Browsing by Subject "logging"

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  • Lappi, Juha; Siitonen, Markku (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.
  • Rajakallio, Maria; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Muotka, Timo; Aroviita, Jukka (Blackwell, 2021)
    Journal of Applied Ecology 58: 7, 1523-1532
    1. Growing bioeconomy is increasing the pressure to clear-cut drained peatland forests. Yet, the cumulative effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on the biodiversity of recipient freshwater ecosystems are largely unknown. 2. We studied the isolated and combined effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on stream macroinvertebrate communities. We further explored whether the impact of these forestry-driven catchment alterations to benthic invertebrates is related to stream size. We quantified the impact on invertebrate biodiversity by comparing communities in forestry-impacted streams to expected communities modelled with a multi-taxon niche model. 3. The impact of clear-cutting of drained peatland forests exceeded the sum of the independent effects of drainage and clear-cutting, indicating a synergistic interaction between the two disturbances in small streams. Peatland drainage reduced benthic biodiversity in both small and large streams, whereas clear-cutting did the same only in small streams. Small headwater streams were more sensitive to forestry impacts than the larger downstream sites. 4. We found 11 taxa (out of 25 modelled) to respond to forestry disturbances. These taxa were mainly different from those previously reported as sensitive to forestry-driven alterations, indicating the context dependence of taxonomic responses to forestry. In contrast, most of the functional traits previously identified as responsive to agricultural sedimentation also responded to forestry pressures. In particular, taxa that live temporarily in hyporheic habitats, move by crawling, disperse actively in water, live longer than 1 year, use eggs as resistance form and obtain their food by scraping became less abundant than expected, particularly in streams impacted by both drainage and clear-cutting. 5. Synthesis and applications. Drained peatland forests in boreal areas are reaching maturity and will soon be harvested. Clear-cutting of these forests incurs multiple environmental hazards but previous studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystems. Our results show that the combined impacts of peatland drainage and clear-cutting may extend across ecosystem boundaries and cause significant biodiversity loss in recipient freshwater ecosystems. This information supports a paradigm shift in boreal forest management, whereby continuous-cover forestry based on partial harvest may provide the most sustainable approach to peatland forestry.
  • Koivula, M.; Niemelä, J. (Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), 2002)
  • Häkkilä, Matti; Savilaakso, Sini; Johansson, Anna; Sandgren, Terhi; Uusitalo, Anne; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Puttonen, Pasi (2019)
    Forest harvesting is the main driver of habitat degradation and biodiversity loss in forests of the boreal zone. To mitigate harmful effects, small-scale habitats with high biodiversity values have been protected within production forests. These include woodland key habitats, and other small-scale habitat patches protected by voluntary conservation action. This article describes a protocol for a systematic review to synthesize the value of small habitat patches left within production landscapes for biodiversity. The topic for this systematic review arose from a discussion with the Finnish forestry sector and was further defined in a stakeholder workshop. Research question: Do small protected habitat patches within production forests provide value for biodiversity conservation in boreal forests? Animal, plant and fungal diversities are addressed as well as the amount of deadwood within the habitat patches as proxy indicators for biodiversity.
  • Mälkönen, Eino (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1976)
  • Nousiainen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Rise in popularity of Cloud computing has introduced new challenges for IT-governance. The multitude of different services and possible configurations Cloud providers offer can make it hard to get a comprehensive overview of the environment. To successfully govern an organisations Cloud environment it is important to be able to easily make accurate and reliable observations of the environments state, security, and changes to the configurations. This thesis takes a look into the research literature to find out what kinds of risks have been identified in governing the Cloud environment and ways to mitigate them. One of the latest advancements in improving the Cloud governance is the introduction of automated formal reasoning tools for configuration analysis. One customer case where multiple vendors are building services on multiple cloud accounts is used as an example. Architecture for application, security, and audit log collection, indexing, and monitoring is described. Special attention is given to the identity and access management requirements. The thesis concludes with the assessment of the selected approach and tools and services used to implement it. Some alternative solutions, possible improvements, and further development to the implementation are considered.
  • Hakkila, Pentti (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1989)
    A review of logging in Finland in relation to new logging technology developed in Nordic countries to meet their own specific requirements and constraints (high salaries, costs of social security, strict ergonomic standards, specific logging conditions, predominance of private ownership, and strong environmental and conservation concerns). Logging technology is based typically on the log-length method and load-carrying forwarders.
  • Bergen, K. M.; Loboda, T.; Newell, J. P.; Kharuk, Vyacheslav I.; Hitztaler, S.; Sun, G.; Johnson, T.; Hoffman-Hall, A.; Ouyang, W.; Park, K.; Fort, C.; Gargulinski, E. (2020)
    As globally important forested areas situated in a context of dramatic socio-economic changes, Siberia and the Russian Far East (RFE) are important regions to monitor for anthropogenic land-use trends. Therefore, we compiled decadal Landsat-derived land-cover and land-use data for eight dominantly rural case study sites in these regions and focused on trends associated with settlements, agriculture, logging, and roads 1975-2010. Several key spatial-temporal trends emerged from the integrated landscape-scale analyses. First, road building increased in all case study sites over the 35-year period, despite widespread socio-economic decline post-1990. Second, increase in settlements area was negligible over all sites. Third, increased road building, largely of minor roads, was especially high in more rugged and remote RFE case study sites not associated with greater agriculture extent or settlement densities. High demands for wood export coupled with the expansion of commercial timber harvest leases starting in the mid-1990s are likely among leading reasons for an increase in roads. Fourth, although fire was the dominant disturbance over all sites and dates combined, logging exerted a strong land-use pattern, serving as a reminder that considering local anthropogenic landscapes is important, especially in Siberia and the RFE, which represent almost 10% of the Earth's terrestrial land surface. The paper concludes by identifying remaining research needs regarding anthropogenic land use in the region: more frequent moderate spatial resolution imagery and greater access to more finely resolved statistical and other spatial data will enable further research. Social media abstract Landsat reveals long-term anthropogenic land-use trends in Siberia and Russian Far East
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2019)
    Studia Fennica Anthropologica
  • Saarimäki, Aaro (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Lately the need to increase the amount of domestic logging has grown. That has been caused by a decrease in raw wood import. A big part of the extra logging potential is located on peatlands. Wintertime harvesting on peatlands cannot be increased since the logging equipment at that time of the year is already fully employed. That creates a need to be able to operate on peatlands year-round if the logging amounts are expected to grow significantly. With the existing average machinery and traditional equipment this is not possible. The traditional equipment for peatlands is only to mount wide steel tracks around the wheels. With this kind of equipment logging from soils with lowest bearing capacities is practically impossible if low amount of harvesting damages is expected. For logging on peatlands during the period of unfrozen ground new technical innovations are needed to decrease the surface pressure that a machine produces to the ground and to decrease its rut formation. For low rut formation there have been special machines for peatlands already for a long time but their productivity is too low for profitable logging. Since the use of special machines has been proven to be expensive, it seemed rational to focus on equipping a standard machine to perform better on peatlands and other soft soils. The main problem is to combine low rut formation and good productivity into the same machine. This is possible by adding low rut formation due to the new track system to the good productivity of a basic machine. The study was done by using constructive research method. The aim of the study was to find a good track system for a forwarder regarding low rut formation and other important properties for operating on low bearing capacity soils. First all the existing constructions were gathered and some new possible constructions were also brainstormed. From these constructions the one that seemed most potential was chosen for field testing. Support for the choice was sought by making an expert interview round. The results supported the arguments on which the choice was based on. In the field tests the test machine with the new track system and the comparison machine with the traditional track system both drove their own testing sectors which were estimated to be equal by conditions. The field test area was located in Ilomantsi and was a normal thinning site. The idea was to compare the rut formation of the track systems in real harvesting conditions that were mathematically equalized. The known factors that effect the bearing capacity were measured and their effect on the results was minimized by standardizing them mathematically. The calculations were executed by using multifactor regression analysis. The test machine caused less rut formation but the difference between the machines was quite small. There were some minor faults in the test machines properties and reliability but those are likely to be rather easily solved with some modifications to the track system.
  • Pesonen, Mauno; Kettunen, Arto; Räsänen, Petri (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1995)
    The factors affecting the non-industrial, private forest landowners' (hereafter referred to using the acronym NIPF) strategic decisions in management planning are studied. A genetic algorithm is used to induce a set of rules predicting potential cut of the landowners' choices of preferred timber management strategies. The rules are based on variables describing the characteristics of the landowners and their forest holdings. The predictive ability of a genetic algorithm is compared to linear regression analysis using identical data sets. The data are cross-validated seven times applying both genetic algorithm and regression analyses in order to examine the data-sensitivity and robustness of the generated models. The optimal rule set derived from genetic algorithm analyses included the following variables: mean initial volume, landowner's positive price expectations for the next eight years, landowner being classified as farmer, and preference for the recreational use of forest property. When tested with previously unseen test data, the optimal rule set resulted in a relative root mean square error of 0.40. In the regression analyses, the optimal regression equation consisted of the following variables: mean initial volume, proportion of forestry income, intention to cut extensively in future, and positive price expectations for the next two years. The R2 of the optimal regression equation was 0.34 and the relative root mean square error obtained from the test data was 0.38. In both models, mean initial volume and positive stumpage price expectations were entered as significant predictors of potential cut of preferred timber management strategy. When tested with the complete data set of 201 observations, both the optimal rule set and the optimal regression model achieved the same level of accuracy.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (2008)
    Pro gradu -työssäni pyrin selvittämään millä tavoilla Papua-Uuden-Guinean politiikka tulee esiin metsätaloudessa, jossa yhdistyvät kiinnostavalla tavalla perifeeriseksi mielletty Papua-Uuden-Guinean valtio, sen paikallisyhteisöt, ylikansalliset yritykset ja kansalaisjärjestöt. Keskeiset tutkimuskysymykset ovat minkälaista poliittista toimintaa hakkuut synnyttävät paikallisyhteisöissä ja miten hakkuut vaikuttavat valtion ja paikallisyhteisöjen keskinäisiin suhteisiin. Tutkielmani perustuu vuonna 2007 Papua-Uudessa-Guineassa (PUG), Itä-Uuden-Britannian maakunnassa sijaitsevassa kylässä tehtyyn kolmen kuukauden mittaiseen kenttätyöhön. Kylä, jonka asukkaat kuuluvat pääosin mengen-kansaan, oli kiinnostava kohde, sillä alueella oli asukkaiden suostumuksella hakattu metsää 1980-luvulta alkaen, ja toisaalta kylässä toimi paikallinen luonnonsuojeluyhdistys. Lisäksi kentällä ollessani PUG:ssa järjestettiin parlamenttivaalit. Kylässä ollessani osallistuin kylän elämään, haastattelin kyläläisiä ja kävin lukuisia epämuodollisia keskusteluja, seurasin vaalikampanjointia ja keskusteluja maankäytöstä. Tämän lisäksi haastattelin paikallisten kansalaisjärjestöjen työntekijöitä matkalla kylään ja sieltä pois. Tutkielmassani osoitan, että luonnonsuojelu kylässä liittyy laajemmin paikallisten ympäristön, kulttuurin ja itsemääräämisen suojeluun, ja on siten ns. lokalistinen poliittinen liike, jonka kannattajat ottavat aktiivisesti osaa myös PUG:n parlamenttipolitiikkaan. Myös hakkuita tukevat paikalliset ovat tiiviisti mukana niin yhteisön sisäisessä kuin parlamenttipolitiikassakin. Olen työssäni pyrkinyt purkamaan "paikallisen" käsitettä käsittelemällä yhteisön sisäisiä valtasuhteita, jakolinjoja ja eri näkökulmia, jotka pohjautuvat paikalliseen kulttuuriin. Tämän lisäksi hakkuut edistävät valtion asemaa Itä-Uudessa-Britanniassa. Yhtäältä valtio pyrkii käyttämään metsäyhtiöiden rakentamia metsäautoteitä oman kansallisen infrastruktuurinsa pohjana, vaikkakin yritysten luoma infrastruktuuri on useimmiten heikkolaatuista ja lyhytikäistä. Toisaalta hakkuiden aiheuttamat maakiistat ja yritysten väärinkäytökset myös luovat paikallisyhteisöissä tarpeen valtiolleja erityisesti oikeuslaitokselle. Keskeiset teemat työssäni ovat paikallisten ympäristöönsä liittämät merkitykset ja tavat, joilla he tuottavat ympäristönsä niin fyysisesti kuin käsitteelisestikin. Omavaraisviljelijöinä toimiville kyläläisille ympäristön tila on taloudellisesti tärkeä, minkä lisäksi ympäristöön liitetään monia merkityksiä; esim. yhteisön historia nähdään siinä. Vastaavasti myös valtio ja yritykset pyrkivät muokkaamaan, käsitteellistämään ja hallinnoimaan ympäristöä, mm. teiden ja kartoituksen avulla. Näissä yhteyksissä antropologinen keskustelu paikasta ja tilasta, kuin myös poliittinen maantiede ovat tärkeitä. Hakkuut ja eri tavat hahmottaa ympäristöä aiheuttavat kiistoja maanomistuksesta, minkä vuoksi käsittelen paikallisten tapoja hallinnoida maitaan kuin myös PUG:n maanomistuslainsäädäntöä. Maanomistus ja -kiistat ovat poliittisia kysymyksiä, joihin paikalliset joutuvat ottamaan kantaa, ja juuri maakiistat lisäävät mm. oikeuslaitoksen tarvetta. Osin kiistat synnyttävät myös poliittista toimintaa, jonka eri muotoja käsittelen työssäni. Paikalliset, poliittisista suuntauksistaan riippumatta, luovat myös yhteyksiä hyvin eri tason toimijoihin aina kansalaisjärjestöistä valtion eri virastoihin ja ulkomaisiin yrityksiin.
  • Kilkki, Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1968)
  • Snellman, Hanna (1999)
    The Finnish lumberjacks engaged in the felling and floating of timber also had ways of indicating their status in the community: their dress, kit and nicknames provided a clue to their skills and social status, and the work site observed an invisible social "town plan".4 The way people spoke and their use of time and space on the logging and floating work sites of Lapland were governed by many unwritten laws to which the new worker gradually became socialised. Here I wish to concentrate on one aspect of the manifestation of social identity, namely what members of the community could deduce from a person's outward appearance. What did a hat, scarf, trousers or kit bag say about their bearer? The group chosen for examination consists of loggers and floaters working in Finnish Lapland in the early 20th century. As my source material I have used interviews, oral history recorded in archives, works of literature and photographs. None of the sources give a clear indication of outward appearance; instead the information is hidden in references and clues that are difficult to find, as the social history written into subordinate clauses. My aim is thus to try to put together some overall picture from the details available.
  • Lönnstedt, Lars (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Eriksson, T.; Nilsson, G.; Skråmo, G. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)
  • Kröger, Antti Markus (2018)
    Deforestation has risen sharply in Brazil since 2012, and conservation areas are facing increased pressure. This article studies the rise of so-called sustainable', communitarian', and/or cooperative' logging schemes inside multiple-use conservation areas in the Amazon. The findings, based on fresh field research in Acre and Para, reveal conflicts, problems, and risks associated with logging schemes, although they are portrayed in the international timber trade as certified and socio-environmentally sustainable solutions that help conservation. However, the expansion of logging presents a danger for curtailing forest degradation, fires, and corruption that is linked to the fast returns from sale of timber, especially inside conservation areas that have been mostly intact until now. There is an urgent need to change the strategy of promoting logging as a key source of income for forest-dwellers, and a need to change the policies allowing the expansion of sustainable logging'.