Browsing by Subject "liver"

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  • Karppinen, Jutta (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    In vitro liver cell models are important systems to study for example hepatotoxicity, which is one of the major causes for safety-related failures of drug candidates. 2D cell culture-based tests for compound screening are standard procedures in drug discovery, but reliable data for in vivo studies is hard to obtain because cells in a monolayer are in unnatural microenvironment. In turn, cells in 3D culture systems have more natural interactions with other cells and extracellular matrix, and their responses to drugs resemble more in vivo responses. In drug discovery and development, automation of the cell culture processes and compound screening saves time and costs, and improves the consistency and sterility of the procedures. As 3D cell culture systems are becoming more compatible with automation, they are also more promising to be used in drug discovery and development. The aim of the study was to develop and optimize automated processes for preparing 3D cell cultures into 96-well plates. HepG2, a human liver cancer cell line, cultures in nanofibrillar cellulose were prepared into well plates manually or by using automated liquid handling system. To our knowledge, this was the first time that automated processes for cell seeding into NFC were used to prepare 3D cell cultures. Cell seeding steps that could be automated were identified and optimized based on visual analysis of the wells and viability of the cells after seeding. After optimization, manual and automated processes were compared by studying cell viability, morphology and functionality. Alamar blue assay, Live/Dead assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to study cell viability, and F-actin staining, differential interference contrast microscopy and light microscopy were used to investigate cell morphology. Cell functionality was analyzed by studying albumin secretion. Cells seeded by using automation secreted normal amounts of liver-specific albumin. Cells maintained viability, morphology and functionality for four days after seeding although the results of viability varied. Alamar blue assays showed decreased development of viability although viability of manually seeded cells increased, but in other experiments the results from cultures seeded manually or by using automation were more similar. For example, lower viscosity of nanofibrillar cellulose and longer waiting time of cells at room temperature before automated processes are possible explanations for differences, as well as the natural variability in cell studies. In the future, automated high-throughput screening of compounds could be performed in 3D cell cultures prepared by using automation. That would save time and costs, and increase the correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies.
  • Harjumäki, Riina; Pridgeon, Chris S.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus (2021)
    CYP2E1 is one of the fifty-seven cytochrome P450 genes in the human genome and is highly conserved. CYP2E1 is a unique P450 enzyme because its heme iron is constitutively in the high spin state, allowing direct reduction of, e.g., dioxygen, causing the formation of a variety of reactive oxygen species and reduction of xenobiotics to toxic products. The CYP2E1 enzyme has been the focus of scientific interest due to (i) its important endogenous function in liver homeostasis, (ii) its ability to activate procarcinogens and to convert certain drugs, e.g., paracetamol and anesthetics, to cytotoxic end products, (iii) its unique ability to effectively reduce dioxygen to radical species causing liver injury, (iv) its capability to reduce compounds, often generating radical intermediates of direct toxic or indirect immunotoxic properties and (v) its contribution to the development of alcoholic liver disease, steatosis and NASH. In this overview, we present the discovery of the enzyme and studies in humans, 3D liver systems and genetically modified mice to disclose its function and clinical relevance. Induction of the CYP2E1 enzyme either by alcohol or high-fat diet leads to increased severity of liver pathology and likelihood to develop ALD and NASH, with subsequent influence on the occurrence of hepatocellular cancer. Thus, fat-dependent induction of the enzyme might provide a link between steatosis and fibrosis in the liver. We conclude that CYP2E1 has many important physiological functions and is a key enzyme for hepatic carcinogenesis, drug toxicity and liver disease.
  • Dayeh, Tasnim; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jansson, Per-Anders; de Mello, Vanessa D.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Vaag, Allan; Groop, Leif; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte (2016)
    Identification of subjects with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is fundamental for prevention of the disease. Consequently, it is essential to search for new biomarkers that can improve the prediction of T2D. The aim of this study was to examine whether 5 DNA methylation loci in blood DNA (ABCG1, PHOSPHO1, SOCS3, SREBF1, and TXNIP), recently reported to be associated with T2D, might predict future T2D in subjects from the Botnia prospective study. We also tested if these CpG sites exhibit altered DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets, liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic subjects. DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA was associated with an increased risk for future T2D (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P-value = 0.007, Q-value = 0.018), while DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood DNA was associated with a decreased risk for future T2D (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.95, P-value = 0.006, Q-value = 0.018) after adjustment for age, gender, fasting glucose, and family relation. Furthermore, the level of DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA correlated positively with BMI, HbA1c, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels, and was increased in adipose tissue and blood from the diabetic twin among monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood correlated positively with HDL levels, and was decreased in skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic monozygotic twins. DNA methylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg11024682 (SREBF1), and cg19693031 (TXNIP) was not associated with future T2D risk in subjects from the Botnia prospective study.
  • Pirinen, Jani (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Tutkimuksessa tutkittiin NR4A-ryhmän tumareseptoreiden määrän muutosta maksakudoksessa energiarajoituksen ja resveratrolin vaikutuksista. Tutkimus tehtiin hiirillä ja laboratoriomenetelmänä oli Western Blot. NR4A-tumareseptoriryhmään kuuluvat Nur77, Nurr1 ja NOR-1. Ne säätelevät useissa kudoksissa useita eri solunsisäisiä tapahtumia. Maksassa ne säätelevät eri metabolisia prosesseja, etenkin glukoneogeneesiä ja lipogeneesiä. Lipogeneesillä on merkitystä rasvamaksan syntyyn ja glukoneogeneesillä taas on merkitystä veren sokeripitoisuudelle ja lisääntynyt glukoneogeneesi on merkittävä tekijä Tyypin 2 Diabetes Mellitus-taudissa esiintyvän hyperglykemian kannalta. Saamiemme tulosten mukaan Nur77:n määrä nousee selvästi energiarajoituksen vaikutuksesta runsasrasvaista ravintoa syöneeseen kontrolliryhmään verrattuna. NOR-1:n määrä nousee selvästi suurella (4 g/kg) rehupitoisuudella resveratrolia. Nurr1:n tuloksissa ei löytynyt statistisesti merkittäviä eroja ryhmien välillä. Tulkintani mukaan resveratroli on potentiaalinen maksan rasvoittumisen estäjä ja glukoneogeneesiä lisäävä aine stimuloimalla NR4A-ryhmän tumareseptoreita maksassa. Täten resveratroli ei ainakaan hepatosyyttien NR4A-reitin kannalta selitä sitä tosiasiaa että resveratroli vähentää diabeettista hyperglykemiaa.
  • de Vos, Willem M.; Tilg, Herbert; Van Hul, Matthias; Cani, Patrice D. (2022)
    The gut microbiota is now considered as one of the key elements contributing to the regulation of host health. Virtually all our body sites are colonised by microbes suggesting different types of crosstalk with our organs. Because of the development of molecular tools and techniques (ie, metagenomic, metabolomic, lipidomic, metatranscriptomic), the complex interactions occurring between the host and the different microorganisms are progressively being deciphered. Nowadays, gut microbiota deviations are linked with many diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, intestinal bowel diseases (IBDs) and several types of cancer. Thus, suggesting that various pathways involved in immunity, energy, lipid and glucose metabolism are affected. In this review, specific attention is given to provide a critical evaluation of the current understanding in this field. Numerous molecular mechanisms explaining how gut bacteria might be causally linked with the protection or the onset of diseases are discussed. We examine well-established metabolites (ie, short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, trimethylamine N-oxide) and extend this to more recently identified molecular actors (ie, endocannabinoids, bioactive lipids, phenolic-derived compounds, advanced glycation end products and enterosynes) and their specific receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) and gamma (PPAR gamma), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and G protein-coupled receptors (ie, GPR41, GPR43, GPR119, Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). Altogether, understanding the complexity and the molecular aspects linking gut microbes to health will help to set the basis for novel therapies that are already being developed.
  • Heikelä, Hanna; Ruohonen, Suvi T.; Adam, Marion; Viitanen, Riikka; Liljenback, Heidi; Eskola, Olli; Gabriel, Michael; Mairinoja, Laura; Pessia, Alberto; Velagapudi, Vidya; Roivainen, Anne; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Strauss, Leena; Poutanen, Matti (2020)
    Hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 12 (HSD17B12) is suggested to be involved in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids. Previously, we have shown a pivotal role for the enzyme during mouse development. In the present study we generated a conditional Hsd17b12 knockout (HSD17B12cKO) mouse model by breeding mice homozygous for a floxed Hsd17b12 allele with mice expressing the tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase at the ROSA26 locus. Gene inactivation was induced by administering tamoxifen to adult mice. The gene inactivation led to a 20% loss of body weight within six days, associated with drastic reduction in both white (83% males, 75% females) and brown (65% males, 60% females) fat, likely due to markedly reduced food and water intake. Furthermore, the knockout mice showed sickness behavior and signs of liver toxicity, specifically microvesicular hepatic steatosis and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (4.6-fold in males, 7.7-fold in females). The hepatic changes were more pronounced in females than males. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were increased in the HSD17B12cKO mice indicating inflammatory response. Serum lipidomics study showed an increase in the amount of dihydroceramides, despite the dramatic overall loss of lipids. In line with the proposed role for HSD17B12 in the fatty acid elongation, we observed accumulation of ceramides, dihydroceramides, hexosylceramides and lactosylceramides with shorter than 18-carbon fatty acid side chains in the serum. The results indicate that HSD17B12 is essential for proper lipid homeostasis, and HSD17B12 deficiency rapidly results in fatal systemic inflammation and lipolysis in adult mice.
  • Jian, Ching; Kanerva, Sonja; Qadri, Sami; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Salonen, Anne (2022)
    Commercially available ELISAs for zonulin (pre-haptoglobin 2), a protein with tight junction regulatory activity in the epithelia, were recently shown to recognize other proteins that are structurally and functionally related to zonulin, termed zonulin family peptides (ZFPs). With little or no information about the identity and property of ZFPs, various commercial zonulin ELISA kits are widely utilized in research as a marker of intestinal permeability. Bacterial exposure is a known trigger for the secretion of zonulin, but it remains unclear whether distinct bacteria differ in their capability to stimulate zonulin secretion. We hypothesized that ZFPs are similar to zonulin regarding response to bacterial exposure and aimed to compare the effects of non-pathogenic, Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli RY13 and E. coli K12 DH5α) and probiotic, Gram-positive bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium bifidum) on ZFP secretion in an in vitro model. Additionally, utilizing samples from human clinical trials, we correlated circulating levels of ZFPs to the gut bacteria and determined the presence of ZFPs in various human tissues. Unexpectedly, we found that the ZFPs quantified by the widely used IDK® Zonulin ELISA kits are specifically triggered by the exposure to live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in HT-29 cells, associated with absolute abundances of intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in adults, and are copious in the small intestine but undetectable in the liver or adipose tissue. These characteristics appear to be different from zonulin and highlight the need for further characterization of ZFPs recognized by commercially available and widely used “zonulin” ELISAs.
  • Lindstedt, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a relatively rare hepatic condition that can be classified as predictable and unpredictable. However, DILI is a primary reason for drug withdrawals, post-marketing warnings, and restrictions of use. DILI is a problem for the drug users but also for the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory bodies. From the perspective of patients' and clinicians', DILI is the major cause of acute liver injury. At present, a major problem predicting DILI in drug discovery is a poor understanding of its mechanisms as well as the complexity of DILI pathogenicity. The main mechanism behind DILI are alterations in bile acid homeostasis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. More than 50 % of drugs causing DILI are causing mitochondrial impairment. If the normal function of mitochondria is disturbed, the energy production of the cell decreases, and cell function decline leading eventually to the cell death. In this study prediction of mitochondrial toxicity was studied using cryopreserved primary hepatocytes of humans and rats. The aim of the study was to clarify if there are interspecies differences in the prediction of toxicity but also investigate possible differences in the mechanisms behind hepatotoxicity by using three well-known compounds toxic to mitochondria. To determine these differences, total cellular ATP was measured after 2- and 24- hour exposure time to gain information on overall viability and possible adaptive responses. Mitochondrial energy pathways were studied as a real-time monitoring acute exposure of test compounds. Morphology, location, and possible adaptive response of mitochondria were studied using a fluorescent probe and antibody staining combined with high content imaging (HCI). Overall, primary rat hepatocytes were more sensitive to the test compounds than human hepatocytes. Also, there were differences between human hepatocyte batches that may reflect the metabolic differences between hepatocyte donors. Immunolabeling did not bring any additional values compared to the fluorescent probe staining in the study of morphology of mitochondria. Additionally, it was noticed that treatment with paraformaldehyde significantly changed the hepatocyte mitochondria morphology. Overall, more effort is needed to develop image analysis of mitochondria morphology. Finally, studying mitochondrial morphology has proven to be difficult, and this study did not unfortunately reveal any information about the adaptive responses of mitochondria for drug-induced liver injury.
  • Elbadri, Khalil (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    An increased attention has been drawn towards porous silicon (PSi) based materials for biomedical applications, due to their promising features demonstrated through several scientific studies. Here, we further investigated the biological responses of PSi nanoparticles (NPs) with different surface chemistries, including immunomodulatory effects, inflammation mitigation and biocompatibility. In this collaborative study, the PSi NPs were investigated both in vitro and in vivo, using different molecular biology and biochemistry techniques, e.g., qPCR, ELISA, cell sorting and cell viability assays. Our results showed the capabilities of these PSi NPs to relieve the inflammatory conditions, whereas significant decrease was recorded of pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Likewise, these PSi NPs revealed a considerable consumption aptitude of pro-inflammatory reactive oxygen species molecules. Administrating PSi NPs in an acute liver inflammation (ALI) model, showed no conspicuous influence on cellular viability. Thus, the outcome of this study demonstrates the potential biocompatibility of PSi nanomaterials, in addition to their outstanding features as potential candidates for further incorporating in ALI applications.
  • Calza, Giulio; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Mäkinen, Matias; Soliymani, Rabah; Cascone, Annunziata; Lindholm, Dan; Barborini, Emanuele; Baumann, Marc; Lalowski, Maciej; Eriksson, Ove (2018)
    Metformin is the first line drug for type 2 diabetes but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we have studied the acute effect of a therapeutically relevant intrahepatic concentration of metformin on glucose production from lactate. We selected the perfused rat liver as experimental system since it enables the complete control of drug dosage. We used MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) mass spectrometry imaging to estimate the concentration of metformin in the livers and we measured the concentration of glucose in the effluent medium under basal conditions and following lactate addition. MALDI mass spectra of thin-sections of freeze-clamped rat liver perfused with metformin showed a peak at 130.16 m/z which was unambiguously assigned to metformin. The mass spectrometric detection limit was at a tissue concentration of about 250 nM, and uptake of metformin from the perfusion medium to the liver occurred with a K-m of 0.44 mM. Metformin was evenly distributed in the liver irrespective of its concentration in the perfusion medium and the duration of a perfusion. At a parenchymal concentration of 30 mu M, metformin did not induce any significant suppression of the basal or lactate-induced glucose release from the liver. These results show that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging can be applied to estimate the tissue concentration and distribution of metformin in a therapeutically relevant micromolar concentration range. Our findings challenge the view that metformin causes an inhibition of glucose release from the liver by an acute inhibition of mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.5.3).
  • Mannisto, Ville T.; Simonen, Marko; Soininen, Pasi; Tiainen, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Kaminska, Dorota; Venesmaa, Sari; Kakela, Pirjo; Karja, Vesa; Gylling, Helena; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Pihlajamaki, Jussi (2014)
  • Jin, Long; Yu, Jian Ping; Yang, Zai Jun; Merilä, Juha; Liao, Wen Bo (2018)
    Hibernation is an effective energy conservation strategy that has been widely adopted by animals to cope with unpredictable environmental conditions. The liver, in particular, plays an important role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. Mammalian studies have revealed that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during the hibernation period. However, the differentiation in global gene expression between active and torpid states in amphibians remains largely unknown. We analyzed gene expression in the liver of active and torpid Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) using RNA-sequencing. In addition, we evaluated the differential expression of genes between females and males. A total of 1399 genes were identified as differentially expressed between active and torpid females. Of these, the expressions of 395 genes were significantly elevated in torpid females and involved genes responding to stresses, as well as contractile proteins. The expression of 1004 genes were significantly down-regulated in torpid females, most which were involved in metabolic depression and shifts in the energy utilization. Of the 715 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid males, 337 were up-regulated and 378 down-regulated. A total of 695 genes were differentially expressed between active females and males, of which 655 genes were significantly down-regulated in males. Similarly, 374 differentially expressed genes were identified between torpid females and males, with the expression of 252 genes (mostly contractile proteins) being significantly down-regulated in males. Our findings suggest that expression of many genes in the liver of B. gargarizans are down-regulated during hibernation. Furthermore, there are marked sex differences in the levels of gene expression, with females showing elevated levels of gene expression as compared to males, as well as more marked down-regulation of gene-expression in torpid males than females.
  • Eloranta, Katja; Nousiainen, Ruth; Cairo, Stefano; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Wilson, David B.; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Markku (2021)
    The neuropilins NRP1 and NRP2 are multifunctional glycoproteins that have been implicated in several cancer-related processes including cell survival, migration, and invasion in various tumor types. Here, we examine the role of neuropilins in hepatoblastoma (HB), the most common pediatric liver malignancy. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, RNA analysis and western blotting, we observed high level expression of NRP1 and NRP2 in 19 of 20 HB specimens and in a majority of human HB cell lines (HUH6 and five cell lines established from patient-derived xenografts) studied but not in normal hepatocytes. Silencing of NRP2 expression in HUH6 and HB-282 HB cells resulted in decreased cell viability, impaired cytoskeleton remodeling, and reduced cell motility, suggesting that NRP2 contributes to the malignant phenotype. We propose that neuropilins warrant further investigation as biomarkers of HB and potential therapeutic targets.
  • Leppäniemi, A. (2019)
    Background and aims: Today, a significant proportion of solid abdominal organ injuries, whether caused by penetrating or blunt trauma, are managed nonoperatively. However, the controversy over operative versus nonoperative management started more than a hundred years ago. The aim of this review is to highlight some of the key past observations and summarize the current knowledge and guidelines in the management of solid abdominal organ injuries. Materials and Methods: A non-systematic search through historical articles and references on the management practices of abdominal injuries was conducted utilizing early printed volumes of major surgical and medical journals from the late 19th century onwards. Results: Until the late 19th century, the standard treatment of penetrating abdominal injuries was nonoperative. The first article advocating formal laparotomy for abdominal gunshot wounds was published in 1881 by Sims. After World War I, the policy of mandatory laparotomy became standard practice for penetrating abdominal trauma. During the latter half of the 20th century, the concept of selective nonoperative management, initially for anterior abdominal stab wounds and later also gunshot wounds, was adopted by major trauma centers in South Africa, the United States, and little later in Europe. In blunt solid abdominal organ injuries, the evolution from surgery to nonoperative management in hemodynamically stable patients aided by the development of modern imaging techniques was rapid from 1980s onwards. Conclusion: With the help of modern imaging techniques and adjunctive radiological and endoscopic interventions, a major shift from mandatory to selective surgical approach to solid abdominal organ injuries has occurred during the last 30-50 years.
  • Pozharitskaya, Olga N.; Shikov, Alexander N.; Faustova, Natalya M.; Obluchinskaya, Ekaterina D.; Kosman, Vera M.; Vuorela, Heikki; Makarov, Valery G. (2018)
    Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide found in Fucus (F.) vesiculosus. The pharmacokinetic profiling of active compounds is essential for drug development and approval. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of fucoidan in rats after a single-dose oral administration. Fucoidan was isolated from F. vesiculosus. The method of measuring anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity by amidolytic assay was used to analyze the plasma and tissue concentrations of fucoidan. The tissue distribution of fucoidan after intragastric administration to the rats was characterized, and it exhibited considerable heterogeneity. Fucoidan preferentially accumulates in the kidneys (AUC(0-t) = 10.74 mu g.h/g; C-max = 1.23 mu g/g after 5 h), spleen (AUC(0-t) = 6.89 mu g.h/g; C-max = 0.78 mu g/g after 3 h), and liver (AUC(0-t) = 3.26 mu g.h/g; C-max = 0.53 mu g/g after 2 h) and shows a relatively long absorption time and extended circulation in the blood, with a mean residence time (MRT) = 6.79 h. The outcome of this study provides additional scientific data for traditional use of fucoidan-containing plants and offers tangible support for the continued development of new effective pharmaceuticals using fucoidan.
  • Pritchard, Victoria L.; Viitaniemi, Heidi M.; McCairns, R. J. Scott; Merila, Juha; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R.; Leder, Erica H. (2017)
    Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), an important model in the study of adaptive evolution. We collected transcriptomic and genomic data from 60 half-sib families using an expression microarray and genotyping-by-sequencing, and located expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) underlying the variation in gene expression in liver tissue using an interval mapping approach. We identified eQTL for several thousand expression traits. Expression was influenced by polymorphism in both cis- and trans-regulatory regions. Transe-QTL clustered into hotspots. We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. One observed hotspot colocated with a QTL recently found to underlie salinity tolerance in the threespine stickleback. However, most other observed hotspots did not colocate with regions of the genome known to be involved in adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater habitats.
  • Kavaluus, Henna; Seppälä, Tiina; Koivula, Lauri; Salli, Eero; Collan, Juhani; Saarilahti, Kauko; Tenhunen, Mikko (2020)
    Purpose of our research was to develop a four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method of liver. Requirements of the method were to create a clinical procedure with acceptable imaging time and sufficient temporal and spatial accuracy. The method should produce useful planning image sets for stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery both during breath-hold and in free breathing. The purpose of the method was to improve the localization of liver metastasis. The method was validated with phantom tests. Imaging parameters were optimized to create a 4D dataset compressed to one respiratory cycle of the whole liver with clinically reasonable level of image contrast and artifacts. Five healthy volunteers were imaged with T2-weighted SSFSE research sequence. The respiratory surrogate signal was observed by the linear navigator interleaved with the anatomical liver images. The navigator was set on head-feet - direction on the superior surface of the liver to detect the edge of diaphragm. The navigator signal and 2D liver image data were retrospectively processed with a self-developed MATLAB algorithm. A deformable phantom for 4D imaging tests was constructed by combining deformable tissue-equivalent material and a commercial programmable motor unit of the 4D phantom with a clinically relevant range of deformation patterns. 4D Computed Tomography images were used as reference to validate the MRI protocol. The best compromise of reasonable accuracy and imaging time was found with 2D T2-weighted SSFSE imaging sequence using parameters: TR = 500-550 ms, images/slices = 20, slice thickness = 3 mm. Then, image processing with number of respiratory phases = 8 constructed accurate 4D images of liver. We have developed the 4D-MRI method visualizing liver motions three-dimensionally in one representative respiratory cycle. From phantom tests it was found that the spatial agreement to 4D-CT is within 2 mm that is considered sufficient for clinical applications.
  • Barner-Rasmussen, Nina; Pukkala, Eero; Hadkhale, Kishor; Färkkilä, Martti (2021)
    Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a cancer arising from the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. The early stages are often asymptomatic, CCA is frequently diagnosed in an advanced stage and the prognosis of CCA is often dismal. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the incidence of CCA in Finland and to identify risk factors for CCA, with a special interest in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Methods: We identified all CCA cases during 1974-2018 from the Finnish Cancer Registry and calculated age-standardised incidence rates. Five controls for each case were extracted from the Population Registry, matched by age, gender and municipality of residence at the time of diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors were estimated with conditional logistic regression and survival estimates with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Incidence of CCA remained stable in both genders; the age-standardised rate (World Standard) in 2013-2017 in males and females was 1.7 per 100,000 person years and 1.3 per 100,000 person years, respectively. Primary sclerosing cholangitis carried a 30-fold risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) and 25-fold risk of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA). Diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and liver cirrhosis were associated with iCCA, whereas cholelithiasis and viral hepatitis C were associated with eCCA. The cumulative 5-year survival was 4.6%. Conclusions: The incidence of CCA has been stable. Known risk factors for CCA were confirmed, with PSC having the highest OR. Survival remains poor.