Browsing by Subject "livelihood"

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  • Kärkkäinen, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study investigates the effects of oil palm smallholding, wealth, and ecosystem services produced by oil palm dominated agroecosystem in the villages of Tanjung Bering and Betung in Sumatra, Indonesia in 2008. The cultivation of oil palm has many environmental and socio-economic impacts. In particular, indigenous peoples are vulnerable stakeholders between the expanding oil palm plantations. Oil palm industry has sought to find sustainable models for palm oil production: the inclusion of indigenous peoples to oil palm development is an essential part of this. The purpose of the study is to chart the situation and to investigate the impact of the oil palm smallholding for the well-being of local indigenous people, and to provide information for the sustainable decision-making. The study is based on household interviews in the area of the Petalangan ethnic group. The interviews were added to a relational database, which was used to provide variables on ecosystem services, economy and well-being for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out mainly by cross-tabulating the mentioned variables with wealth and the oil palm smallholding status, significance has been defined with the Pearson’s khii-test. Interpretation and analysis of the results has been made in the framework of ecosystem services by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Oil palm smallholding highly significantly increased households’ income, and wealth increased highly significantly household’s well-being. The fragmented oil palm dominated agroecosystem was still providing ecosystem services to households. The wealth reduced households’ dependency on most ecosystem services as well as substituted many of them. It is concluded based on this study that in the oil palm dominated agroecosystem, oil palm smallholding and higher income affects very favourable to the households’ well-being, and vice versa non-oil-palm-smallholding and poverty predicts ill-being.
  • Lassila, Maija M. (2018)
    During the past decade, Finland has been the target of a global boom in the quest for untapped mineral resources. Based on the mapped information of mineral potential provided by the state, multinational mining corporations are making reservations for and conducting mineral explorations particularly in Finland’s peripheral regions. This paper investigates the emergence of an anti-mining movement in Ohcejohka, in northernmost Finland, in 2014–2015, and the ontological conflict manifested in the outside mapping of the land as “mineral rich” as well as the local people's various knowledges of the land as a lived place. By producing a holistic counter-mapping of their social, ancestral and meaningful landscape, the movement questioned the state’s and the company’s homogenising knowledge in the production of land and resources. While the reality-making effects of modern maps have previously been studied, the entanglements of such mappings in environmental conflicts with local ontological realities and knowledge spheres have not been extensively studied. This paper argues that rather than imposing a “one world ontology”, maps and mappings of land and resources are culmination points in environmental conflicts, where they become renegotiated, challenged and redefined in the local and dynamic enactments of reality.
  • Haavisto-Meier, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Food production in densely populated areas needs to adjust to the pivotal challenges of an increasing population and urbanization. Particularly, this applies for Africa, which will face the highest population growth of all continents within the next 30 years. This is why in the future peri-urban agroforestry is expected to play a more important role in this area of the world. Homegardens which are part of agroforestry systems are seen as one of the ways to improve people’s food security and nutrition security. For households fruit trees offer a variety for the daily diet. Besides the fact that fruits contain various vitamins and other nutrients which help to prevent diseases, selling fruits can additionally offer a source of income for some households. This study found out what kind of fruit tree species people are growing in their homegardens, in the peri-urban area of Dzivarasekwa (Harare), Zimbabwe. The study investigated how households use fruits whether they sell them or use them as a part of daily nutrition. The material was collected by interviewing local people in their homegardens in the fall of 2015. 34 interviews were conducted and 5 descriptive maps of homegardens were drawn. The study found in total 16 different fruit trees, from which the most common were mango, avocado, guava and peach. Also 4 different indigenous fruit tree species were grown in the homegardens. From the interviewed households all of them used fruits as a part of nutrition and eight households also sold fruits to get income. The strongest limiting factor in the cultivation of fruit trees was the small size of the homegardens. However, people would be interested to grow more fruit trees, even indigenous ones, if they had the seedlings available and enough space. People were also interested in better varieties if they would be available. The results show that fruit trees grown in the homegardens can produce fruits for the household for the daily diet all over the year. In addition, fruit sales can bring an extra income for the households.
  • Savikurki, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    While a situational analysis by an intervention research program CoS-SIS was being conducted in Lawra and Nadowli regions in Northern Ghana, it was noticed that some farms performed differently: they had more animals, better market off-take or they employed uncommon practices. This raised an interest in this kind of behaviour; what kind of positive deviance exists and what enables it? The objective of this study was to gain understanding on enabling factors for better livelihood outcomes. Study design was a case study where positive deviant (PD) and commercial farmers were contrasted to regular farmers. Qualitative ethnographic methods were used in data collection. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with the main 12 PD informants. Recorded and transcribed data was analyzed by using thematic content analysis. The findings suggest that subsistence production is most common while commercial farming is rare. Recreational farming exists as well. Only commercials sell animals in sales purposes; commonly animals are sold only in need. The main constraints refer to animal mortality, stealing and lack of water. At the back of the problems there are insufficient service delivery and input dealing as well as farmers’ identity and attitudes towards animal rearing. Positive deviance manifests in larger animal holdings and areas in cultivation. This is attributed to the practices employed: PDs offer supplementary feeding, vaccinate and deworm the animals as well as house them for the night. The practices have been learned through neighbours and relatives as well as through extension and projects. Characteristics to PDs is an off-farm income source which enables investments in agriculture. It can be concluded that PD is about basic practices which have been learned from rather common sources. Creating an enabling environment for small ruminant production requires institutional changes as regards to farmers’ attitudes and service and input delivery. Local practices as responses to constraints would be suitable topics for further research.
  • Ruuska, Eeva Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The study contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya. It scrutinizes the land use and land cover change (LULCC) and deforestation; forest ecosystem services and vulnerability of natural and human systems; forest management and land tenure; sustainable land management, development and livelihoods; and woodfuel energy in a Kenya and in Africa. It is a case study from Dakatcha Woodland, an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity adjacent to the Kenyan coast. The local setting of Dakatcha Woodland; the relation of livelihoods, especially charcoal production, to the land cover change; and the environmental and socio-economic impact of land cover change in the study area, are studied in detail. The possibilities to promote sustainable development, livelihoods and ecosystem services in the area are reflected, too. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the planning of sustainable management of land and forests, and sustainable livelihoods of the local population in Dakatcha Woodland. Environment and its change affect biodiversity and ecosystems, and thus ecosystem services that all human beings rely upon. Weakened ecosystem services deteriorate the possibilities to have good living conditions and livelihoods. Dakatcha Woodland is experiencing both environmental and socio-economical problems due to uncontrolled clearance of hilltop Cynometra-Brachylaena forests for agriculture and for charcoal burning to meet the energy demands of both local population as well as to supply the nearby centres and towns. The main underlaying problems are poverty and lack of alternative income generating activities coupled with weak institutional framework and poor land tenure and management system. Drawing from a holistic research epistemology, the study resolves the study objectives with various methods. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide means to assess the land cover and thus the change in the state of environment. Combined with socio-economic data collected with methods often used in Development Geography they offer ways to assess the poverty-environment linkages and offer data to land and forest resource management planning. This study contributes to the existing local land cover data by analyzing four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011, and by forming a supervised land cover classification for those years, thus scrutinizing also the change in land cover. In-situ observation, household questionnaires (90 households were assessed in October 2010) and semi-structured expert interviews (2 from October 2010 and 3 from April 2011), add to literature review in order to reveal the significance of charcoal production to local livelihoods and environment. It was found that more than half of the 90 assessed households are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network is a complex entity that offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood) is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross-cutting issue, that ties together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and demands thus further research. The woodland areas are fragmenting and the relevance of the Important Bird Area (IBA) demarcation should be questioned because it was found that the IBA has lost woodland areas to agriculture and to woody vegetation land cover classes from 2005 to 2011. The land and forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the relevance of ecosystem services that the environment offers. Sustainable future for Dakatcha Woodland is possible, but changes are needed today.