Browsing by Subject "loneliness"

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  • Edgren, Robert (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives: This thesis examined the relationship between disordered gambling (DG) with mental health, loneliness, perceived general health, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and computer gaming frequency by age and gender among adolescents and emerging adults. Gambling types were also examined for their association to DG, mental health, loneliness, perceived health, risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking. DG is conceptualized as a behavioural addiction, and its development is influenced by the availability of gambling opportunities, prevalence of other addictive behaviours, and psychological well-being. Previous studies have indicated that specific types of gambling are more strongly associated to DG that others. The purpose of the present study was to identify the strength of the various risk factors of disordered gambling, examine whether specific risk factors are associated to certain gambling types and if there are age and gender related differences in regards to the associations between disordered gambling and its risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional population based random sample (n = 822, 49.3 % female) of individuals aged 15 to 28 from the self-reported Finnish Gambling Survey 2011 was utilized. DG was assessed with the Problem Gambling Severity Index, such that a score of 2 or more indicated DG. Mental health was measured with the five item Mental Health Inventory and risky alcohol consumption was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test -Consumption. The remainder of examined variables were assessed with single Likert-scaled items. The correlates of DG and gambling types were examined with logistic regression models. Results and conclusions: Male gender, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and frequently feeling lonely were significantly associated to DG. Slot machine gambling, online gambling other than poker, private betting, and casino betting were strongly associated to DG. The aforementioned gambling types were strongly associated to risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking along with sports betting. Feeling lonely was associated to online poker, casino betting and private betting. There were indications of gender differences in regards to the gambling types associated to feeling lonely. Risky alcohol consumption seemed to be a stronger risk factor for DG among males, and tobacco smoking stronger among females. Current findings warrant further investigation of DG in regards to loneliness, and reconsideration of national gambling policies.
  • Eestilä, Sari Tuuli Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In recent years, loneliness has been talked about in the media relatively often. There are multiple studies about harmfulness of loneliness for one's health and safety both nationally and internationally. The aim of this master's thesis is to find out how the loneliness discourse has changed in the Finnish parliamentary discussions and why. The main research questions are: How often has loneliness been brought up between the years 1980 and 2019 in the Finnish governmental documents and which actor groups and themes can be identified in the discussion. In addition, the thesis will look at by whom have the actor groups and themes been brought up. The data of this thesis are governmental documents: governmental proposals, expert opinions and debate initiatives. The used methods are both quantitative and qualitative. In the first part, the data is analyzed using quantitative content analysis, more specifically categorization. By processing the data this way, one gets an answer to the first two research questions: how often has loneliness been brought up and which actor groups and themes can be identified in the discussion. In the second part of the thesis, the findings are analyzed using narrative analysis as a qualitative method. This reveals what kind of narratives are linked to findings and in which context and by whom they have been brought up. In the third part of the thesis, there is a brief review on the wider Finnish (socio)political environment and how it might have affected the results. The most important findings in this thesis are that the loneliness discussion has increased and peaked only in the 2010s. The most often mentioned group is child loneliness. Loneliness as a subjective feeling is relatively new topic in the parliamentary discussions. It started to emerge only in the 2000s and peaked after 2015. In the 2000s, organizations used the prevention of loneliness as an argument to get funding or to justify the importance of their work. This proves that in the 2000s loneliness had become something that is considered harmful. Security is a new viewpoint in the loneliness discussion: in 2010s it has started to emerge in the media as a security problem, partly because of school shootings and radical lone operators. In the 2020, the Finnish Security and Intelligence Service (Supo) mentions that lone operators are among the biggest security threats in Finland. While the demands towards the state has increased, loneliness in the Parliament has always been talked about through something else, or as a "side effect" of another problem.
  • Tiilikainen, Elisa; Seppanen, Marjaana (2017)
    Using a qualitative approach, this article examines how the experiences of emotional loneliness are embedded in the everyday lives and relationships of older adults. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 with older people who reported feeling lonely, often or all the time, during a cohort study in southern Finland. The research reveals the multifaceted nature of loneliness and its causes. Behind emotional loneliness, we identified lost and unfulfilled relationships, involving the loss or lack of a partner, the absence of a meaningful friendship, complex parenthood and troubling childhood experiences. Most of the interviewees have faced loneliness that only began in old age, but for some, loneliness has been present for nearly a lifetime.
  • Lahti, Anna-Maria; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Salonen, Minna; Wasenius, Niko; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B. (2021)
    Senior houses provide social interaction and support, potentially supporting older people's physical and mental functioning. Few studies have investigated functioning of senior house residents. The aim was to compare functioning between senior house residents and community-dwelling older adults in Finland. We compared senior house residents (n = 336, 69% women, mean age 83 years) to community-dwelling older adults (n = 1139, 56% women, mean age 74 years). Physical and mental functioning were assessed using the SF 36-Item Health Survey. Loneliness and frequency of social contacts were self-reported. The analyses were adjusted for age, socioeconomic factors and diseases. Physical functioning was lower among men in senior houses compared to community-dwelling men (mean 41.1 vs. 46.4, p = 0.003). Mental functioning or the frequency of social contacts did not differ between type of residence in either sex. Loneliness was higher among women in senior houses compared to community-dwelling women (OR = 1.67, p = 0.027). This was not observed in men. Results suggest that women in senior houses had similar physical and mental functioning compared to community-dwelling women. Male senior house residents had poorer physical functioning compared to community-dwelling men. Women living in senior houses were lonelier than community-dwelling women despite the social environment.
  • Gustafsson, Jasmine (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Mental health problems are increasing, and adolescents are particularly sensitive to the development of psychological complaints. The aim of this thesis was to find out if the experience of psychological complaints among Finnish-Swedish adolescents can be explained by their experience of family support, peer support, classmate support and loneliness. It was also examined whether associations between social support and psychological complaints can be explained by loneliness. In addition, it was investigated if there are differences in experiences of psychological complaints, social support and loneliness between Finnish-Swedish youth living in the city and in the countryside. A sample of 599 Finnish-Swedish youth from grades 5, 7 and 9 completed the Health Survey of School-aged Children (HBSC) in 2018. As statistical analysis methods of this thesis, Spearman's rank correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, mediation analysis, independent t-test and chi2 test were used. The results showed that family support and classmate support significantly and negatively predicted psychological complaints, that is, lower levels of family and classmate support was associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Loneliness predicted psychological complaints significantly and positively, which means that higher levels of loneliness was associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Peer support was not directly related to psychological complaints. Girls experienced psychological complaints to a significantly greater extent than boys according to several analyzes, and one of the analyzes also indicated that pupils in grade 9 experienced significantly higher levels of nervousness than pupils in grade 5. Among pupils in grades 7 and 9, those who lived in rural areas experienced more irritability or bad mood than those living in urban areas. Perceived socioeconomic status predicted psychological complaints significantly and negatively among pupils in grades 7 and 9. According to the results, the relationship between social support from family, peers and classmates, and psychological complaints could partly be explained by loneliness. There were no significant differences between Finnish-Swedish youth living in cities and those living in rural areas in terms of psychological complaints, social support or loneliness when pupils from all three grades were included in the analyzes. This thesis contributes to new knowledge about the well-being of Finnish-Swedish youth and could encourage development of health-promoting activities. Longitudinal research is needed in order to gain a deeper understanding of whether lower levels of social support and experiences of loneliness may be risk factors for the development of mental health problems.
  • Koski, M.; Naukkarinen, H. (2017)
    Background: Obesity has a multifaceted etiology that involves genetic, biological and behavioral factors, body growth, eating habits, energy expenditure and the function of adipose tissue. The present study aimed to expand upon knowledge about the relationships among obesity, emotions and eating habits in severely obese individuals using a case-control method. Methods: The subject group consisted of 112 individuals (81 females and 31 males) receiving a permanent disability pension primarily for obesity. The control subjects were randomly selected from the same area and were receiving a disability pension for a different primary illness. The controls were matched with the subjects by the place of residence, sex, age, the time since the pension was granted and occupation. Psychiatric interviews were conducted on all participants. The results were analyzed using the chi-squared test (X2-test) and the percent distribution. The subject and control groups were compared using the t-test for paired variables. Conditional logistic regression analysis was also conducted. Results: The emotional state of eating was significantly associated with quarrels and feelings of loneliness. The subjects suffered from night eating syndrome, which was associated with an increased risk of early retirement. Binge eating syndrome was observed more frequently in the study group. The subjects reported feeling increased hunger compared with the controls. A significant percentage of the subjects had a body mass index of≥40. No differences in eating habits were observed between the groups. Conclusion: This study provides information on the relationship between emotions and eating habits in obesity, which is a rarely studied topic. We believe that our study provides a novel and necessary overview of the associations among severe obesity, emotions and eating habits. © The Author(s).
  • Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Paek, Hye-Jin (2020)
    Background: In the ever-growing and technologically advancing world, an increasing amount of social interaction takes place through the Web. With this change, loneliness is becoming an unprecedented societal issue, making youth more susceptible to various physical and mental health problems. This societal change also influences the dynamics of addiction. Objective: Employing the cognitive discrepancy loneliness model, this study aimed to provide a social psychological perspective on youth addictions. Methods: A comprehensive survey was used to collect data from American (N=1212; mean 20.05, SD 3.19; 608/1212, 50.17% women), South Korean (N=1192; mean 20.61, SD 3.24; 601/1192, 50.42% women), and Finnish (N=1200; mean 21.29, SD 2.85; 600/1200, 50.00% women) youths aged 15 to 25 years. Perceived loneliness was assessed with the 3-item Loneliness Scale. A total of 3 addictive behaviors were measured, including excessive alcohol use, compulsive internet use, and problem gambling. A total of 2 separate models using linear regression analyses were estimated for each country to examine the association between perceived loneliness and addiction. Results: Loneliness was significantly related to only compulsive internet use among the youth in all 3 countries (P Conclusions: The findings reveal existing differences between youths who spend excessive amounts of time online and those who engage in other types of addictive behaviors. Experiencing loneliness is consistently linked to compulsive internet use across countries, although different underlying factors may explain other forms of addiction. These findings provide a deeper understanding in the mechanisms of youth addiction and can help improve prevention and intervention work, especially in terms of compulsive internet use.