Browsing by Subject "longitudinal study"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 26
  • Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L. Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2018)
    Background: Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. Objective: This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Methods: Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Results: Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score >= 1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95% CI 2.7; 31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95% CI 2.9; 34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Conclusion: Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. (c) 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenström, Tom; Gluschkoff, Kia; Saarinen, Aino; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    Sociability is a widely studied trait that has been linked both with individual well-and ill-being. Although early childcare has been shown to affect social competence in children, its role in the development of different aspects of adulthood sociability is poorly understood. Using a longitudinal population-based sample (N = 464), this study investigated whether childcare arrangements at ages 3 or 6 are associated with self-reported adulthood sociability at ages 20 to 35 years. A total of five aspects of sociability were measured using three well-established personality inventories (EAS, NEO-FFI, and TCI). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine the association between early care and adulthood sociability, adjusting for several sources of random variation (between-individual variance, within-individual variance between measurement times, variance between used sociability indicators, and error variance that cannot be attributed to the previously mentioned) and potential confounders (disruptive behavior in childhood, parental socio-economic status, parent-child relationship quality, maternal age, and the number of children in the family). Based on our results, in comparison to home care, family daycare and center-based daycare at age 3 and center-based daycare at age 6 were associated with higher sociability later in life. The association was strongest for aspects of sociability that emphasize the willingness to be surrounded by other people and to be attached to them. In other words, characteristics of early care may contribute uniquely to the development of these aspects of sociability with effects that persist into adult life
  • Koivuhovi, Satu; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Kalalahti, Mira; Niemivirta, Markku (2019)
    This study examined changes in pupils' agency beliefs and control expectancy from grade four to grade six, and whether they were associated with studying in a class with a special emphasis on a subject as compared to studying in a class without emphasis. After controlling for the effects of mother's education, prior school achievement, and gender, we found that the average pattern of change varied for different action-control beliefs, and that class membership did not moderate these changes. Mother's education, pupils' prior school achievement, and gender all predicted class membership, but their effects on action-control beliefs varied depending on the type of belief. Implications for educational policy will be discussed.
  • Hiidensalo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objective This study explores if and how quality of child-parent relationship and parental socio-economical-status predict psychological maturity in adulthood, operationalized as higher levels of desirable traits and as temporal profile stability. Further it examines if more desirable traits in 2007 are correlated with higher temporal profile stability 2007–2012. Methods This prospective two-generation study used data from the population-based Young Finns Study. Study sample consisted of 1403 participants, aged 3–18 years at baseline in 1980. Quality of parent–child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance was self-rated by parents in 1980. Personality was assessed in 2007 and 2012 using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Overall and distinctive profile stability were analyzed with intrapersonal correlations. Associations between childhood environment and psychological maturity were examined using simple and standard multiple linear regressions. Results and conclusions Higher quality of child–parent relationship in terms of emotional warmth predicted psychological maturity when defined as more desirable traits. Parental SES predicted both forms of profile stability. More desirable traits in 2007 correlated only with overall stability, not with distinctive stability. The results show that early childhood environment is associated with psychological maturity especially when defined as desirable traits, but to a lesser degree when defined as temporal profile stability.
  • Hirvonen, Eveliina; Stepanov, Mikhael; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Lindqvist, Ari; Laitinen, Tarja (2019)
    Introduction: Smoking has a significant impact on the development and progression of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Self-reported questionnaires and structured interviews are usually the only way to study patients' smoking history. In this study, we aim to examine the consistency of the responses of asthma and COPD patients to repeated standardised questions on their smoking habits over the period of 10 years. Methods: The study population consisted of 1329 asthma and 959 COPD patients, who enrolled in the study during years 2005-2007. A follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the participants 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years after the recruitment. Results: Among the participants who returned three or more questionnaires (N = 1454), 78.5 % of the patients reported unchanged smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker or current smoker) across the time. In 4.5% of the answers, the reported smoking statuses were considered unreliable/conflicting (first never smoker and, later, smoker or ex-smoker). The remainder of the patients changed their status from current smoker to ex-smoker and vice versa at least once, most likely due to struggling with quitting. COPD patients were more frequently heavy ex- or current smokers compared to the asthma group. The intraclass coefficient correlations between self-reported starting (0.85) and stopping (0.94) years as well as the consumption of cigarettes (0.74) over time showed good reliability among both asthma and COPD patients. Conclusion: Self-reported smoking data among elderly asthma and COPD patients over a 10-year follow-up is reliable. Pack years can be considered a rough estimate for their comprehensive consumption of tobacco products over time. We also observed that the questionnaire we used was not designed for dynamic changes in smoking which are rather common among heavy smokers especially when the follow-up time is several years, as in our study.
  • Honkanen, Tuomas; Mäntysaari, M.; Leino, Tuomo; Avela, J.; Kerttula, L.; Haapamäki, V.; Kyröläinen, Heikki (2019)
    Background: A small cross sectional area (CSA) of the paraspinal muscles may be related to low back pain among military aviators but previous studies have mainly concentrated on spinal disc degeneration. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to investigate the changes in muscle CSA and composition of the psoas and paraspinal muscles during a 5-year follow up among Finnish Air Force (FINAF) fighter pilots. Methods: Study population consisted of 26 volunteered FINAF male fighter pilots (age: 20.6 (±0.6) at the baseline). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were collected at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. CSA and composition of the paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the levels of 3-4 and 4-5 lumbar spine. Maximal isometric strength tests were only performed on one occasion at baseline. Results: The follow-up comparisons indicated that the mean CSA of the paraspinal muscles increased (p <0.01) by 8% at L3-4 level and 7% at L4-5 level during the 5-year period. There was no change in muscle composition during the follow-up period. The paraspinal and psoas muscles' CSA was positively related to overall maximal isometric strength at the baseline. However, there was no association between LBP and muscle composition or CSA. Conclusions: The paraspinal muscles' CSA increased among FINAF fighter pilots during the first 5 years of service. This might be explained by physically demanding work and regular physical activity. However, no associations between muscle composition or CSA and low back pain (LBP) experienced were observed after the five-year follow-up. © 2019 The Author(s).
  • Junna, Liina; Moustgaard, Heta; Martikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Poor mental health among the unemployed-the long-term unemployed in particular-is established, but these associations may be driven by confounding from unobserved, time-invariant characteristics such as past experiences and personality. Using longitudinal register data on 2,720,431 residents aged 30-60 years, we assessed how current unemployment and unemployment history predict visits to specialized care due to psychiatric conditions and self-harm in Finland in 2008-2018. We used linear ordinary-least-squares and fixed-effects models. Prior to adjusting for time-invariant characteristics, current unemployment was associated with poor mental health, and the risk increased with longer unemployment histories. Accounting for all time-invariant characteristics with the fixed-effects models, these associations attenuated by approximately 70%, yet current unemployment was still associated with a 0.51 (95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.53) percentage-point increase in the probability of poor mental health among men and women. Longer unemployment histories increased the probability among men in their 30s but not among older men or among women. The results indicate that selection by stable characteristics may explain a major part of the worse mental health among the unemployed and especially the long-term unemployed. However, even when controlling for this selection, current unemployment remains associated with mental health.
  • Kosola, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives – Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB), also referred to as neonatal jaundice, can alter child’s neurodevelopment, and thus significantly increase infant’s risk for severe neurological disability. Although the majority of neonatal HB cases benign, there are several cases where bilirubin levels grow alarmingly and remain elevated, eventually causing permanent physical harm and frequently altering the development of central nervous system. Research on the long-term effects of HB has been lacking: the follow-ups have been relative short, and there are not many studies focusing on how neonatal HB might influence neurocognition in later adulthood (> 30 year of age). The aim of this study is to further investigate the association between neonatal HB and later cognitive performance in adulthood by using data from over 40-year-long Finnish follow-up study. Methods – In a longitudinal prospective study, data were collected from 125 subject who had experienced neonatal HB and from 77 controls. Cognitive performance was assessed at age of 40 by using various previously validated methods designed to assess executive function and attention, memory, verbal functions, and visuo-perceptual functions. Four factors were formed for neuropsychological variables: Cognitive flexibility, Visual memory and perception, Verbal memory, and Reading. In addition, all subjects had performed WAIS-IV assessments. Data from these assessments were used to create four new factors – Verbal comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, and Processing Speed – reflecting different cognitive areas. Also, Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) was included. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relation between HB-classification and neuropsychological variables. Differences between the groups were further studied by pair-wise comparisons using t-test, after which Mann–Whitney-U test was used to take into account moderate to highly skewed distributions of the variables. Effects of different HB levels on later neurocognition was studied by using linear regression, where sex, mother’s age at birth, and mother’s education level were controlled. Results – Neonatal HB was associated with slower performance in Cognitive Flexibility, and with lower performance in Perceptual Reasoning and in FSIQ. Highest measured neonatal bilirubin levels within HB group had a linear effect on Verbal Comprehension at age of 40; however, the effect was not found in other cognitive domains. Conclusions – Neonatal HB has effect on performance in FSIQ at age of 40 years. In addition, it was associated with both poorer Perceptual Reasoning and slower Cognitive Flexibility. Results might be due to perceptual reasoning’s high vulnerability to neuronal damage and to difficulty of compensating perceptual biological limitations with learning. Since the measured neonatal bilirubin levels within HB group was associated only with lower performance in Verbal Reasoning in this study, it could be concluded that after reaching the inclusion criteria the excess level of bilirubin was no longer significant influence on severity of the outcome.
  • Lindfors, Pirjo; Minkkinen, Jaana; Rimpelä, Arja; Hotulainen, Risto (2018)
    Research on the associations between family and school social capital, school burnout and academic achievement in adolescence is scarce and the results are inconclusive. We examined if family and school social capital at the age of 13 predicts lower school burnout and better academic achievement when graduating at the age of 16. Using data from 4467 Finnish adolescents from 117 schools and 444 classes a three-level multilevel analysis was executed. School social capital, the positive and supportive relationships between students and teachers, predicted lower school burnout and better academic achievement among students. Classmates' family social capital had also significance for students' academic achievement. Our results suggest that building school social capital is an important aspect of school health and education policies and practices.
  • Nakane, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. Maternal diabetes during the pregnancy increases the risk of pregnancy complications, but the effects of maternal diabetes on offspring cognition are less understood. Earlier studies have mainly associated the adverse effects of maternal diabetes with slight deficits in general cognitive and verbal functions in young children. Despite the earlier studies, it is unclear, does maternal diabetes per se affect cognitive development in children and adult offspring. The offspring with several developmental risks seem to be more prone to the adverse effects of maternal diabetes than offspring without the other concomitant risks. The aim of this study was to examine is maternal diabetes associated to lowered offspring general cognitive function in childhood and midlife, when the other concomitant perinatal risks occurred or either did not occur. A hypothesis was that maternal diabetes is associated to lowered general cognitive function only in children who had the other concomitant perinatal risks. Another aim was to explore is there a time related change in the risk groups. Methods. This study is a part of a prospective birth-cohort study originating in Helsinki region that follows 1971 to 1974 born risk group offspring. Out of 22,359 consecutive deliveries at the Institute of Midwifery during that time, 93 offspring had mother's diabetes obtained during the pregnancy or before it. Of the offspring with maternal diabetes, 59 had maternal diabetes as the only risk, and 34 had at least another predefined concomitant risk. General cognitive function in the subjects and controls was assessed by Wechsler Intelligence Scales at 9 and 40 years as a part of the wider neuropsychological examination. Differences between the groups were examined by group and pairwise comparisons. Longitudinal changes in general cognitive function in each group were estimated by fitting the linear multilevel models. Results and conclusions. Findings of the present study were controversial to the hypothesis. Both risk groups, with and without other concomitant risks, had lower general and verbal function in childhood than controls. At midlife, no effect of maternal diabetes was found. The results indicated that general cognitive function and acquired verbal information improved at least in the risk group with the other concomitant risks. Otherwise performance remained relatively same.
  • Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2019)
    A successful transition from university to working life requires that graduates are able to employ their education and academic competences in real working-life contexts. Our previous research showed that graduates varied in how they were able to reflect on their competences at the time of graduation. The present longitudinal mixed-method study follows the same graduates and explores their evaluations of the usefulness of university education and career success, three years after graduation. The follow-up data consisted of 57 graduates' survey answers analysed by quantitative and qualitative methods. The results showed that graduates who were able to describe and evaluate more competences at the time of graduation perceived their current jobs to correspond more to their education. Graduates with more limited evaluations of their competences, on the other hand, had experienced more challenges related to employment and were more uncertain of their goals. The results also showed that having diverse competences and an ability to recognise them at the time of graduation is important for later career success and may also be related to what kind of challenges graduates face in working life.
  • Pankakoski, Maiju; Heinavaara, Sirpa; Sarkeala, Tytti; Anttila, Ahti (2017)
    Objective: Regular screening and follow-up is an important key to cervical cancer prevention; however, screening inevitably detects mild or borderline abnormalities that would never progress to a more severe stage. We analysed the cumulative probability and recurrence of cervical abnormalities in the Finnish organized screening programme during a 22-year follow-up. Methods: Screening histories were collected for 364,487 women born between 1950 and 1965. Data consisted of 1 207,017 routine screens and 88,143 follow-up screens between 1991 and 2012. Probabilities of cervical abnormalities by age were estimated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations methodology. Results: The probability of experiencing any abnormality at least once at ages 30-64 was 34.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.3-34.6%). Probability was 5.4% (95% CI: 5.0-5.8%) for results warranting referral and 2.2% (95% CI: 2.0-2.4%) for results with histologically confirmed findings. Previous occurrences were associated with an increased risk of detecting new ones, specifically in older women. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of women experience at least one abnormal screening result during their lifetime, and yet very few eventually develop an actual precancerous lesion. Re-evaluation of diagnostic criteria concerning mild abnormalities might improve the balance of harms and benefits of screening. Special monitoring of women with recurrent abnormalities especially at older ages may also be needed.
  • Hagfors, Heli; Castren, Sari; Salonen, Anne H. (2022)
    Background and aims: The aims were to examine how socio-demographics and gambling behavior relate to both primary and additional gambling motives, and whether the gambling motives change during a one-year-period. Methods: The Finnish Gambling Harms Survey data was used. Gambling motives were measured with a categorical question. Gambling severity was measured using the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Using the first-wave data including only past-year gamblers (n = 5,684), five logistic regression models were utilized to explore the associations of gambling motives with socio-demographics and gambling behavior. The stability of gambling motives was assessed with McNemar's test using longitudinal data (n = 2,078). Results: Gambling for positive feeling was associated with younger age, high income, high gambling involvement and at-risk gambling. Monetary motive was associated with female gender, high gambling involvement, online or mixed-mode and at-risk gambling. Supporting worthy causes was associated with older age, monthly and weekly gambling, and land-based gambling. Socializing was associated with younger age and gambling occasionally on land-based venues with multiple game types. Finally, the motive to escape was intensified among 25-34-year-olds, homemakers, and those with high gambling involvement and at-risk or problem gambling. Gambling motives remained relatively stable for one year. Discussion and conclusions: Gender and age profiles varied in different motives. Positive feeling, socializing and escape motive was heightened among younger respondents while supporting worthy causes was heightened among the oldest. Women gambled for money more often than men. Escape motive was associated with problem gambling. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm the longitudinal results.
  • Kokkinen, Lauri; Kouvonen, Anne; Buscariolli, André; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari (2019)
    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate sickness absence due to mental disorders in human service occupations. Methods: Participants (n = 1,466,100) were randomly selected from two consecutive national 9-year cohorts from the Statistics Finland population database; each cohort represented a 33% sample of the Finnish population aged 25-54 years. These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on receipt of sickness allowance, drawn from a national register maintained by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, using personal identification numbers. Results: Sociodemographic-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for sickness absence due to mental disorders in all human service occupations combined were 1.76 for men (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-1.84) and 1.36 for women (95% CI, 1.34-1.38) compared with men and women in all other occupations, respectively. Of the 15 specific human service occupations, compared with occupations from the same skill/education level without a significant human service component, medical doctors, psychologists, and service clerks were the only occupations with no increased hazard for either sex, and the HRs were highest for male social care workers (HR 3.02: 95% CI, 2.67-3.41). Conclusions: Most human service occupations had an increased risk of sickness absence due to mental disorders, and the increases in risks were especially high for men. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Heikkonen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Reciprocal interaction between a parent and a child can face many challenges due to preterm birth. Not only is the preterm infant developmentally immature for social interaction, but also the parent may find it challenging to interact with the preterm child. Even though the preterm child would greatly benefit from parents’ support, it can be difficult for an anxious parent to support a child adequately, further harming the development of the preterm child. The aim of the current study was to examine how maternal anxiety after preterm birth affects later interaction between parents and the preterm child and the development of the preterm child at 2–3 years of age. Also, the associations between interaction and screen time and child’s development were examined. Methods. Participants of the study were 27 preterm children who were born at 30,20 (±2,27) weeks of gestation. Mothers assessed their anxiety after the preterm birth with a STAI -self valuation questionnaire at the time of the gestational age of 35 and 40 weeks. Later at the 2–3 year follow-up mothers, fathers or both parents estimated interaction with a questionnaire that examined the amounts of language and music actions at home and child’s screen time. Also, child’s development was assessed with Bayley-III. The associations were examined with Pearson correlation and Spearman order correlation coefficients. Results and conclusions. The results show that maternal anxiety after preterm birth is acutely very common and half of the mothers were moderately anxious. When anxiety seemed more chronic instead of short-lived, maternal anxiety after preterm birth was associated with less interaction at 2-3 years of age. In homes of less anxious mothers, parents and children’s siblings played more music and premature children spent more time watching television or otherwise spending time with smart devices than in the homes of more anxious mothers. In this study, the higher amount of child’s screen time was associated with poorer socio-emotional development. Screen time’s effect on socio-emotional development can be even more harmful with prematurely born children since they often suffer from developmental deficits and challenges in reciprocal interaction. Even though it seems that less anxious mothers mean well and want to offer more stimuli for their preterm children, they may not help the child by offering him or her more screen time. The results add to previous knowledge about screen time’s associations with poorer socio-emotional development for the first time with preterm children.
  • Reijonen, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tavoitteet. Tässä tutkimuksessa oli tavoitteena tutkia, miten 5- ja 9- vuotiaiden lasten lyhytkestoisen muistin toimintaa mittaavat testien tulokset ovat yhteydessä aikuisena 40- vuotiaiden työmuistisuoriutumiseen sekä visuaaliseen ja verbaaliseen päättelykykyyn. Tutkimuskysymykset olivat: 1) Miten lapsuuden auditiivisen ja visuaalisen sarjamuistin tehtävissä suoriutuminen on yhteydessä aikuisuuden auditiivisverbaaliseen työmuistisuoriutumiseen? 2) Miten lapsuuden auditiivisen ja visuaalisen sarjamuistin tehtävissä suoriutuminen on yhteydessä työmuistisuoriutumiseen, jossa informaatiota manipuloidaan? 3) Miten lapsuuden auditiivisen ja visuaalisen sarjamuistin tehtävissä suoriutuminen on yhteydessä aikuisuuden kielelliseen ja visuaaliseen päättelykykyyn? Menetelmät. Tutkimusaineistona oli Kognition pitkäaikaistutkimus (KOPUTUS), jossa oli vuosina 1971- 1974 syntyneitä syntymäriskiryhmiin kuuluvia lapsia sekä kontrolliryhmä. Tähän tutkimukseen otettiin mukaan 5-, 9-, ja 40- vuotiaiden tutkimustulokset (N=301). Lapsuudessa tutkittavat suorittivat lasten kommunikaatiota ja kielellisiä kykyjä mittaavan The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA)- testin. Muuttujiksi valittiin lyhytkestoista muistia mittaavat testit: visuaalinen sarjamuisti ja auditiivinen sarjamuisti. Aikuisuudessa tutkittavat suorittivat WAIS- IV:n, josta muuttujiksi valittiin työmuistia mittaava perusosatehtävä Numerosarjat sekä kielellisen ja visuaalisen päättelyn indeksit (VCI ja PRI). Taustamuuttujiksi tutkimukseen otettiin tutkittavien oma korkein koulutus, äidin korkein koulutus ja turvapisteet 9- vuotiaana. Tutkimustulokset analysoitiin rakenneyhtälömallien avulla. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tulokset osoittivat, että 5- vuoden ikäisten ja 9- vuoden ikäisten auditiivisen lyhytkestoisen muistin suoriutumiset erikseen ennustivat aikuisuuden työmuistisuoriutumista. Lisäksi 9- vuoden ikäisten auditiivisella lyhytkestoisella muistilla voitiin ennustaa myös monimutkaisempaa työmuistin toimintaa. Visuaalisella lyhytkestoisella muistilla lapsuudessa taas voitiin ennustaa visuaalista päättelykykyä aikuisena. Tuloksista voidaan päätellä, että lasten lyhytkestoisen muistin tutkiminen on tärkeää, koska sillä voidaan ennustaa aikuisuuden työmuistin toimintaa ja visuaalisen tiedon käsittelyä sekä mahdollisia heikentymiä näissä varhain.
  • Moustgaard, Heta; Avendano, Mauricio; Martikainen, Pekka (2018)
    Parental unemployment is associated with worse adolescent mental health, but prior evidence has primarily been based on cross-sectional studies subject to reverse causality and confounding. We assessed the association between parental unemployment and changes in adolescent psychotropic medication purchases, with longitudinal individual-level fixed-effects models that controlled for time-invariant confounding. We used data from a large, register-based panel of Finnish adolescents aged 13–20 years in 1987–2012 (n = 138,644) that included annual measurements of mothers’ and fathers’ employment and offspring psychotropic medication purchases. We assessed changes in the probability of adolescent psychotropic medication purchases in the years before, during, and after the first episode of parental unemployment. There was no association between mother’s unemployment and offspring psychotropic purchases in the fixed-effects models, suggesting this association is largely driven by unmeasured confounding and selection. By contrast, father’s unemployment led to a significant 15%–20% increase in the probability of purchasing psychotropic medication among adolescents even after extensive controls for observed and unobserved confounding. This change takes at least 1 year to emerge, but it is long-lasting; thus, policies are needed that mitigate the harm of father’s unemployment on offspring’s mental well-being.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas Juho Eero; Laakkonen, Juha Tapio; Jernvall, Jukka Tapani (2016)
    Longitudinal sampling for intestinal microbiota in wild animals is difficult, leading to a lack of information on bacterial dynamics occurring in nature. We studied how the composition of microbiota communities changed temporally in free-ranging small primates, rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). We marked and recaptured mouse lemurs during their mating season in Ranomafana National Park in southeastern mountainous rainforests of Madagascar for 2 years and determined the fecal microbiota compositions of these mouse lemurs with MiSeq sequencing. We collected 160 fecal samples from 71 animals and had two or more samples from 39 individuals. We found small, but statistically significant, effects of site and age on microbiota richness and diversity and effects of sex, year, and site on microbiota composition, while the within-year temporal trends were less clear. Within-host microbiota showed pervasive variation in intestinal bacterial community composition, especially during the second study year. We hypothesize that the biological properties of mouse lemurs, including their small body size and fast metabolism, may contribute to the temporal intraindividual-level variation, something that should be testable with more-extensive sampling regimes.
  • Jokela, Markus (2022)
    Several studies have associated religiosity with better mental health, but these studies have only partially addressed the problem of confounding. The present study pooled data from multiple cohort studies with siblings to examine whether associations between religiosity and mental health are confounded by familial factors (i.e., shared family background and siblings' shared genetics). Data were collected between 1982 and 2017. Mental health was assessed with self-reported psychological distress (including depressive symptoms) and psychological well-being. Religious attendance was associated with lower psychological distress (standard-deviation difference between weekly vs. never attendance, B = -0.14, confidence interval (CI): -0.19, -0.09; n = 24,598 pairs), and this was attenuated by almost half in the sibling analysis (B = -0.08, CI: = -0.13, -0.04). Religious attendance was also related to higher well-being (B = 0.29, CI: = 0.14, 0.45; n = 3,728 pairs), and this estimate remained unchanged in sibling analysis. Results were similar for religiousness. The findings suggest that previous longitudinal studies may have overestimated the association between religiosity and psychological distress, as the sibling estimate was only one-third of the previously reported meta-analytical association (standardized correlation -0.03 vs. -0.08).
  • Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Aro, Hillevi (2003)
    Background: Few longitudinal studies have attempted to identify risk factors in mid-adolescence for subsequent depression in young adulthood. Mid-adolescence is a critical developmental phase for studying vulnerability to depression due to high incidence and prevalence of depression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, following an urban Finnish community cohort (761 males and 887 females) from age 16, mid-adolescent risk factors for depression at age 22 years were studied. Data were collected by a questionnaire at school at age 16, and by a postal questionnaire at age 22. Results: Of the females 116 (13%) and of the males 69 (9%) had depression (S-BDI) in young adulthood. In multivariate analyses baseline depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with academic achievement, problems with the law, poor atmosphere at home and having no close friends predicted subsequent depression. Risk factors for males included more 'externalizing' aspects, for females more 'internalizing' factors. Conclusions: Mid-adolescence is an important age to study risk for depression, and self-reported perceptions of psychosocial well-being have predictive value. Preventive efforts can be selectively targeted at adolescents who have been exposed to identifiable risk factors. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.