Browsing by Subject "longitudinal"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 27
  • Mannerström, Rasmus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    It has been suggested that dual-cycle models of identity formation do not fit well with Erikson’s identity theory and the identity status paradigm due to 1) contradictory statuses, 2) problems with discerning past exploration and 3) ambiguity or limitations of the life domains covered. The present study extended the Dimensions for Identity Development Scale (DIDS) with three additional dimensions suggested previously, examined identity profiles and their transitions over time, their links with psychological well-being and what life domain was associated with “future plans” (N=1294; T1: age=17, 60% female; T2: age=18, 65% female). The results showed that 1) the eight-dimensional model fit the data well longitudinally; 2) six previously reported profiles emerged at both time points with expected links to psychological well-being; 3) as previously speculated, individuals in the (early) closure status had undertaken identity exploration in the past; 4) the previously encountered high commitment-high exploration status (i.e., searching moratorium) seems to be “superficially committed”; and 5) future plans are commonly associated with work life/occupation. Future research would benefit from employing qualitative research to better understand the subjective meanings attached to high commitment-high exploration and by developing new ways to account for quality and different levels of commitment.
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja; Vinni-Laakso, Janica; Hietajärvi, Lauri (2021)
    This longitudinal study examined school engagement and burnout profiles among early and middle adolescents before and during COVID-19, and within-class latent change and stability in students' socio-emotional skills the profiles. The longitudinal data were collected in fall 2019 and 2020 from 1381 5th to 6th, and 1374 7th to 8th grade students. Using repeated measures latent profile analyses based on school engagement and burnout we identified five study well-being change profiles in both samples showing structural similarity: normative (53% sample 1; 69% sample 2), moderate-decreasing (4%; 5%), high-decreasing (17%; 10%), low-increasing (6%;7%) and moderate-increasing (20%; 10%) groups. The groups with increasing study well-being showed simultaneous increase in intrapersonal socio-emotional competencies but showed less changes in interpersonal outcomes.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Lagerberg, Tyra; Khemiri, Lotfi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Chang, Zheng; Latvala, Antti (2022)
    Background and aims Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed medications for patients with anxiety/depression. These patients often have problems with substance use, but it remains unclear whether the risk of substance misuse is influenced by SSRI treatment. We aimed to determine whether SSRI treatment is associated with a decreased risk of acute substance misuse-related outcomes. Design Cohort study following individuals through Swedish nation-wide registers between July 2005 and December 2013 and comparing the risk of substance misuse outcomes during periods on- versus off-treatment within the same individual. Setting Swedish general population. Participants Individuals with a newly dispensed prescription of SSRIs between July 2006 and December 2013 and an ICD-10 diagnosis of anxiety/depressive disorder before the first treatment initiation. The cohort included 146 114 individuals (60.7% women). Measurements Substance misuse outcomes included ICD-10 diagnoses of acute intoxications (F10.0-F19.0), accidental poisonings by alcohol or drugs (X41-X42, X45-X46) and substance-related criminal offenses. Findings The absolute rate of substance misuse increased sharply before the onset of SSRI treatment and decreased after treatment initiation. Stratified Cox regression models showed an elevated risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-1.78] of substance misuse outcomes during a 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, compared with the reference period of more than 1 month before treatment start. The on-treatment estimates (1-30 days, HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.23-1.37; 31-120 days, HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.24-1.35; and > 120 days, HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.30 after treatment initiation] were consistently lower than the 1-month pre-treatment estimate, but still elevated compared with the reference period. Conclusions For people with anxiety/depression, the risk of substance misuse appears to be particularly elevated immediately before initiating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, which may reflect the emergence or worsening of substance use problems concurrently with anxiety/depression. SSRI treatment appears to be associated with a lower risk of substance misuse compared with the 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, but causality remains uncertain.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Latvala, Antti (2019)
    Aims To estimate birth cohort effects on alcohol consumption and abstinence in Finland and to test differences between birth cohorts in genetic and environmental sources of variation in Finnish adult alcohol use. Design The Older Finnish Twin Cohort longitudinal survey study 1975-2011. Setting Finland. Participants A total of 26 121 same-sex twins aged 18-95 years (full twin pairs at baseline n = 11 608). Measurements Outcome variables were the quantity of alcohol consumption (g/month) and abstinence (drinking zero g/month). Predictor variables were 10-year birth cohort categories and socio-demographic covariates. In quantitative genetic models, two larger cohorts (born 1901-20 and 1945-57) were compared. Findings Multi-level models in both sexes indicated higher levels of alcohol consumption in more recent birth cohorts and lower levels in earlier cohorts, compared with twins born 1921-30 (all P < 0.003). Similarly, compared with twins born 1921-30, abstaining was more common in earlier and less common in more recent cohorts (all P < 0.05), with the exception of men born 1911-20. Birth cohort differences in the genetic and environmental variance components in alcohol consumption were found: heritability was 21% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-56%] in the earlier-born cohort of women [mean age 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 5.3] and 51% (95% CI = 36-56%) in a more recent cohort (mean age 60.2, SD = 3.7) at the age of 54-74. For men, heritability was 39% (95% CI = 27-45%) in both cohorts. In alcohol abstinence, environmental influences shared between co-twins explained a large proportion of variation in the earlier-born cohort (43%, 95% CI = 23-63%), whereas non-shared environmental (54%, 95% CI = 39-72%) and additive genetic influences (40%, 95% CI = 13-61%) were more important among more recent cohorts of men and women. Conclusion The contribution of genetic and environmental variability to variability in alcohol consumption in the Finnish population appears to vary by birth cohort.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Honda, Yukiko; Oksman, Elli; Raitakari, Olli; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    This study investigated whether breastfeeding predicts offspring’s dispositional compassion and empathy from early adulthood to middle age. The parents of the participants (N = 1,394) of the Young Finns study answered questions about breastfeeding in 1983, and the participants’ compassion and empathy were evaluated in 1997‒2012 (participants were aged 20‒50 years). Breastfeeding did not predict the course of compassion or empathy in adulthood at the age of 20‒50 years. The associations remained non‐significant, when adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic factors, and a wide range of characteristics of the family environment (including mother’s gestational age; premature birth; birth weight; number of other children at home; parental mental disorder; parental relationship status; parental postnatal smoking; parental postnatal alcohol use; parenting behavior; and child’s externalizing behavior). In conclusion, breastfeeding seems not to predict offspring’s compassion or empathy in adulthood. The findings may present a hopeful perspective for children growing up with non‐breastfeeding caregivers.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Halonen, Jaana I.; Sivertsen, Borge; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background: Despite injustice at the workplace being a potential source of sleep problems, longitudinal evidence remains scarce. We examined whether changes in perceived organizational justice predicted changes in insomnia symptoms. Methods: Data on 24 287 Finnish public sector employees (82% women), from three consecutive survey waves between 2000 and 2012, were treated as 'pseudo-trials'. Thus, the analysis of unfavourable changes in organizational justice included participants without insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, with high organizational justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 6307). In the analyses of favourable changes in justice, participants had insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, low justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 2903). In both analyses, the outcome was insomnia symptoms in Wave 3. We used generalized estimating equation models to analyse the data. Results: After adjusting for social and health-related covariates in Wave 1, unfavourable changes in relational organizational justice (i.e. fairness of managerial behaviours) were associated with increased odds of developing insomnia symptoms [odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.30]. A favourable change in relational organizational justice was associated with lower odds of persistent insomnia symptoms (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.96). Changes in procedural justice (i.e. the fairness of decision-making procedures) were not associated with insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: These data suggest that changes in perceived relational justice may affect employees' sleep quality. Decreases in the fairness of managerial behaviours were linked to increases in insomnia symptoms, whereas rises in fairness were associated with reduced insomnia symptoms.
  • Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena (2017)
    Objective: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. Method: We used data from three cohorts with different measurements of depression exposures and subsequent violent outcomes. In a Dutch community cohort Research on Adolescent Development And Relationships (RADAR; N = 623) and a population-based British birth cohort Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 4,030), we examined the longitudinal links between adolescent depressive symptoms and violent behaviors from age 13 to 17 years. In a total Finnish birth cohort (FBC 1987; N = 57,526), we estimated risk of violent convictions in individuals clinically diagnosed with depression from age 15 to 27 years. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of violent behaviors per unit of increase in depressive symptoms was 1.7 (95% CI = 1.2-2.5) in the Dutch RADAR community sample and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) in the British ALSPAC birth cohort. In the FBC 1987 cohort, the aOR of violent convictions was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.7-2.7) among individuals with a depression diagnosis compared with general population controls without depression. All risk estimates were adjusted for family socioeconomic status and previous violence. Conclusion: Consistent findings across three longitudinal studies suggest that clinical guidelines should consider recommending risk assessment for violence in young people with depression. The benefits of targeting risk management in subgroups by gender need further investigation.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Bedard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel (2016)
    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and, eventually, genetic information.
  • Mäkelä, Sara; Aaltonen, Sari; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Because sustained physical activity is important for a healthy life, this paper examined whether a greater diversity of sport activities during adolescence predicts higher levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adulthood. From sport activity participation reported by 17-year-old twins, we formed five groups: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5+ different sport activities. At follow-up in their mid-thirties, twins were divided into four activity classes based on LTPA, including active commuting. Multinomial regression analyses, adjusted for several confounders, were conducted separately for male (N=1288) and female (N=1770) participants. Further, conditional logistic regression analysis included 23 twin pairs discordant for both diversity of sport activities in adolescence and LTPA in adulthood. The diversity of leisure-time sport activities in adolescence had a significant positive association with adulthood LTPA among females. Membership in the most active adult quartile, compared to the least active quartile, was predicted by participation in 2, 3, 4, and 5+ sport activities in adolescence with odds ratios: 1.52 (p=0.11), 1.86 (p=0.02), 1.29 (p=0.39), and 3.12 (p=5.4e-05), respectively. Within-pair analyses, limited by the small sample of twins discordant for both adolescent activities and adult outcomes (N=23), did not replicate the association. A greater diversity of leisure-time sport activities in adolescence predicts higher levels of LTPA in adulthood in females, but the causal nature of this association remains unresolved.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Korja, Riikka; Matomaki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2014)
    Background: It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). Aims: We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. Study design: A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. Methods: The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Results: Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. Conclusions: The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hanhimäki, Elina; Watts, Phillip C.; Koskela, Esa; Koteja, Paweł; Mappes, Tapio; Hämäläinen, Anni M. (2022)
    Gut microbiota is expected to coevolve with the host's physiology and may play a role in adjusting the host's energy metabolism to suit the host's environment. To evaluate the effects of both evolved host metabolism and the environmental context in shaping the gut microbiota, we used a unique combination of (1) experimental evolution to create selection lines for a fast metabolism and (2) a laboratory-to-field translocation study. Mature bank voles Myodes glareolus from lines selected for high aerobic capacity (A lines) and from unselected control (C lines) were released into large (0.2 ha) outdoor enclosures for longitudinal monitoring. To examine whether the natural environment elicited a similar or more pronounced impact on the gut microbiota of the next generation, we also sampled the field-reared offspring. The gut microbiota were characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. The artificial selection for fast metabolism had minimal impact on the gut microbiota in laboratory conditions but in field conditions, there were differences between the selection lines (A lines vs. C lines) in the diversity, community, and resilience of the gut microbiota. Notably, the selection lines differed in the less abundant bacteria throughout the experiment. The lab-to-field transition resulted in an increase in alpha diversity and an altered community composition in the gut microbiota, characterized by a significant increase in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and a decrease of Patescibacteria. Also, the selection lines showed different temporal patterns in changes in microbiota composition, as the average gut microbiota alpha diversity of the C lines, but not A lines, was temporarily reduced during the initial transition to the field. In surviving young voles, the alpha diversity of gut microbiota was significantly higher in A-line than C-line voles. These results indicate that the association of host metabolism and gut microbiota is context-specific, likely mediated by behavioral or physiological modifications in response to the environment.
  • Konig, Emilia; Sali, Virpi; Heponiemi, Paulina; Salminen, Seppo; Valros, Anna; Junnikkala, Sami; Heinonen, Mari (2021)
    Simple Summary Selection for hyper-prolific sows has led to increased litter size, decreased birth weight, and increased within-litter variation. This is accompanied by impaired colostrum intake of piglets and poor performance. We aimed to investigate the total count of fecal lactobacilli and species diversity in growing pigs on two herds. Study pigs were categorized either small or large according to their birth weight. Sow colostrum quality and colostrum supply of piglets were determined. We hypothesized that the birth weight and growth performance of pigs are associated with fecal lactobacilli composition, which is influenced by colostrum. Small pigs had higher lactobacilli counts in both herds, but the difference was significant only for one herd (p = 0.01). Colostrum quality was numerically better in the herd that appeared also better managed in comparison to the other study herd. Colostrum intake tended to be significantly associated with the total lactobacilli count in the better-managed herd. In conclusion, herd-level factors clearly contribute to the microbiota of pigs, but birth weight also plays a potential role in the gastrointestinal tract lactobacilli dynamics. Our results revealed a potential long-term effect of colostrum, and therefore give a reason to investigate more thoroughly the associations between maternal immunity, pig microbiota, and performance. We studied the fecal lactobacilli count and species diversity of growing pigs along with immune parameters associated with intestinal lactobacilli. Thirty pigs categorized as small (S, n = 12) or large (L, n = 18) at birth were followed from birth to slaughter in two commercial herds, H1 and H2. Herds differed in terms of their general management. We determined sow colostrum quality, colostrum intake, piglet serum immunoglobulins, and pig growth. We took individual fecal samples from pigs in the weaning and finishing units. We studied lactobacilli count and identified their diversity with 16S PCR. Total lactobacilli count increased in H1 and decreased in H2 between samplings. Lactobacilli species diversity was higher in H1 in both fecal sampling points, whereas diversity decreased over time in both herds. We identified altogether seven lactobacilli species with a maximum of five (one to five) species in one herd. However, a relatively large proportion of lactobacilli remained unidentified with the used sequencing technique. Small pigs had higher lactobacilli counts in both herds but the difference was significant only in H2 (p = 0.01). Colostrum quality was numerically better in H1 than in H2, where colostrum intake tended to be associated with total lactobacilli count (p = 0.05).
  • Kremen, William S.; Beck, Asad; Elman, Jeremy A.; Gustavson, Daniel E.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Tu, Xin M.; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark E.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Toomey, Rosemary; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Fang, Bin; Dale, Anders M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Franz, Carol E. (2019)
    How and when education improves cognitive capacity is an issue of profound societal importance. Education and later-life education-related factors, such as occupational complexity and engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities, are frequently considered indices of cognitive reserve, but whether their effects are truly causal remains unclear. In this study, after accounting for general cognitive ability (GCA) at an average age of 20 y, additional education, occupational complexity, or engagement in cognitive-intellectual activities accounted for little variance in late midlife cognitive functioning in men age 56-66 (n = 1009). Age 20 GCA accounted for 40% of variance in the same measure in late midlife and approximately 10% of variance in each of seven cognitive domains. The other factors each accounted for <1% of the variance in cognitive outcomes. The impact of these other factors likely reflects reverse causation-namely, downstream effects of early adult GCA. Supporting that idea, age 20 GCA, but not education, was associated with late midlife cortical surface area (n = 367). In our view, the most parsimonious explanation of our results, a meta-analysis of the impact of education, and epidemiologic studies of the Flynn effect is that intellectual capacity gains due to education plateau in late adolescence/early adulthood. Longitudinal studies with multiple cognitive assessments before completion of education would be needed to confirm this speculation. If cognitive gains reach an asymptote by early adulthood, then strengthening cognitive reserve and reducing later-life cognitive decline and dementia risk may really begin with improving educational quality and access in childhood and adolescence.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Norman, Jane E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2018)
    While previous studies have shown intergenerational transmission of birth weight from mother to child, whether the continuity persists across 3 generations has rarely been assessed. We used the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Data-bank (United Kingdom) to examine the intergenerational correlations of birth weight, birth weight adjusted for gestational age and sex, and small- and large-for-gestational-age births across 3 generations among 1,457 grandmother-mother-child triads. All participants were born between 1950 and 2015. The intergenerational transmission was examined with linear regression analyses. We found that grandmaternal birth weight was associated with grandchild birth weight, independently of prenatal and sociodemographic covariates and maternal birth weight (B = 0.12 standard deviation units, 95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.18). Similar intergenerational continuity was found for birth weight adjusted for sex and gestational age as well as for small-for-gestational-age births. In conclusion, birth weight and fetal growth showed intergenerational continuity across 3 generations. This supports the hypothesis that the developmental origins of birth weight and hence later health and disease are already present in earlier generations.
  • Korhonen, Maarit J.; Pentti, Jaana; Hartikainen, Juha; Ilomaki, Jenni; Setoguchi, Soko; Liew, Danny; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2020)
    Background--Lifestyle modification is a key component of cardiovascular disease prevention before and concurrently with pharmacologic interventions. We evaluated whether lifestyle factors change in relation to the initiation of antihypertensive or lipidlowering medication (statins). Methods and Results--The study population comprised 41 225 participants of the FPS (Finnish Public Sector) study aged =40 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and responded to =2 consecutive surveys administered in 4-year intervals in 2000-2013. Medication use was ascertained through pharmacy-claims data. Using a series of pre-post data sets, we compared changes in body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking between 8837 initiators and 46 021 noninitiators of antihypertensive medications or statins. In participants who initiated medication use, body mass index increased more (difference in change 0.19; 95% CI, 0.16-0.22) and physical activity declined (-0.09 metabolic equivalent of task hour/day; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02) compared with noninitiators. The likelihood of becoming obese (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI, 1.63-2.03) and physically inactive (odds ratio: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17) was higher in initiators. However, medication initiation was associated with greater decline in average alcohol consumption (-1.85 g/week; 95% CI, -3.67 to -0.14) and higher odds of quitting smoking (odds ratio for current smoking in the second survey: 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85). Conclusions--These findings suggest that initiation of antihypertensive and statin medication is associated with lifestyle changes, some favorable and others unfavorable. Weight management and physical activity should be encouraged in individuals prescribed these medications.
  • Okumura, Yasuko; Kita, Yosuke; Kitamura, Yuzuki; Oyama, Hoko (2022)
    While letter-naming ability is a well-known preschool predictor of the later acquisition of literacy, little is known about an appropriate benchmark (i.e., how many letter names children must know at a given age) and how it may vary among different writing systems. The present study aimed to establish a letter-naming benchmark in Japanese Hiragana for pre-elementary children (age 5 to 6 years) and examined whether this benchmark predicts risk or success in later reading development via a one-year longitudinal survey. Children (N = 291) were assessed once in their pre-elementary year for Hiragana-naming accuracy and once in their first-grade year for oral reading fluency. As a result, the ability to name 40 of 45 letters was determined to be an optimal cut-off, and failure to meet it strongly predicted a risk of deficient reading fluency in first grade. These findings support the notion that Japanese children without near-perfect mastery of Hiragana-naming in their pre-elementary year are at great risk of reading difficulty in first grade. In addition, possible contrasts between Hiragana- and alphabet-naming indicated a need for further research in different languages and scripts to establish appropriate goals and policies for this foundational skill of reading in early education.
  • Stephenson, Mallory; Barr, Peter; Aliev, Fazil; Ksinan, Albert; Latvala, Antti; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle; Salvatore, Jessica E. (2021)
    Co-twin comparisons address familial confounding by controlling for genetic and environmental influences that twin siblings share. We applied the co-twin comparison design to investigate associations of adolescent factors with alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Participants were 1286 individuals (581 complete twin pairs; 42% monozygotic; and 54% female) from the FinnTwin12 study. Predictors included adolescent academic achievement, substance use, externalizing problems, internalizing problems, executive functioning, peer environment, physical health, relationship with parents, alcohol expectancies, life events, and pubertal development. The outcome was lifetime AD clinical criterion count, as measured in young adulthood. We examined associations of each adolescent domain with AD symptoms in individual-level and co-twin comparison analyses. In individual-level analyses, adolescents with higher levels of substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems at age 12, externalizing problems at age 14, self- and co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, and perceived difficulty of life events reported more symptoms of AD in young adulthood (ps < .044). Conversely, individuals with higher academic achievement, social adjustment, self-rated health, and parent-child relationship quality met fewer AD clinical criteria (ps < .024). Associations between adolescent substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems, co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, self-rated health, and AD symptoms were of a similar magnitude in co-twin comparisons. We replicated many well-known adolescent correlates of later alcohol problems, including academic achievement, substance use, externalizing and internalizing problems, self-rated health, and features of the peer environment and parent-child relationship. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of co-twin comparisons for understanding pathways to AD. Effect sizes corresponding to the associations between adolescent substance use, teacher-reported externalizing problems, co-twin-reported internalizing problems, peer deviance, and self-rated health were not significantly attenuated (p value threshold = .05) after controlling for genetic and environmental influences that twin siblings share, highlighting these factors as candidates for further research.
  • Tolonen, Iina; Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Siira, Virva; Kähönen, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    Dispositional compassion has been shown to predict higher well-being and to be associated with lower perceived stress and higher social support. Thus, compassion may be a potential individual factor protecting from job strain. The current study examines (i) whether dispositional compassion predicts job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) or does the predictive relationship run from job strain and ERI to dispositional compassion and (ii) the effect of dispositional compassion on the developmental trajectory of job strain and ERI over a 11-year follow-up. We used data from the Young Finns study (n=723) between 2001 and 2012. The direction of the predictive relationships was analyzed with cross-lagged panel models. Compassion's effect on the trajectories of job strain, ERI, and their components was examined with multilevel models. First, the cross-lagged panel models demonstrated there was no evidence for the predictive pathways between compassion and job strain or its components. However, the predictive pathways from high dispositional compassion to low ERI and high rewards had better fit to the data than the predictive pathways in the opposite direction. In addition, multilevel models showed that high compassion predicted various job characteristics from early adulthood to middle age (lower job strain and higher job control as well as lower ERI and higher reward). Compassion did not predict job demand/effort. The findings were obtained independently of age, gender, and socioeconomic factors in childhood and adulthood. These findings indicate that compassion may be beneficial in work context. Further, compassion might be useful in the management or prevention of some aspects of strain. Our study provides new insight about the role of compassion in work life.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Hintsanen, Mirka; Vahlberg, Tero; Hankonen, Nelli; Volanen, Salla-Maarit (2022)
    Introduction: There is accumulating evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in alleviating depressive symptoms. A crucial question is, however, whether mindfulness interventions are more effective for some individuals than others, depending on individual characteristics before a mindfulness intervention. We exploratorily investigated whether the effectiveness of school-based mindfulness intervention against depressive symptoms is modified by executive functions, rumination, and emotion regulation among adolescents. Methods: The longitudinal data included adolescents with at least mild depressive symptoms at the baseline (n = 369, at the 6th-8th grade, 68.4% female) who were randomized into a 9-week school-based mindfulness intervention group, into an active control group receiving relaxation program, or into an inactive control group. Adolescents' executive functions, rumination, and emotion regulation (i.e., acceptance, catastrophizing, and positive reappraisal) were assessed at the baseline; and depressive symptoms at three time points (at the baseline and at 9-week and 6-month follow-ups). Results and Conclusions: In adolescents with at least mild depressive symptoms at the baseline, high catastrophizing, high acceptance, and low executive functions were found to increase the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention against depressive symptoms. There seemed to be some sex differences. Thus, when aiming to alleviate depressive symptoms, mindfulness-based intervention may possibly be more effective for adolescents with high catastrophizing, high acceptance, and low executive functioning (than for adolescents with the opposite dispositions). However, as this study was exploratory by nature and corrections for multiple testing were not used, the findings must be regarded as preliminary and need confirmation in further studies.