Browsing by Subject "longitudinal"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 22
  • Mannerström, Rasmus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    It has been suggested that dual-cycle models of identity formation do not fit well with Erikson’s identity theory and the identity status paradigm due to 1) contradictory statuses, 2) problems with discerning past exploration and 3) ambiguity or limitations of the life domains covered. The present study extended the Dimensions for Identity Development Scale (DIDS) with three additional dimensions suggested previously, examined identity profiles and their transitions over time, their links with psychological well-being and what life domain was associated with “future plans” (N=1294; T1: age=17, 60% female; T2: age=18, 65% female). The results showed that 1) the eight-dimensional model fit the data well longitudinally; 2) six previously reported profiles emerged at both time points with expected links to psychological well-being; 3) as previously speculated, individuals in the (early) closure status had undertaken identity exploration in the past; 4) the previously encountered high commitment-high exploration status (i.e., searching moratorium) seems to be “superficially committed”; and 5) future plans are commonly associated with work life/occupation. Future research would benefit from employing qualitative research to better understand the subjective meanings attached to high commitment-high exploration and by developing new ways to account for quality and different levels of commitment.
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja; Vinni-Laakso, Janica; Hietajärvi, Lauri (2021)
    This longitudinal study examined school engagement and burnout profiles among early and middle adolescents before and during COVID-19, and within-class latent change and stability in students' socio-emotional skills the profiles. The longitudinal data were collected in fall 2019 and 2020 from 1381 5th to 6th, and 1374 7th to 8th grade students. Using repeated measures latent profile analyses based on school engagement and burnout we identified five study well-being change profiles in both samples showing structural similarity: normative (53% sample 1; 69% sample 2), moderate-decreasing (4%; 5%), high-decreasing (17%; 10%), low-increasing (6%;7%) and moderate-increasing (20%; 10%) groups. The groups with increasing study well-being showed simultaneous increase in intrapersonal socio-emotional competencies but showed less changes in interpersonal outcomes.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Latvala, Antti (2019)
    Aims To estimate birth cohort effects on alcohol consumption and abstinence in Finland and to test differences between birth cohorts in genetic and environmental sources of variation in Finnish adult alcohol use. Design The Older Finnish Twin Cohort longitudinal survey study 1975-2011. Setting Finland. Participants A total of 26 121 same-sex twins aged 18-95 years (full twin pairs at baseline n = 11 608). Measurements Outcome variables were the quantity of alcohol consumption (g/month) and abstinence (drinking zero g/month). Predictor variables were 10-year birth cohort categories and socio-demographic covariates. In quantitative genetic models, two larger cohorts (born 1901-20 and 1945-57) were compared. Findings Multi-level models in both sexes indicated higher levels of alcohol consumption in more recent birth cohorts and lower levels in earlier cohorts, compared with twins born 1921-30 (all P < 0.003). Similarly, compared with twins born 1921-30, abstaining was more common in earlier and less common in more recent cohorts (all P < 0.05), with the exception of men born 1911-20. Birth cohort differences in the genetic and environmental variance components in alcohol consumption were found: heritability was 21% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-56%] in the earlier-born cohort of women [mean age 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 5.3] and 51% (95% CI = 36-56%) in a more recent cohort (mean age 60.2, SD = 3.7) at the age of 54-74. For men, heritability was 39% (95% CI = 27-45%) in both cohorts. In alcohol abstinence, environmental influences shared between co-twins explained a large proportion of variation in the earlier-born cohort (43%, 95% CI = 23-63%), whereas non-shared environmental (54%, 95% CI = 39-72%) and additive genetic influences (40%, 95% CI = 13-61%) were more important among more recent cohorts of men and women. Conclusion The contribution of genetic and environmental variability to variability in alcohol consumption in the Finnish population appears to vary by birth cohort.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Honda, Yukiko; Oksman, Elli; Raitakari, Olli; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    This study investigated whether breastfeeding predicts offspring’s dispositional compassion and empathy from early adulthood to middle age. The parents of the participants (N = 1,394) of the Young Finns study answered questions about breastfeeding in 1983, and the participants’ compassion and empathy were evaluated in 1997‒2012 (participants were aged 20‒50 years). Breastfeeding did not predict the course of compassion or empathy in adulthood at the age of 20‒50 years. The associations remained non‐significant, when adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic factors, and a wide range of characteristics of the family environment (including mother’s gestational age; premature birth; birth weight; number of other children at home; parental mental disorder; parental relationship status; parental postnatal smoking; parental postnatal alcohol use; parenting behavior; and child’s externalizing behavior). In conclusion, breastfeeding seems not to predict offspring’s compassion or empathy in adulthood. The findings may present a hopeful perspective for children growing up with non‐breastfeeding caregivers.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Halonen, Jaana I.; Sivertsen, Borge; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background: Despite injustice at the workplace being a potential source of sleep problems, longitudinal evidence remains scarce. We examined whether changes in perceived organizational justice predicted changes in insomnia symptoms. Methods: Data on 24 287 Finnish public sector employees (82% women), from three consecutive survey waves between 2000 and 2012, were treated as 'pseudo-trials'. Thus, the analysis of unfavourable changes in organizational justice included participants without insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, with high organizational justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 6307). In the analyses of favourable changes in justice, participants had insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, low justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 2903). In both analyses, the outcome was insomnia symptoms in Wave 3. We used generalized estimating equation models to analyse the data. Results: After adjusting for social and health-related covariates in Wave 1, unfavourable changes in relational organizational justice (i.e. fairness of managerial behaviours) were associated with increased odds of developing insomnia symptoms [odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.30]. A favourable change in relational organizational justice was associated with lower odds of persistent insomnia symptoms (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.96). Changes in procedural justice (i.e. the fairness of decision-making procedures) were not associated with insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: These data suggest that changes in perceived relational justice may affect employees' sleep quality. Decreases in the fairness of managerial behaviours were linked to increases in insomnia symptoms, whereas rises in fairness were associated with reduced insomnia symptoms.
  • Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena (2017)
    Objective: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. Method: We used data from three cohorts with different measurements of depression exposures and subsequent violent outcomes. In a Dutch community cohort Research on Adolescent Development And Relationships (RADAR; N = 623) and a population-based British birth cohort Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 4,030), we examined the longitudinal links between adolescent depressive symptoms and violent behaviors from age 13 to 17 years. In a total Finnish birth cohort (FBC 1987; N = 57,526), we estimated risk of violent convictions in individuals clinically diagnosed with depression from age 15 to 27 years. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of violent behaviors per unit of increase in depressive symptoms was 1.7 (95% CI = 1.2-2.5) in the Dutch RADAR community sample and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) in the British ALSPAC birth cohort. In the FBC 1987 cohort, the aOR of violent convictions was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.7-2.7) among individuals with a depression diagnosis compared with general population controls without depression. All risk estimates were adjusted for family socioeconomic status and previous violence. Conclusion: Consistent findings across three longitudinal studies suggest that clinical guidelines should consider recommending risk assessment for violence in young people with depression. The benefits of targeting risk management in subgroups by gender need further investigation.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Bedard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel (2016)
    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and, eventually, genetic information.
  • Mäkelä, Sara; Aaltonen, Sari; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Because sustained physical activity is important for a healthy life, this paper examined whether a greater diversity of sport activities during adolescence predicts higher levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adulthood. From sport activity participation reported by 17-year-old twins, we formed five groups: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5+ different sport activities. At follow-up in their mid-thirties, twins were divided into four activity classes based on LTPA, including active commuting. Multinomial regression analyses, adjusted for several confounders, were conducted separately for male (N=1288) and female (N=1770) participants. Further, conditional logistic regression analysis included 23 twin pairs discordant for both diversity of sport activities in adolescence and LTPA in adulthood. The diversity of leisure-time sport activities in adolescence had a significant positive association with adulthood LTPA among females. Membership in the most active adult quartile, compared to the least active quartile, was predicted by participation in 2, 3, 4, and 5+ sport activities in adolescence with odds ratios: 1.52 (p=0.11), 1.86 (p=0.02), 1.29 (p=0.39), and 3.12 (p=5.4e-05), respectively. Within-pair analyses, limited by the small sample of twins discordant for both adolescent activities and adult outcomes (N=23), did not replicate the association. A greater diversity of leisure-time sport activities in adolescence predicts higher levels of LTPA in adulthood in females, but the causal nature of this association remains unresolved.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Korja, Riikka; Matomaki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2014)
    Background: It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). Aims: We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. Study design: A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. Methods: The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Results: Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. Conclusions: The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Konig, Emilia; Sali, Virpi; Heponiemi, Paulina; Salminen, Seppo; Valros, Anna; Junnikkala, Sami; Heinonen, Mari (2021)
    Simple Summary Selection for hyper-prolific sows has led to increased litter size, decreased birth weight, and increased within-litter variation. This is accompanied by impaired colostrum intake of piglets and poor performance. We aimed to investigate the total count of fecal lactobacilli and species diversity in growing pigs on two herds. Study pigs were categorized either small or large according to their birth weight. Sow colostrum quality and colostrum supply of piglets were determined. We hypothesized that the birth weight and growth performance of pigs are associated with fecal lactobacilli composition, which is influenced by colostrum. Small pigs had higher lactobacilli counts in both herds, but the difference was significant only for one herd (p = 0.01). Colostrum quality was numerically better in the herd that appeared also better managed in comparison to the other study herd. Colostrum intake tended to be significantly associated with the total lactobacilli count in the better-managed herd. In conclusion, herd-level factors clearly contribute to the microbiota of pigs, but birth weight also plays a potential role in the gastrointestinal tract lactobacilli dynamics. Our results revealed a potential long-term effect of colostrum, and therefore give a reason to investigate more thoroughly the associations between maternal immunity, pig microbiota, and performance. We studied the fecal lactobacilli count and species diversity of growing pigs along with immune parameters associated with intestinal lactobacilli. Thirty pigs categorized as small (S, n = 12) or large (L, n = 18) at birth were followed from birth to slaughter in two commercial herds, H1 and H2. Herds differed in terms of their general management. We determined sow colostrum quality, colostrum intake, piglet serum immunoglobulins, and pig growth. We took individual fecal samples from pigs in the weaning and finishing units. We studied lactobacilli count and identified their diversity with 16S PCR. Total lactobacilli count increased in H1 and decreased in H2 between samplings. Lactobacilli species diversity was higher in H1 in both fecal sampling points, whereas diversity decreased over time in both herds. We identified altogether seven lactobacilli species with a maximum of five (one to five) species in one herd. However, a relatively large proportion of lactobacilli remained unidentified with the used sequencing technique. Small pigs had higher lactobacilli counts in both herds but the difference was significant only in H2 (p = 0.01). Colostrum quality was numerically better in H1 than in H2, where colostrum intake tended to be associated with total lactobacilli count (p = 0.05).
  • Kremen, William S.; Beck, Asad; Elman, Jeremy A.; Gustavson, Daniel E.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Tu, Xin M.; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark E.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Toomey, Rosemary; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Fang, Bin; Dale, Anders M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Franz, Carol E. (2019)
    How and when education improves cognitive capacity is an issue of profound societal importance. Education and later-life education-related factors, such as occupational complexity and engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities, are frequently considered indices of cognitive reserve, but whether their effects are truly causal remains unclear. In this study, after accounting for general cognitive ability (GCA) at an average age of 20 y, additional education, occupational complexity, or engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities accounted for little variance in late midlife cognitive functioning in men age 56-66 (n = 1009). Age 20 GCA accounted for 40% of variance in the same measure in late midlife and approximately 10% of variance in each of seven cognitive domains. The other factors each accounted for <1% of the variance in cognitive outcomes. The impact of these other factors likely reflects reverse causation-namely, downstream effects of early adult GCA. Supporting that idea, age 20 GCA, but not education, was associated with late midlife cortical surface area (n = 367). In our view, the most parsimonious explanation of our results, a meta-analysis of the impact of education, and epidemiologic studies of the Flynn effect is that intellectual capacity gains due to education plateau in late adolescence/early adulthood. Longitudinal studies with multiple cognitive assessments before completion of education would be needed to confirm this speculation. If cognitive gains reach an asymptote by early adulthood, then strengthening cognitive reserve and reducing later-life cognitive decline and dementia risk may really begin with improving educational quality and access in childhood and adolescence.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Norman, Jane E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2018)
    While previous studies have shown intergenerational transmission of birth weight from mother to child, whether the continuity persists across 3 generations has rarely been assessed. We used the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Data-bank (United Kingdom) to examine the intergenerational correlations of birth weight, birth weight adjusted for gestational age and sex, and small- and large-for-gestational-age births across 3 generations among 1,457 grandmother-mother-child triads. All participants were born between 1950 and 2015. The intergenerational transmission was examined with linear regression analyses. We found that grandmaternal birth weight was associated with grandchild birth weight, independently of prenatal and sociodemographic covariates and maternal birth weight (B = 0.12 standard deviation units, 95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.18). Similar intergenerational continuity was found for birth weight adjusted for sex and gestational age as well as for small-for-gestational-age births. In conclusion, birth weight and fetal growth showed intergenerational continuity across 3 generations. This supports the hypothesis that the developmental origins of birth weight and hence later health and disease are already present in earlier generations.
  • Korhonen, Maarit J.; Pentti, Jaana; Hartikainen, Juha; Ilomaki, Jenni; Setoguchi, Soko; Liew, Danny; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2020)
    Background--Lifestyle modification is a key component of cardiovascular disease prevention before and concurrently with pharmacologic interventions. We evaluated whether lifestyle factors change in relation to the initiation of antihypertensive or lipidlowering medication (statins). Methods and Results--The study population comprised 41 225 participants of the FPS (Finnish Public Sector) study aged =40 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and responded to =2 consecutive surveys administered in 4-year intervals in 2000-2013. Medication use was ascertained through pharmacy-claims data. Using a series of pre-post data sets, we compared changes in body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking between 8837 initiators and 46 021 noninitiators of antihypertensive medications or statins. In participants who initiated medication use, body mass index increased more (difference in change 0.19; 95% CI, 0.16-0.22) and physical activity declined (-0.09 metabolic equivalent of task hour/day; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02) compared with noninitiators. The likelihood of becoming obese (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI, 1.63-2.03) and physically inactive (odds ratio: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17) was higher in initiators. However, medication initiation was associated with greater decline in average alcohol consumption (-1.85 g/week; 95% CI, -3.67 to -0.14) and higher odds of quitting smoking (odds ratio for current smoking in the second survey: 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85). Conclusions--These findings suggest that initiation of antihypertensive and statin medication is associated with lifestyle changes, some favorable and others unfavorable. Weight management and physical activity should be encouraged in individuals prescribed these medications.
  • Tolonen, Iina; Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Siira, Virva; Kähönen, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    Dispositional compassion has been shown to predict higher well-being and to be associated with lower perceived stress and higher social support. Thus, compassion may be a potential individual factor protecting from job strain. The current study examines (i) whether dispositional compassion predicts job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) or does the predictive relationship run from job strain and ERI to dispositional compassion and (ii) the effect of dispositional compassion on the developmental trajectory of job strain and ERI over a 11-year follow-up. We used data from the Young Finns study (n=723) between 2001 and 2012. The direction of the predictive relationships was analyzed with cross-lagged panel models. Compassion's effect on the trajectories of job strain, ERI, and their components was examined with multilevel models. First, the cross-lagged panel models demonstrated there was no evidence for the predictive pathways between compassion and job strain or its components. However, the predictive pathways from high dispositional compassion to low ERI and high rewards had better fit to the data than the predictive pathways in the opposite direction. In addition, multilevel models showed that high compassion predicted various job characteristics from early adulthood to middle age (lower job strain and higher job control as well as lower ERI and higher reward). Compassion did not predict job demand/effort. The findings were obtained independently of age, gender, and socioeconomic factors in childhood and adulthood. These findings indicate that compassion may be beneficial in work context. Further, compassion might be useful in the management or prevention of some aspects of strain. Our study provides new insight about the role of compassion in work life.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Head, Jenny; Goldberg, Marcel; Airagnes, Guillaume; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Suominen, Sakari; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Zins, Marie; Virtanen, Marianna (2018)
    Aims To estimate differences in the strength and shape of associations between alcohol use and diagnosis-specific sickness absence. Design A multi-cohort study. Participants (n = 47 520) responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time-points, and were linked to records of sickness absence. Diagnosis-specific sickness absence was followed for 4-7 years from the latter survey. Setting and participants From Finland, we had population cohort survey data from 1998 and 2003 and employee cohort survey data from 2000-02 and 2004. From France and the United Kingdom, we had employee cohort survey data from 1993 and 1997, and 1985-88 and 1991-94, respectively. Measurements We used standard questionnaires to assess alcohol intake categorized into 0, 1-11 and > 11 units per week in women and 0, 1-34 and > 34 units per week in men. We identified groups with stable and changing alcohol use over time. We linked participants to records from sickness absence registers. Diagnoses of sickness absence were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases. Estimates were adjusted for sex, age, socio-economic status, smoking and body mass index. Findings Women who reported drinking 1-11 units and men who reported drinking 1-34 units of alcohol per week in both surveys were the reference group. Compared with them, women and men who reported no alcohol use in either survey had a higher risk of sickness absence due to mental disorders [rate ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-1.88], musculoskeletal disorders (1.22, 95% CI = 1.06-1.41), diseases of the digestive system (1.35, 95% CI = 1.02-1.77) and diseases of the respiratory system (1.49, 95% CI = 1.29-1.72). Women who reported alcohol consumption of > 11 weekly units and men who reported alcohol consumption of > 34 units per week in both surveys were at increased risk of absence due to injury or poisoning (1.44, 95% CI = 1.13-1.83). Conclusions In Finland, France and the United Kingdom, people who report not drinking any alcohol on two occasions several years apart appear to have a higher prevalence of sickness absence from work with chronic somatic and mental illness diagnoses than those drinking below a risk threshold of 11 units per week for women and 34 units per week for men. Persistent at-risk drinking in Finland, France and the United Kingdom appears to be related to increased absence due to injury or poisoning.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Sommerlad, Andrew; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana (2018)
    Background: Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Methods: Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score. Cognitive trajectories over the study period were analysed using longitudinal latent growth class analyses, and the associations of these latent classes (trajectory memberships) with social relations were analysed using multinominal logistic regression. Results: More frequent social contacts [relative risk (RRR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 - 0.98] and being married (RRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.84) were associated with lower probability of being on a low rather than high cognitive performance trajectory over the subsequent 21 years. These associations persisted after adjustment for covariates. Of the subtests, social relations variables had the strongest association with phonemic fluency (RRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94 - 0.97 for frequent contact; RRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48 - 0.71 for being married). Conclusions: More frequent social contacts and having a spouse were associated with more favourable cognitive ageing trajectories. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve social connections affect cognitive ageing.
  • Rawlings, Anna Maria; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku (2021)
    The present research examined the connections between temperament (punishment sensitivity; interindividual reward sensitivity; intraindividual reward sensitivity), students’ domain- and course-specific motivational appraisals (interest, strain, effort), and performance, in two studies. Study 1 explored the relationships between temperamental sensitivities, motivational appraisals, and task achievement among secondary students (N = 268) in the domain of mathematics, using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) for the analyses. Study 2 was conducted longitudinally among upper-secondary students (N = 155) during a course in four key school subjects. Subject interest was included alongside the temperamental sensitivities as a predictor of course-specific motivation and course grades, and the data were analysed with Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Previous achievement was controlled in both studies. The findings showed temperamental sensitivities to be differentially linked with motivational appraisals. Punishment sensitivity in Study 1, and interindividual reward sensitivity (sensitivity to reward dependent on others’ approval or attention) in Study 2 were found to have an effect on psychological strain. In both studies, interest and effort were predicted by intraindividual reward sensitivity (positive responsiveness to novelty and own successes). In Study 2, subject interest was a consistent predictor of higher course interest and lower strain. In both studies, connections were found between strain and lower performance. The findings suggest individual characteristics may predispose students to certain motivational experiences, and contribute to educational outcomes, in both domain and course contexts and across subject content.
  • Pöllänen, Kari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Economics and Society
    The aim of the study was to explore the importance of evaluating leadership criteria in Finland at leader/subordinate levels of the insurance industry. The overall purpose of the thesis is tackled and analyzed from two different perspectives: - by examining the importance of the leadership criteria and style of Finnish insurance business leaders and their subordinates - by examining the opinions of insurance business leaders regarding leadership criteria in two culturally different countries: the US and Finland. This thesis consists of three published articles that scrutinise the focal phenomena both theoretically and empirically. The main results of the study do not lend support to the existence of a universal model of leadership criteria in the insurance business. As a matter of fact, the possible model seems to be based more on the special organizational and cultural circumstances of the country in question. The leadership criteria seem to be quite stable irrespective of the comparatively short research time period (3–5 years) and hierarchical level (subordinate/leader). Leaders have major difficulties in changing their leadership style. In fact, in order to bring about an efficient organizational change in the company you have to alternate the leader. The cultural dimensions (cooperation and monitoring) identified by Finnish subordinates were mostly in line with those of their managers, whilst emphasizing more the aspect of monitoring employees, which could be seen from their point of view as another element of managers’ optimizing/efficiency requirements. In Finnish surveys the strong emphasis on cooperation and mutual trust become apparent by both subordinates and managers. The basic problem is still how to emphasize and balance them in real life in such a way that both parties are happy to work together on a common basis. The American surveys suggests hypothetically that in a soft market period (buyer’s market) managers employ a more relationship-oriented leadership style and correspondingly adapt their leadership style to a more task-oriented approach in a hard market phase (seller’s market). In making business better Finnish insurance managers could probably concentrate more on task-oriented items such as reviewing, budgeting, monitoring and goal-orientation. The study also suggests that the social safety net of the European welfare state ideology has so far shielded the culture-specific sense of social responsibility of Finnish managers from the hazards of free competition and globalization.
  • Kaprio, Jaakko; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Iso-Markku, Paula; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kujala, Urho; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Latvala, Antti; Leskinen, Tuija; Lindgren, Noora; Ollikainen, Miina; Piirtola, Maarit; Rantanen, Taina; Rinne, Juha; Rose, Richard J.; Sillanpää, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Viljanen, Anne; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waller, Katja (2019)
    The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945-1957 in 2011-2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938-1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.