group report presents a systematic literature review of work in the area of predicting student performance. Our analysis shows a clearly increasing amount of research in this area, as well as an increasing variety of techniques used. At the same time, the review uncovered a number of issues with research quality that drives a need for the community to provide more detailed reporting of methods and results and to increase efforts to validate and replicate work.
  • Lonkila, Annika; Kaljonen, Minna (Springer Netherlands, 2021)
    Agriculture and Human Values 2021
    Increasing concerns for climate change call for radical changes in food systems. There is a need to pay more attention to the entangled changes in technological development, food production, as well as consumption and consumer demand. Consumer and market interest in alternative meat and milk products—such as plant based milk, plant protein products and cultured meat and milk—is increasing. At the same time, statistics do not show a decrease in meat consumption. Yet alternatives have been suggested to have great transitional potential, appealing to different consumer segments, diets, and identities. We review 123 social scientific journal articles on cell-based and plant-based meat and milk alternatives to understand how the positioning of alternatives as both same and different in relation to animal-based products influences their role within the protein transition. We position the existing literature into three themes: (1) promissory narratives and tensions on markets, (2) consumer preferences, attitudes, and behavioral change policies, (3) and the politics and ethics of the alternatives. Based on our analysis of the literature, we suggest that more research is needed to understand the broader ethical impacts of the re-imagination of the food system inherent in meat and milk alternatives. There is also a need to direct more attention to the impacts of meat and milk alternatives to the practices of agricultural practices and food production at the farm-level. A closer examination of these research gaps can contribute to a better understanding of the transformative potential of alternatives on a systemic level.
  • Goren, Ran (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Population size is one of the most discussed topics historically in its relation to democracy. Interestingly, however, despite the plethora of debates and studies there seem to be little academic consensus on the topic, both theoretically and empirically. On the one hand, early theorists such as Aristotle, Plato, Rousseau, and Montesquieu, have considered a small population size as indispensable for a democracy, for utilities such as the citizens’ ability to participate, or comprehend the common affairs. On the other hand, later theorists have stressed the utility of large population size to democracy, due to an increased likelihood for a diversity of opinions, and thus more checks, balances, and safeguards against factions’ tyranny and minority abuse. In a similar manner, in contemporary studies there is a common notion of a formula that ‘small is democratic’, mainly referring to the larger share of representative democracies among small states in comparison to larger states. Contrastingly, several studies have highlighted other ‘informal’ and arguably detrimental impacts of small size on democracy, such as lack of political diversity, high personalization, weak separation of authorities, and extensive patronage. This state-of-art, in which there is a predominant academic disagreement about the relation between size and democracy, despite many years of studying and argumentation, calls for a further study of the topic. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to delve into the abundant content on the topic, in order to produce a qualified understanding of the possible relation between population size and democracy. The methodology of this study is a theoretical analysis, based on critical literature review of the contents on the topic. These are assessed using a lengthily-delineated definition of democracy, conceptualizing it as a system yet to be realized in our time, in which all people hold an adequate and equal capacity to make choices in governance. Using this definition, it is concluded that population size is strongly related to the potential realization of democracy, due to its cultivating effect on the various democratic capacities, and thus democracy may only be realized in a political unit of small population size. These conclusions are illustrated through a short case study of the political processes in Iceland since the financial crisis of 2008.
  • Berger-Tal, Oded; Greggor, Alison; Macura, Biljana; Adams, Carrie Ann; Blumenthal, Arden; Bouskila, Amos; Candolin, Ulrika; Doran, Carolina; Gotanda, Kiyoko; Price, Catherine; Putman, Brenna; Segoli, Michal; Snijders, Lysanne; Wong, Bob Bern Ming; Blumstein, Daniel T. (2019)
    We describe the utility of conducting formal systematic reviews and maps to synthesize behavioral evidence in a way that enhances its utility to managers, policy makers, and other stakeholders. Similar to the evidence-based revolution in medicine, the application of formal systematic review processes has the potential to invigorate the field of behavioral ecology and accelerate the uptake of behavioral evidence in policy and management. Abstract Although examples of successful applications of behavioral ecology research to policy and management exist, knowledge generated from such research is in many cases under-utilized by managers and policy makers. On their own, empirical studies and traditional reviews do not offer the robust syntheses that managers and policy makers require to make evidence-based decisions and evidence-informed policy. Similar to the evidence-based revolution in medicine, the application of formal systematic review processes has the potential to invigorate the field of behavioral ecology and accelerate the uptake of behavioral evidence in policy and management. Systematic reviews differ from traditional reviews and meta-analyses in that their methods are peer reviewed and prepublished for maximum transparency, the evidence base is widened to cover work published outside of academic journals, and review findings are formally communicated with stakeholders. This approach can be valuable even when the systematic literature search fails to yield sufficient evidence for a full review or meta-analysis; preparing systematic maps of the existing evidence can highlight deficiencies in the evidence base, thereby directing future research efforts. To standardize the use of systematic evidence syntheses in the field of environmental science, the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (CEE) created a workflow process to certify the comprehensiveness and repeatability of systematic reviews and maps, and to maximize their objectivity. We argue that the application of CEE guidelines to reviews of applied behavioral interventions will make robust behavioral evidence easily accessible to managers and policy makers to support their decision-making, as well as improve the quality of basic research in behavioral ecology.
  • Virokannas, Elina Tuulikki; Liuski, Suvi; Kuronen, Marjo (2020)
    The concept of vulnerability is widely used in the social sciences as well as in policy making, health and social care services and in social work, referring to a variety of groups or individuals, but it has rarely been theoretically defined or analysed. This article provides a literature review on how vulnerability has been used and defined in academic, peer-reviewed articles published in international social science journals between 2000 and 2016. The aim is to analyse and clarify critically the concept for social work research. The article analyses themes and topics connected to vulnerability, how gender is related to vulnerability and how vulnerability is conceptualised in these articles. The analysis showed that there is an important critical commentary on the concept, but only a few efforts to specify, theoretically analyse, reconceptualise or use the concept in an innovative way. The authors suggest that in social work research, instead of vulnerable groups or individuals we should focus on vulnerable life situations, and the role of the welfare services in reducing but possibly also (re)producing vulnerability. It is also important to recognise the temporal, situational, relational, and structural nature of vulnerability.
  • Grant, Danielle M.; Brodnicke, Ole Bjørn; Evankow, Ann M.; Ferreira, André O.; Fontes, João T.; Hansen, Aslak Kappel; Jensen, Mads Reinholdt; Kalaycı, Tuğba Ergül; Leeper, Alexandra; Patil, Shalaka Kiran; Prati, Sebastian; Reunamo, Anna; Roberts, Aradhana J.; Shigdel, Rajesh; Tyukosova, Valentina; Bendiksby, Mika; Blaalid, Rakel; Costa, Filipe O.; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Stur, Elisabeth; Ekrem, Torbjørn (MDPI, 2021)
    Diversity 2021, 13(7), 313
    Over the last two decades, the use of DNA barcodes has transformed our ability to identify and assess life on our planet. Both strengths and weaknesses of the method have been exemplified through thousands of peer-reviewed scientific articles. Given the novel sequencing approaches, currently capable of generating millions of reads at low cost, we reflect on the questions: What will the future bring for DNA barcoding? Will identification of species using short, standardized fragments of DNA stand the test of time? We present reflected opinions of early career biodiversity researchers in the form of a SWOT analysis and discuss answers to these questions.
  • Joa, Bettina; Winkel, Georg; Primmer, Eeva (Elsevier, 2018)
    Land Use Policy 79 (2018), 520-530
    Local ecological knowledge and the land use practices of forest resource users who rely on this form of knowledge play a crucial role for biodiversity conservation in managed forests. The understandings of, and approaches taken to analyze, such knowledge are diverse. To systematize the available knowledge, we conduct a review of 51 studies addressing local ecological knowledge (LEK) and forest biodiversity conservation practice. We analyze what specific kind of knowledge is considered, who holds the knowledge, how this knowledge is actively applied in practice and how it relates to biodiversity conservation. The review shows that local ecological knowledge and forest biodiversity conservation are linked through various socially shared aspects, such as values and norms, spiritual beliefs and perceptions of ecosystem functions and benefits as well as operational conditions, including livelihood strategies and economic constraints. While many of the reviewed studies evaluate local knowledge as holding great promise for biodiversity conservation, the conclusions regarding practical implications of including this knowledge into forest and conservation management are mixed. In particular, the interaction of “traditional” conservation paradigms rooted in local ecological knowledge and science-based “modern” paradigms is not thoroughly addressed. This applies especially to European countries, where research on local ecological knowledge is scattered. Drawing on these observations, we conclude that a greater focus on the ways in which societies in these countries can (re)generate, transform and apply local ecological knowledge can play a crucial role in integrating conservation objectives into forest management under changing environmental conditions.
  • Deviatkin, Ivan; Khan, Musharof; Ernst, Elizabeth; Horttanainen, Mika (2019)
    Pallets are the tiny cogs in the machine that drive transportation in the global economy. The profusion of pallets in today's supply chain warrants the investigation and discussion of their respective environmental impacts. This paper reviews the life cycle assessment studies analyzing the environmental impacts of pallets with the intent of providing insights into the methodological choices made, as well as compiling the inventory data from the studies reviewed. The study is a meta-analysis of eleven scientific articles, two conference articles, two peer-reviewed reports, and one thesis. The review was implemented to identify the key methodological choices made in those studies, such as their goals, functional units, system boundaries, inventory data, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) procedures, and results. The 16 studies reviewed cumulatively analyzed 43 pallets. Mostly pooled (n = 22/43), block-type (n = 13/43), and wooden (n = 32/43) pallets with dimensions of 1219 mm x 1016 mm or 48 in. x 40 in. (n = 15/43) were studied. Most of the studies represented pallet markets in the United States (n = 9/16). Load-based (e.g., 1000 kg of products delivered), trip-based (e.g., 1000 trips), and pallet-based (e.g., one pallet) functional units were declared. A trip-based functional unit seems the most appropriate for accounting of the function of the pallets, as its purpose is to carry goods and facilitate the transportation of cargo. A significant amount of primary inventory data on the production and repair of wooden and plastic pallets are available, yet there are significant variations in the data. Data on pallets made of wood-polymer composites was largely missing.