Browsing by Subject "long-term care"

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  • Salminen, K. S.; Suominen, M. H.; Soini, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Savikko, N.; Saarela, R. K. T.; Muurinen, S.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2019)
    ObjectivesWe evaluated the associations between nutritional status and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) among older long-term care residents in Helsinki.Design and participantsAll 3767 older (65 years) long-term care residents in Helsinki in 2017 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. After refusals and exclusions of residents without sufficient information, 2160 residents remained.MeasurementsData on characteristics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA) and HRQoL (15D) were collected by trained nurses.ResultsOf the participants, 64% were at-risk of malnutrition and 18% suffered from malnutrition. Residents in the malnourished group were more dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) functioning, suffered more often from dementia, had lower cognitive level, used less medications, and were eating more often inadequately. HRQoL was statistically significantly associated with MNA total score in both female and male residents. There was a curvilinear correlation between MNA and 15D score in females: 0.50 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.53) and males: 0.56 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.61). In partial correlation analysis, all dimensions of 15D, except for sleeping and breathing, were positively associated with MNA score. In these analyses no significant differences emerged between males and females when the results were adjusted for age and dementia.ConclusionsNutrition plays an important role in HRQoL among older long-term care residents.
  • Salminen, K. S.; Suominen, M. H.; Kautiainen, H.; Roitto, H. M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2019)
    Our aim was to investigate how energy intake modifies the association of the stage of dementia with health related quality of life (HRQoL) among institutionalized older people. A cross-sectional sample of 538 older long-term care residents with dementia in Helsinki, Finland were assessed with HRQoL (15D), energy intake (from one to two days), and the stage of dementia by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. The energy intakes were standardized by z-scores to include both men and women in the same analyses. Severity of dementia was associated with HRQoL (15D index in CDR 0.5-1: 0.65 (0.11), CDR 2: 0.60 (0.10), CDR 3: 0.52 (0.10)). When the three groups of dementia severity were divided according to their energy intake quartiles, there was an association between the HRQoL and the stage of dementia (p <0.001) and energy intake (p = 0.013); however, no interaction was observed (p = 0.30). While partial correlation analysis showed that energy intake correlated with HRQoL among residents with very mild/mild or moderate dementia, this was not observed among those with severe dementia. In moderate dementia, the dimensions of mobility and usual activities correlated significantly with higher energy intake. Both energy intake and severity of dementia are associated with HRQoL.
  • Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Aalto, Ulla L.; Ohman, Hannareeta; Laurila, Jouko; Pitkala, Kaisu H. (2019)
    Objectives: The use of psychotropic drugs in long-term care (LTC) is very common, despite their known adverse effects. The prevalence of opioid use is growing among older adults. This study aimed to investigate trends in the prevalence of psychotropics, opioids, and sedative load in a LTC setting over a 14-year period. We also explored the interaction of psychotropic and opioid use according to residents' dementia status in nursing home (NH) and assisted living facility (ALF) settings. Design: Four cross-sectional studies. Setting: Institutional settings in Helsinki, Finland. Participants: Older residents in NHs in 2003 (n = 1987), 2011 (n = 1576), and 2017 (n = 791) and in ALFs in 2007 (n = 1377), 2011 (n = 1586), and 2017 (n = 1624). Measures: Comparable assessments were conducted among LTC residents at 4 time points over 14 years. The prevalence of regular psychotropics, opioids, and other sedatives and data on demographics and diagnoses were collected from medical records. Results: Disabilities and severity of dementia increased in both settings over time. The prevalence of all psychotropics decreased significantly in NHs (from 81% in 2003 to 61% in 2017), whereas in ALFs there was no similar linear trend (65% in 2007 and 64% in 2017). There was a significant increase in the prevalence of opioids in both settings (30% in NHs and 22% in AFLs in 2017). Residents with dementia used less psychotropics and opioids than those without dementia in both settings and at each time point. Conclusions/Implications: NHs show a favorable trend in psychotropic drug use, but the rates of psychotropic use remain high in both NHs and ALFs. In addition, the rates of opioid use have almost tripled, leading to a high sedative load among LTC residents. Clinicians should carefully consider the risk-to-benefit ratio when prescribing in LTC. (C) 2018 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Valkohaapa, Anna-Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In Finland the elderly residents of long-term care facilities are often prescribed a lot of medications, especially psychotropic drugs. It also happens that a patient or a resident has to be physically or chemically restrained. Chemical restraining can be defined in many ways, for example as using a drug - usually an antipsychotic - to restrict the freedom or movement of a patient and to control his or her behavior. In nursing homes the staff is in a key position when it comes to deciding on the use of chemical restraining or PRN medication. A legislation to guarantee the self-determination of a patient and to define how physical restraining can be used is now being prepared in Finland. Only a few studies on chemical restraining from a nurses' point of view have been made so far. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide more information on the level of knowledge, the attitudes and perceptions of nurses regarding chemical restraining and the effect of those on deciding whether to use chemical restraints or not. Three focus groups with nurses were conducted in Hyvinkää nursing homes (n=13). The groups were recruited both by e-mail and directly from the wards. The focus group discussions were digitally audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The content of the transcripts was then analyzed using a constant comparative method. According to the study most of the antipsychotics used in long-term care were used daily. However, it is not uncommon for the nurses to be unsure about their knowledge on the use of medicines. It is thus important to help the nursing staff to increase their knowledge and skills in pharmacology. The nurses also wished to get extra training for treating people with dementia. The concept of chemical restraining is quite ambiguous, and the use of chemical restraints is a complex ethical issue because the reasons for and effects of administering it vary depending on the situation. The study shows that the chemical restraining is most often considered justified when it is used to ensure the safety of a patient, relieve anxiety or to keep the working conditions of the staff tolerable. Also a shortage of manpower and a request by the family can influence the decision on using chemical restraints. The lack of proper common guidelines causes confusion and wide variation in the use of chemical restraints. Many interviewees were hoping for more open discussion and cooperation on using chemical restraining. The nurses also mentioned many alternatives to rely on instead of using chemical restraints, such as soothing, comforting and creating a safe feeling for the patients, daily routines and stimulus. One of the key factors for taking to these instead of chemical restraints are the manpower resources in the facilities. Educating the staff can also help them to find more options for chemical restraining and make staff members recognize new or remember forgotten routines for caring for the patients without using psychotropic drugs.
  • Oura, Riki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Masticatory ability depends on occlusal status and bite force. No method to diagnose the impairment of masticatory function (MF) in older adults exists. Objectives: We determined MF using five signs. In addition, we examined the relationship between MF and the need for daily assistance in older adults living in long-term care (LTC). Methods: A comprehensive clinical oral examination was conducted on 393 residents who lived in LTC in Helsinki, Finland. In addition, nurses collected background information on residents using a questionnaire and medical records. The status of MF was determined with five signs: mouth dryness, visible food residue on oral or denture surfaces, ability to keep the mouth open during the examination, clearness of speech, and diet of pureed or soft food. MF score points of 0-2 were given according to the level of impairment indicated by each sign and categorized as 0-3 no, 4-6 moderate, and 7-10 severe impairment. Participants were divided into three groups accordingly. Residents' need for daily assistance was assessed based on three activities: maintaining oral hygiene, movement, and eating. The level of cognition was also determined. Results: Of participants, 20.7% showed severe and 40.8% moderate impairment of MF. Impaired MF was associated with cognitive disease and increased need for assistance with daily activities. Conclusions: MF score based on the five symptoms can be used to determine impairment of MF. Impairment was common and associated with dementia and need for daily assistance in older adults living in LTC.
  • Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Öhman, Hannareeta; Salminen, Karoliina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Laurila, Jouko; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2020)
    Objectives: Falls and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common among long-term care residents with cognitive impairment. Despite the high prevalence of falls and NPS, little is known about their association. The aim of our study was to explore how NPS, particularly the severity of NPS and specific NPS subgroups, are associated with falls and how psychotropics modify this association. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and Participants: In total, 532 long-term care residents aged 65 years or older in Helsinki, Finland. Methods: NPS were measured with Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) at baseline. Participants were grouped into 3 groups: no significant NPS (NPI points 0-3), low NPS burden (NPI 4-12), and high NPS burden (NPI >12). The number of falls, injuries, fractures, and hospitalizations were collected from medical records over 12 months following baseline assessment. Results: Altogether, 606 falls occurred during the follow-up year. The falls led to 121 injuries, 42 hospitalizations, and 20 fractures. Falls and injuries increased significantly with NPS burden (P <.001): 330 falls in the high NPS group (n = 184), 188 falls in the low NPS group (n = 181), and 88 falls in the no significant NPS group (n = 167). The risk of falling showed a curvilinear association with NPI total score. Of NPS subgroups, psychosis and hyperactivity were associated with a higher incidence rate ratio of falls, whereas apathy had a protective association even after adjustment for age, sex, and mobility. Affective symptoms were not associated with falls. Psychotropics did not modify the association between NPS burden and falls. Conclusions and Implications: The results of this study show that NPS, especially NPS severity, may predict falls and fall-related negative consequences. Severity of NPS should be taken into account when assessing fall risk in long-term care residents with cognitive impairment. (C) 2020 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Oura, Riki; Mäntylä, Päivi; Saarela, Riitta; Hiltunen, Kaija (2022)
    Background Oral hypofunction (OHF) is related to occlusal status and bite force. It has specific symptoms and varying degrees of severity. Objectives OHF was determined with five signs. The relationships between OHF and need for assistance in oral hygiene, moving, eating and occlusal status in older adults living in long-term care (LTC) were examined. Methods A comprehensive clinical oral examination was conducted on 393 residents who lived in LTC in Helsinki, Finland. The five signs to determine OHF were mouth dryness, visible food residue on oral or denture surfaces, ability to keep the mouth open during examination, clearness of speech, and diet of pureed or soft food. Score points of 0-2 were given for each sign, and the sum was categorised as mild, moderate or severe OHF. Participants were divided into three groups accordingly, and occlusal status was determined based on contact units. In addition, nurses collected background information on number of medications and level of cognition. Need for assistance was based on oral hygiene, moving and eating. Results Of participants (n = 319), 21% showed severe and 41% moderate OHF. Occlusal status differences between the OHF groups were significant. OHF severity associated linearly with increased severity of cognitive impairment and increased need for assistance in oral hygiene, eating and moving. Conclusions OHF score based on the five signs can be used to determine OHF severity. OHF was common and associated with occlusal status, cognitive impairment and need for assistance in oral hygiene, moving and eating in older adults living in LTC.
  • Forma, Leena Päivikki; Aaltonen, Mari; Raitanen, Jani; Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Kalseth, Jorid (2020)
    Aims: This study aimed to find out how place of death varied between countries with different health and social service systems. This was done by investigating typical groups (concerning age, sex and end-of-life trajectory) of older people dying in different places in Finland and Norway. Methods: The data were derived from national registers. All those who died in Finland or Norway at the age of ⩾70 years in 2011 were included. Place of death was analysed by age, sex, end-of-life trajectory and degree of urbanisation of the municipality of residence. Two-proportion z-tests were performed to test the differences between the countries. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed separately for both countries to find the factors associated with place of death. Results: The data consisted of 68,433 individuals. Deaths occurred most commonly in health centres in Finland and in nursing homes in Norway. Deaths in hospital were more common in Norway than they were in Finland. In both countries, deaths in hospital were more common among younger people and men. Deaths in nursing homes were commonest among frail older people, while most of those who had a terminal illness died in health centres in Finland and in nursing homes in Norway. Conclusions: Both Finland and Norway have a relatively low share of hospital deaths among older people. Both countries have developed alternatives to end-of-life care in hospital, allowing for spending the last days or weeks of life closer to home. In Finland, health centres play a key role in end-of-life care, while in Norway nursing homes serve this role.
  • Aalto, Ulla L.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Öhman, H.; Roitto, H.-M.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2021)
    Objectives Anticholinergic burden defined by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS) has been associated with cognitive and functional decline. Associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between anticholinergic burden and HRQoL among older people living in long-term care. Further, we investigated whether there is an interaction between ARS score and HRQoL in certain underlying conditions. Design and participants Cross-sectional study in 2017. Participants were older people residing in long-term care facilities (N=2474) in Helsinki. Measurements Data on anticholinergic burden was assessed by ARS score, nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment, and HRQoL by the 15D instrument. Results Of the participants, 54% regularly used ARS-defined drugs, and 22% had ARS scores >= 2. Higher ARS scores were associated with better cognition, functioning, nutritional status and higher HRQoL. When viewing participants separately according to a diagnosis of dementia, nutritional status or level of dependency, HRQoL was lower among those having dementia, worse nutritional status, or being dependent on another person's help (adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities). Significant differences within the groups according to ARS score were no longer observed. However, interactions between ARS score and dementia and dependency emerged. Conclusion In primary analysis there was an association between ARS score and HRQoL. However, this relationship disappeared after stratification by dementia, nutritional status and dependency. The reasons behind the interaction concerning dementia or dependency remain unclear and warrant further studies.
  • Aalto, Ulla L.; Rantsi, Mervi; Juola, Anna-Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2022)
    Objective To investigate the effect of an educational intervention of nursing staff on change in psychotropic use and related costs among older long-term care residents. Design A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled intervention study with 12 months of follow-up. Setting Assisted living facilities in Helsinki, Finland. Subjects Older (>= 65 years) residents (N = 227) living in assisted living facility wards (N = 20) in Helsinki in 2011. Intervention The wards were randomized into two groups. In one group, the nursing staff received training on appropriate medication therapy and guidance to recognize potentially harmful medications and adverse effects (intervention group); in the other group, the nursing staff did not receive any additional training (control group). Main outcome measures Change of psychotropic use counted as relative proportions of WHO ATC-defined daily doses (rDDDs) among older long-term care residents. In addition, the change in drug costs was considered. Comparable assessments were performed at 0, 6, and 12 months. Results A significant decrease in both rDDDs and the cost of psychotropics was observed in the intervention group at 6 months follow-up. However, at 12 months, the difference between the intervention and control group had diminished. Conclusions Educational training can be effective in reducing the doses and costs of psychotropics. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether long-term effects can also be achieved by various educational interventions. Registration number ACTRN 12611001078943
  • Lamppu, Pauli J.; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kautiainen, Hannu; Laurila, Jouko V.; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2021)
    Context. Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents have unmet needs in end-of-life and symptom care. Objectives. This study examines the effects of an end-of-life care staff training intervention on LTCF residents' pain, symptoms, and psychological well-being and their proxies' satisfaction with care. Methods. We report findings from a single-blind, cluster randomized controlled trial featuring 324 residents with end-of-life care needs in 20 LTCF wards in Helsinki. The training intervention included four 4-hour educational workshops on palliative care principles (advance care planning, adverse effects of hospitalizations, symptom management, communication, supporting proxies, challenging situations). Training was provided to all members of staff in small groups. Education was based on constructive learning methods and included participants' own resident cases, role-plays, and small-group discussions. During a 12-month follow-up we assessed residents' symptoms with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), pain with the PAINAD instrument and psychological well-being using a PWB questionnaire. Proxies' satisfaction with care was assessed using the SWC-EOLD. Results. The change in ESAS symptom scores from baseline to 6 months favored the intervention group compared with the control group. However, the finding was diluted at 12 months. PAINAD, PWB, and SWC-EOLD scores remained unaffected by the intervention. All follow-up analyses were adjusted for age, gender, do-not-resuscitate order, need for help, and clustering. Conclusion. Our rigorous randomized controlled trial on palliative care training intervention demonstrated mild effects on residents' symptoms and no robust effects on psychological well-being or on proxies' satisfaction with care. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.
  • Munkejord, Mai Camilla; Ness, Tove M.; Gao, I-An (2021)
    Recruiting migrant live-in carers has become the main strategy to address the rapid increase in the number of older persons with intensive care needs in many parts of the developed world. This is also the case in northern Taiwan, where this study took place. Thirteen live-in carers from Indonesia and the Philippines were interviewed in the fall of 2019. In this article, we discuss their two main coping strategies: a) “accepting destiny”, which refers to carers accepting their life and viewing their role as a live-in carer as a job that allowed them to meet their parents’ expectations of financial support; and b) “connecting to significant others”, which is the most important way carers found motivation to keep going. However, despite their coping strategies, working as a live-in carer was experienced as a challenging and precarious lifestyle. In the conclusion, we discuss how professional social workers in collaboration with decision-makers and non-governmental organizations in Taiwan could contribute to fostering a system that would support live-in carers in ways that allow them, and the older persons they care for, to thrive.