Browsing by Subject "lukivaikeus"

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  • Kanerva, Henna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objective. The previous studies have focused mainly on deviant linguistic processing regarding dyslexia, while people's experiences and contextual factors have received less attention. This study gives voice to the dyslexic students who can tell about their own experiences about dyslexia. Additionally, the objective of this study is to examine what kind of difficulties the students face while studying and which strengths they have. This study can bring a new perspective and decrease prejudices towards dyslexia. Method. Focused interview was used as a method of this study. The interviews consisted of questions inspired by the previous literature. Eight students were interviewed, six of them were studying at the university and two of them were studying at the university of applied sciences. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The transcriptions were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusion. On the basis of the analysis the interviews included several positive aspects. Many of the participants told they were quite open about their own dyslexia. They were also used to observe their learning and they had found several useful ways to learn. Many of them used deep learning as their learning method. They had also coped several difficulties and they believed in themselves. Especially organizing big amount of information, learning foreign languages and organizing different studying was challenging for them. Several participants reported that their learning was quite slow. In this study dyslexia was a phenomenon, not only a limitation. All the students have their strengths and limitations, regardless if they have a dyslexia or not.
  • Kurki, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of the individual and systematic support for the pupil who has wide learning difficulties and slight mental disability. The purpose of the study is to develop my own work as a special class teacher and to gather information about the effectiveness of the support. The theoretical background of the study is based on six principal themes. The themes are pre-reading skills, learning to read, reading disability, how does the mildly mentally handicapped pupil learn to read, evaluation of the pre-reading skills in the school and a model of response support. Methods. The thesis is a qualitative case study. Three pupils who have wide learning difficulties and slight mental disability participated in the study. First the study examines pupils’ pre-reading skills with evaluation tools. Based on the evaluation, an individual training program is designed for the pupil which purpose is to promote the pre-reading skills of the pupil. Results and conclusions. The use of evaluation tools was found suitable to evaluate the pre-reading skills. The slight mental handicapped pupil benefitted from a long-term and planned teaching experiment. All pupils pre-reading skills were progressed during the teaching experiment. The teaching experiment in the thesis is clear and feasible to use in a teachers work. The teaching experiment gives new information about the need of pupil’s support and helps the teacher focus the support on practicing the right skill.
  • Männikkö, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Kansainvälisten lukutaitotutkimusten tuloksissa on jo vuosia näkynyt suomalaislasten ja -nuorten heikentynyt lukutaito. Erityinen huoli on noussut siitä kasvavasta joukosta, jonka lukutaitotaso on heikko eikä riitä yhteiskunnassa toimimiseen. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, mitä heikkoja lukijoita tukevia menetelmiä tutkijat suosittelevat käytettäväksi opetuksessa ja miten näitä menetelmiä käytetään kirjallisuuden opetuksessa. Tarkoituksenani on myös selvittää, onko joitain tutkimuskirjallisuudessa esiintyviä pedagogisia menetelmiä, joiden käyttö opetuksessa on vielä vähäistä oletettuun hyötyyn nähden. Tutkielmani tarkastelee yläkoulussa annettavaa kirjallisuuden opetusta Lukuklaani-tutkimushankkeen yläkoulun kyselyaineiston pohjalta. Aineisto koostuu 1018 yläkoulun opettajan täyttämästä kyselystä. Rajasin tästä aineistosta tutkimukseni kohteeksi ensin suomen kielen ja kirjallisuuden opettajien vastaukset ja niistä kysymykset, jotka konkreettisimmin vastaavat tutkimuskysymykseeni. Tutkimusprosessini etenee aineistolähtöisen laadullisen sisällönanalyysin menetelmin. Tutkimuskirjallisuudesta nousi selvästi esiin yhteistoiminnalliset menetelmät, jotka hyödyttävät erityisesti heikkoja lukijoita. Ne lisäävät lukumotivaatiota ja tietoa sekä tukevat erilaisten taitojen kuten lukustrategioiden oppimista ja sisäistämistä. Lukustrategioiden ja tekstirakenteiden opettaminen lisää luetun ymmärtämistä erityisesti niiden oppilaiden kohdalla, joiden lukutaito on heikko. Lukuklaani-kyselyaineiston perusteella voi päätellä, että opettajat käyttävät opetuksessaan vaihtelevia opetusmenetelmiä. Yhteistoiminnallisten menetelmien osuus on kuitenkin pienempi yksilötyöskentelyyn verrattuna. Myös sopivan luettavan, kuten selko- ja äänikirjojen, saatavuus on oppilaiden tarpeisiin nähden huono. Niiden käytössä tulisi myös ottaa huomioon esitysmuodon vaatimat oheistaidot. Analysoimani aineiston perusteella voi siis todeta, että erilaisten opetusmenetelmien käyttämisen suunta on oikea, mutta opettajat saattaisivat hyötyä erilaisia menetelmiä ja niiden etuja koskevasta lisätiedosta. Myös oppilaiden yksilölliset tarpeet on tärkeä huomioida.
  • Carpentier, Carola (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Purpose. Around 3-15% of all pupils have dyslexia. According to the core curriculum, student assessment should be conducted in a comprehensive way, considering students’ individual difficulties. However, assessment instructions might be considered vague. Earlier studies have also shown that teachers may perceive assessment as complicated, particularly when it comes to students with special needs. The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret how secondary school teachers experience assessment and grading of pupils with dyslexia. The purpose is also to explore how pupils are enabled to show their knowledge in an adequate way. Furthermore, teachers’ perceptions of assessment fairness with regard to pupils with dyslexia are discussed. Methods. The research was conducted as a qualitative study with a phenomenographic research approach. The material consists of eight semi-structured, individual interviews with teachers working in two Swedish-speaking secondary schools i Finland. The collected material was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. Teachers expressed a genuine will to support pupils with dyslexia and they stated that they could assess pupils in a flexible way. Cooperation with special education teachers was perceived as important. The versatility of the core curriculum was regarded as an advantage for students with dyslexia. The most used accommodations were oral responses, extended time and test writing in a small group. Double assessment, prioritized content and adapted tests were also used, but teachers had different approaches. A student’s positive lesson activity could lead to a better grade. Language teachers struggled with the assessment of misspelled words. IT software was not widely used. The teachers stated that they did their best to take students’ difficulties into consideration when giving them grades, and they normally also thought their assessment was fair. The study shows that teachers do their very best to assess students with dyslexia, but there are differences in procedures between teachers, which might lead to unequal assessment.
  • Saarinen, Hanna-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective of the study. This Master’s thesis investigates dyslexic university students and their learning experiences. Previous research has shown that dyslexia is related to learning in a variety of ways. However, previous research is primarily focused on children and adoles-cents. Further academic studies set new types of requirements to learning. Thus, it is neces-sary to explore dyslexic university students in order to find out especially the factors that are impeding and enhancing their studies. Efficient progress and the completion of academic studies are important for the students themselves, but also for the university and the society. This research examines the obstacles that dyslexic students face during their studies, and the variety of means and practices they use to overcome these challenges. Methods. The research material consists of ten semi-structured theme interviews. In the in-terviews the students were asked about their study habits, how dyslexia appears in their studies, which impeding and enhancing factors they could name, and what kind of social support they have received during the studies. The interview data were analysed by using a qualitative abductive content analysis. Finally, four different student profiles were formed based on the analysis. Results and conclusions. Results of the study indicated, that the dyslexic students experi-ence various impeding and enhancing factors in their academic studies. In addition to the factors related directly to dyslexia, study exhaustion was named as a major impeding factor. Self-regulation skills, study engagement, and social support were considered to be the most central factors in overcoming those challenges. Student profiles provide direction for differ-ent measures of support. According to the results, the interventions that are most crucially needed relate to the development of self-regulation skills during the studies, and to recogniz-ing and reducing study exhaustion at their early stages.
  • Pönniö, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukivaikeuden vaikutuksia kielen oppimisen motivaatioon. Lukivaikeus on geneettinen ja neurologinen oppimisvaikeus, joka vaikuttaa etenkin lukemiseen, lausumiseen ja kirjoittamiseen. Nämä vaikeudet taas tulevat ilmi erityisesti vierasta kieltä opiskeltaessa. Lukivaikeutta ja kielten oppimiseen motivoitumista on kumpaakin tutkittu laajasti, mutta näitä kahta ilmiötä yhdistäviä tutkimuksia on hyvin vähän. Vastaavanlaista tutkimusta ei myöskään ole Suomen kontekstissa vielä toteutettu, joten halusin selvittää, minkälaisia asenteita lukivaikeudesta kärsivillä on kirjoitusasultaan toisistaan poikkeavia kieliä, kuten ruotsia ja englantia kohtaan. Tutkielmassa vertaillaan haastateltavia, joilla on lukivaikeus haastateltaviin, jotka eivät kärsi lukivaikeudesta. Näin pyrin selvittämään, millaisia samankaltaisuuksia ja eroja näiden kahden ryhmän väliltä löytyy. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu 12 haastattelusta. Haastateltavat olivat haastatteluhetkellä 18–25-vuotiaita henkilöitä eri koulutustaustoista ja aloilta. Kuudella haastateltavalla on diagnosoitu lievä, keskivaikea tai vaikea lukivaikeus ja kuudella ei ole lukivaikeutta. Haastattelut äänitettiin ja vastaukset litteroitiin ja jaettiin temaattisesti kolmeen kategoriaan: tavoitteet, minäkäsitykset (self-guides) ja asenteet. Kategorioihin jaettuja vastauksia vertailtiin vertailuryhmien sisällä, niiden välillä sekä suhteessa aiempiin tutkimuksiin. Lukivaikeudesta kärsivät haastateltavat olivat opiskelleet huomattavasti vähemmän vieraita kieliä, heillä oli negatiivisempia asenteita kielten opiskelua kohtaan, ja he kokivat olevansa vähemmän päteviä vieraiden kielten käyttäjiä toiseen vertailuryhmään verrattuna. Lisäksi he olivat välineellisesti ja ulkoisesti motivoituneita: heitä motivoi pääasiassa kokeiden ja kurssien läpäisy. Vertailuryhmän tapaan he korostivat myös sitä, kuinka ehdoton englannin kielen taito on nykypäivän työelämässä. Ulkoisten tavoitteiden ja heikomman minäpystyvyytensä myötä myös heidän tulevaisuuden minäkäsityksensä vaikuttivat vertailuryhmää heikommilta. Tukiopetuksen laadulla ja rohkaisulla näyttäisi olevan merkittävä vaikutus erityisesti lukivaikeudesta kärsivien asenteisiin. Tutkielman tulosten mukaan näyttäisi siltä, että lukivaikeudesta aiheutuvat vaikeudet oppimisessa voivat johtaa epäonnistumisten, negatiivisten asenteiden ja heikon motivaation kierteeseen. Toisaalta sisäisemmin motivoituneempia ja kielten oppimiseen positiivisesti suhtautuvia haastateltavia yhdisti oppimisen mielenkiintoisuus ja hauskuus, minkä vuoksi he olivat valmiita näkemään vaivaa kielen oppimisen eteen. Tämä puolestaan johti onnistumisen kokemuksiin, positiivisiin asenteisiin sekä positiivisen motivaation kierteeseen. Tukeakseen lukivaikeudesta kärsiviä kieltenopettajien olisikin tärkeää ymmärtää, millaisia asenteita lukivaikeudesta johtuvat haasteet, epäonnistumiset ja riittämättömyydentunne voivat saada aikaan. Positiiviset kokemukset kielten opiskelusta taas johtavat positiivisiin asenteisiin ja motivaatioon, mikä puolestaan auttaa muovaamaan minäkuvaa pätevästä kielenkäyttäjästä.
  • Tuominen, Hille (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä – Abstrakt – Abstract Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin syntymäaikaisiin riskitekijöihin liittyvän lapsuuden kehityksellisen häiriön (tarkkaavuushäiriö, lukivaikeus, komorbidi) merkitystä 40-vuotiaiden muistisuoriutumisessa osana Kognition pitkittäistutkimusta (KOPUTUS). Tarkasteltavia muistitoimintoja olivat työmuisti, välitön kielellinen muisti sekä viivästetty kielellinen, episodinen ja visuaalinen muisti. Tutkimuskysymykset olivat: 1) Eroaako lapsuusiän kehityksellisten häiriöiden yhteisryhmän muistisuoriutuminen kontrolliryhmästä? 2) Eroaako kehityksellisten häiriöiden ryhmien muistisuoriutuminen toisistaan? Menetelmät. Tutkimusjoukko (N=90) valittiin niistä Kätilöopiston vuosien 1971–1974 perinataaliriskien perusteella koottuun syntymäkohorttiin kuuluvista, joille oli lapsuusiässä todettu joko tarkkaavuushäiriö (N=17), lukivaikeus (N=54) tai molemmat (N=19), ja jotka osallistuivat 40-vuotiaana seurantatutkimukseen. Kontrolliryhmällä ei ollut syntymäaikaisia riskitekijöitä eikä kehityksellisiä häiriöitä (N=72). Muistisuoriutumista mitattiin viidellä neuropsykologisella arviointimenetelmällä. Tilastollisena analyysimenetelmänä oli monimuuttujakovarianssianalyysi (MANCOVA). Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Kehityksellisten häiriöiden yhteisryhmän muistisuoriutuminen oli kontrolleihin nähden heikompaa kaikissa tarkastelluissa muistitoiminnoissa. Lukivaikeuden ja/tai tarkkaavuushäiriön omaavat eivät eronneet toisistaan työmuistissa, välittömässä kielellisessä muistissa tai viivästetyssä episodisessa muistissa. Viivästetyn kielellisen ja visuaalisen muistin kohdalla esiin tuli heikko efekti ryhmienvälisistä eroista, mutta aiheesta tarvitaan lisätutkimusta suuremmilla tutkimusryhmillä. Tulokset ovat valtaosin samanlinjaisia aiempien keski-ikäisiä nuoremmilla osallistujilla tehtyjen tutkimusten kanssa. Lapsuuden kehitykselliset häiriöt on perusteltua huomioida keski-iässä olevien työikäisten muistivaikeuksien erotusdiagnostiikassa. Tiivistelmä – Abstrakt – Abstract Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin syntymäaikaisiin riskitekijöihin liittyvän lapsuuden kehityksellisen häiriön (tarkkaavuushäiriö, lukivaikeus, komorbidi) merkitystä 40-vuotiaiden muistisuoriutumisessa osana Kognition pitkittäistutkimusta (KOPUTUS). Tarkasteltavia muistitoimintoja olivat työmuisti, välitön kielellinen muisti sekä viivästetty kielellinen, episodinen ja visuaalinen muisti. Tutkimuskysymykset olivat: 1) Eroaako lapsuusiän kehityksellisten häiriöiden yhteisryhmän muistisuoriutuminen kontrolliryhmästä? 2) Eroaako kehityksellisten häiriöiden ryhmien muistisuoriutuminen toisistaan? Menetelmät. Tutkimusjoukko (N=90) valittiin niistä Kätilöopiston vuosien 1971–1974 perinataaliriskien perusteella koottuun syntymäkohorttiin kuuluvista, joille oli lapsuusiässä todettu joko tarkkaavuushäiriö (N=17), lukivaikeus (N=54) tai molemmat (N=19), ja jotka osallistuivat 40-vuotiaana seurantatutkimukseen. Kontrolliryhmällä ei ollut syntymäaikaisia riskitekijöitä eikä kehityksellisiä häiriöitä (N=72). Muistisuoriutumista mitattiin viidellä neuropsykologisella arviointimenetelmällä. Tilastollisena analyysimenetelmänä oli monimuuttujakovarianssianalyysi (MANCOVA). Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Kehityksellisten häiriöiden yhteisryhmän muistisuoriutuminen oli kontrolleihin nähden heikompaa kaikissa tarkastelluissa muistitoiminnoissa. Lukivaikeuden ja/tai tarkkaavuushäiriön omaavat eivät eronneet toisistaan työmuistissa, välittömässä kielellisessä muistissa tai viivästetyssä episodisessa muistissa. Viivästetyn kielellisen ja visuaalisen muistin kohdalla esiin tuli heikko efekti ryhmienvälisistä eroista, mutta aiheesta tarvitaan lisätutkimusta suuremmilla tutkimusryhmillä. Tulokset ovat valtaosin samanlinjaisia aiempien keski-ikäisiä nuoremmilla osallistujilla tehtyjen tutkimusten kanssa. Lapsuuden kehitykselliset häiriöt on perusteltua huomioida keski-iässä olevien työikäisten muistivaikeuksien erotusdiagnostiikassa.
  • Hyle-Seisko, Sallamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aim of the study. Nowadays, dyslexias are diagnosed more often compared to previous times due to advanced test methods. According to previous studies, dyslexic students are not often applying for higher education. The aim of this work was to define features that have made it possible for few dyslexic students to get in university despite the dyslexia and how dyslexic students could be integrated better into education system. In this study, it was determined, how the pathways of dyslexic students are composed, which resources of students had assisted them and how the agency of students had developed through school pathway. Further, the connection between resources and agency was investigated. The agency was investigated from the point of views of education history, prevailing environment and active agency. Resources were classified into practical resources, resources of meanings and symbols as well as resources of habits and practices. Used methods. The research data was collected by interviewing five Finnish dyslexic university students, who attended comprehensive school between years 1997 and 2011. Narrations, collected with interviews, included the school pathway from starting school to current period in university. Narrations were analyzed with holistic and thematic narrative research method. Results and conclusions. It was found that the education histories of students differed, though the pathways of students were mostly similar. In addition, the agencies of dyslexic students changed and developed through their pathways, especially the meaning and relation of different pieces of agencies varied. It was found that resources had dependency on the agency of students, since the increase in amount or volume of resources resulted in enhanced agency, and contrariwise. The students were able to turn their dyslexia into resource due to their strengthen self-esteem, pro-dyslexia, clear knowledge of their career as well as their strengths and weaknesses. As conclusions, quadripartite activity guide was formed in order to integrate dyslexic students into our education system. Dyslexia should be diagnosed as early as possible in order to provide students with required support already from the start of their pathways. Further, dyslexic students should also be encouraged to reveal their dyslexia in order to integrate them better into school society. Additionally, knowledge of dyslexia should be increased in every school stage in order to ease diagnosing of dyslexia and revealing of it, when the attitude towards dyslexia would be more positive. By increasing knowledge of dyslexia and its effects, pro-dyslexia could be enhanced. Finally, general action guides should be created as well as the relation of action guide and their actions in practice should be supervised and evaluated
  • Silvo, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of the study was to examine university students and recent graduates with reading difficulties. The aim was to explore what factors have contributed to the students and recent graduates applying for university studies despite their dyslexia. The aim was additionally to study strategies and means of compensation used by the students, their experiences with support received from the educational institutions, and the educational paths the students had taken. The hypothesis was that dyslexic students have had a slower and more laborious educational path than other students. Previous research on the subject has shown that dyslexic students have used a large variety of study strategies and compensatory measures, and family support, in particular, has played an important role in the study path. Timing of the dyslexia diagnosis has also affected the course of education. The study is a multi-case study with thematic interviews using narrative analysis. The research material consisted of seven theme interviews, which were transcribed and organized using the atlas.ti program. Narrative, chronologically progressive accounts were produced of the interviewees' educational paths. The narrative analysis of the material was based on the compilation of materials founded on twenty themes and examination of the narrative reports. The educational paths of the interviewees formed two clear groups. In one group, education progressed directly from primary school to high school and university. Students in the second group experienced long breaks in education and all did not attend high school. Almost all interviewees were diagnosed after elementary school, but the material does not indicate that the education process suffered from a late diagnosis. Not all interviewees needed support for their study paths because of dyslexia. On the other hand, certain students would have needed support but had not received enough. The interviewees had a variety of learning strategies and means of compensation. The study confirms that teaching early learning strategies and early implementation and design support would support dyslexic pupils. Family support was an essential resource for the interviewees during their educational paths.
  • Rautavaara, Sallamaria (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objective: Developmental dyslexia is a neurobiological learning disorder and its prevalence is approximately 3–10 %. The working memory problems associated with dyslexia are well documented. Yet there is no research on subjective memory failures of adults with developmental dyslexia. This study focuses on the relationship between subjective everyday memory failures and cognitive functioning measured by neuropsychological examination. Methods: Neuropsychologically examined 80 Finnish speaking subjects aged 18-35 filled out Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ) as a part of a larger study of neuropsychological rehabilitation for developmental dyslexia. Totally 28 variables that represented all the measures included in the neuropsychological examination were analyzed in this study. EMQ contains totally 36 questions that are divided into five subscales: Speech, Reading and Writing, Actions, Faces and Places and Learning New Things. EMQ subscale scores were transformed into z-scores. Linear regression models were created to predict these z-transformed EMQ subscales and the weighted total score. The Faces and Places subscale was not included in the subscale level analyses because of its low reliability. Results and conclusions: Only one of the 28 analyzed neuropsychological measures significantly predicted the experience of memory problems in everyday life: a nonword spelling task from the Dyslexia screening test for youth and adults. The results show that very few neuropsychological measures predict subjective everyday memory failures of adults with developmental dyslexia even though the study included a wide set of cognitive functions. This result is in line with previous studies on other patient groups, where the self-reported subjective cognitive problems have only few connections with objective cognitive functioning especially in mild cognitive dysfunctions.
  • Varjola, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of linguistic skills in eight-year-old Finnish-speaking children. The study aimed to replicate a three-factor structure, consisting of low and high cognitive load phonological skills and other linguistic skills, that was previously found in a study conducted with English-speaking children. This study also explored whether familial risk for dyslexia is associated with an atypical structure of language abilities since the low performance of dyslexics in phonological tasks supports this possibility. Methods. The sample of this study consisted of 152 first grade children of which 84 were at increased familial risk for dyslexia (at-risk group). Language abilities were assessed with neurocognitive tests that measured phonological skills, rapid automatized naming, retrieval of words, understanding of instructions and working memory. A model of the dimensions of linguistic abilities was formed based on previous research by dividing the tests into low cognitive load phonological skills, high cognitive load phonological skills and other linguistic skills. Results and conclusions. Confirmatory factor analysis that was conducted to the entire sample did not support the hypothesized factor structure. According to explorative factor analyses threefactor structure fit the data in both groups but the observed factor structures were not consistent with the hypothesis. In both groups the observed factor structure contained factors that represented short-term memory and rapid automatized naming indicating that these skills are partially separate from other language abilities. In addition to these, in the control group the factor structure contained a factor that represented complex linguistic skills including both phonological and other language skills. In the at-risk group the observed factor structure did not include an equivalent factor but instead a factor that represented specifically phonological skills. The results indicate that in the control group phonological skills interweave with other complex language skills whereas in the at-risk group phonological skills form a separate set of abilities.
  • Joensuu, Milka (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Goals. Immigrant pupils are over-represented in special education. Linguistic difficulties are the most pivotal reasons for social exclusion of immigrant pupils during their school career. Addedly reading, writing, and language development disorders are the most common reasons for both part-time and extensive special education. I studied class teachers' perceptions of the typical linguistic difficulties of pupils who speak Finnish as their second language and of those who have dyslexia, because I suspect that telling the difference between linguistic competency in progress and the symptoms of dyslexia isn't easy. I look for overlappings in the perceptions of linguistic difficulties, their causes and their support measures, which would reveal the challenges in recognizing linguistic difficulties, which in turn might partly explain why immigrant pupils are over-represented in special education. Methods. This study was carried out as structured individual interviews with nine class teachers from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. To increase reliability, complementary information was gathered about the same phenomenon with a questionnaire that each interviewee filled out at the end of the interview. It was required that the interviewees have experience of teaching both dyslexic pupils and pupils who speak Finnish as a second language. The material analysis was mainly deductive, but the material that wasn't in line with the theoretical frame of reference was analyzed inductively. Results and conclusions. There were overlappings in the class teachers' perceptions of the linguistic difficulties, support measures fitting them and, based on the questionnaire results, also of the causes of these difficulties. Additionally all the interviewees said it to be difficult to recognize dyslexia in a pupil who speaks Finnish as a second language. I came to the conclusion that distinguishing different linguistic difficulties from one another is a challenge to which class teachers don't always feel competent to rise, which is why they consider the assistance of special teachers and other professionals beneficial.
  • Kuusela, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. There are many individual, hereditary and environmental factors affecting children’s language development. However, there are relatively few studies studying background factors related to preschool-aged Finnish children’s language development. The aim of this study is to study the possible effect of background factors to language development of preschool-aged children. Background factors included to this study are gender, familial risk of dyslexia and education of parents. Methods. The data is part of the LEINIKKI study data. The participants (n = 50) were healthy, Finnish-speaking children aged 3;2–4;0. Participants were evaluated with LEINIKKI method, Reynell Developmental Language Scales and LUKIVA method’s subtest for familial dyslexia. Group differences were analyzed for each of the background factors by descriptive statics and Mann-Whitney test. Finally, all the variables were analyzed together with a linear regression model. Results and conclusions. Gender was statistically significantly correlating with language skills. Preschool-aged boys had weaker overall language skills and receptive language skills. In this study, risk for familiar dyslexia or parents’ education wasn’t affecting the language skills of the child. The explanatory power of the linear regression model was weak suggesting that there are also many other additional variables affecting the language development of the children in this age. The results of this study suggest that boys’ language development should be paid attention to. In this study, familial risk for dyslexia didn’t affect to chldren’s language skills. It seems that in Finland, education of parents isn’t as strongly correlated to preschool-aged healthy children’s language development as reported in international research. In addition to the background factors studied in this study, there seems to be also many other background factors that affect children’s language development in preschool age. Further studies on these background factors are needed to gain deeper understanding of children’s language development in preschool age.
  • Rantaniska, Viliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Developmental dyslexia is a learning disability in which a person with normal intelligence and proper education has difficulties in learning to read and write. Usually these problems continue throughout the lifespan. Phonological problems are related to dyslexia but dyslexia seems to be a multifactorial disorder, and also executive function problems have been related to dyslexia. Executive functions are a group of different abilities related to planning, initiation and accomplishment of actions. Executive functions are generally regarded challenging to assess. Executive function problems are known to occur in children with dyslexia, but there is little data available concerning the executive functions of adults with dyslexia. The aim of this study is to investigate whether young adults with dyslexia have executive function problems. Based on the research among children a hypothesis is set: "Young adults with dyslexia have executive function problems". In addition it is examined 1) what kind of executive function problems occur in young dyslexic adults 2) does performance in cognitive executive tests predict the subjective experience of every day executive functioning. Executive functions of 35 young adults aged 18-36 were investigated (25 women, 10 men) as a part of a larger study of the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation for dyslexia. All participants have meda medical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. Executive functions were assessed widely with cognitive executive function tests and a self-evaluation (BRIEF-A, Behavior rating inventory of executive functions – Adult version). Young adults with dyslexia demonstrated problems in executive functions according to hypothesis. Generally the performance in executive function tests were heterogeneous. Objectively problems was detected at group level in inhibition, working memory, fluency and shifting. Subjectively adults with dyslexia reported executive function problems in working memory, initiating and task monitoring. No statistically significant associations were found between cognitive executive function tests and self-evaluated problems. These results widen and confirm our knowledge of developmental dyslexia: adults as well as children with dyslexia have executive function problems. In our modern society where studying and working is usually cognitively demanding and requires usage of written material it is important to understand the diversity of deficits related to learning disabilities.
  • Linden, Lari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Musiikilla ja musiikin harrastamisella voidaan tutkimustiedon perusteella tukea lasten kielellistä kehitystä ja kuulotiedon hermostollista käsittelyä. Musiikkia myös hyödynnetään paljon esimerkiksi lukivaikeudesta kärsivien kouluikäisten lasten kuntoutuksessa. Lukivaikeuden fonologisen selitysmallin mukaan häiriön syynä ovat heikosti muodostuneet puheäänne-edustukset kuuloaivokuorella. Nämä äänne-edustukset syntyvät oman äidinkielen puheäänteille jo varhaisessa vauvaiässä, joten lukivaikeuden fonologisen teorian näkökulmasta tukitoimet tulisi aloittaa jo hyvissä ajoin ennen kouluikää. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, vaikuttaako varhaisen vauvaiän musiikillinen ääniympäristö ja musiikilliset toiminnot kuuden kuukauden ikäisten vauvojen esikielelliseen kehitykseen tai puheäänten hermostolliseen käsittelyyn. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin 34 vauvalta, joista yli puolella oli perinnöllinen alttius lukivaikeuden kehittymiselle. Vauvojen musiikillisia toimintoja ja esikielellistä kehitystä kartoitettiin vanhempien täyttämien kyselylomakkeiden avulla. Lisäksi vauvojen ollessa kuuden kuukauden ikäisiä he osallistuivat ERP-mittaukseen, jonka aikana heille soitettiin toistuvaa epäsanaa /ta-ta/, jonka jälkimmäisessä tavussa esiintyi satunnaisia äänen keston, korkeuden ja vokaalin muutoksia. Tämän jälkeen tarkasteltiin vauvojen viikoittaisen musiikille altistumisen määrän ja musiikillisten toimintojen yhteyttä heidän esikielellisen kehityksensä taitotasoon sekä puheäänten hermostollista käsittelyä heijastaviin ERP-vasteisiin. Tulosten perusteella musiikin hyöty vauvojen varhaiskehityksessä näyttää perustuvan pitkälti aktiivisen musiikillisen toiminnan ja sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen yhteisvaikutukseen. Erityisesti rytmin havaitse-miseen perustuvien sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa toteutettujen musiikillisten toimintojen, kuten tans-simisen ja rummuttelun määrä näyttää olevan yhteydessä vauvojen esikielellisen kehityksen tasoon. Tut-kimus antaa viitteitä siitä, millaisella kodin piirissä toteutettavalla musiikillisella toiminnalla voidaan tukea vauvojen esikielellisten taitojen kehitystä. Tulevaisuudessa musiikin sisällyttäminen osaksi lasten varhaiskasvatusta on mahdollisesti tehokkain kielellisen kehityksen tukitoimi myös lukivaikeuden kohdal-la.
  • Meriläinen, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Developmental dyslexia is a heritable learning disorder which according to the predominant theories has its core problems in the processing of speech sounds. Auditory processing deficits have been found in dyslexics and in infants with a genetic risk for dyslexia. It has been shown that infants with a genetic risk for dyslexia have attenuated or more right-hemispheric lateralized auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to changes in speech stimuli compared to infants with no genetic risk. It has been shown that interventions can ameliorate the reading and writing skills of dyslexics and concurrently influence their ERPs. The aim of the present study was to find out if an early musical intervention can ameliorate the auditory processing skills in infants. Altogether 58 infants with a genetic risk for dyslexia were assigned to three groups where one group listened to vocal music, second group listened to instrumental versions of the same music and the third one was a control group with no intervention. After six months of intervention, auditory ERPs of the infants were recorded while the infants were presented with a repetitive pseudoword /tata/ with random infrequent duration, frequency, or vowel changes in the latter syllable. It was also studied if the ERPs were correlated with the amount of music played during the intervention or with the parents' evaluations of their infant's degree of prelinguistic development. The groups differed from each other in the auditory processing of the repetitive standard sound so that in the control group the ERPs had a different hemispheric pattern compared to the intervention groups and the repetitive sound was processed faster in the control group than in the instrumental group. It was also found that the hemispheric pattern of the ERPs for the vowel changes was different in the instrumental intervention group compared to the other groups. The parents' evaluations of the prelinguistic development of their infant were correlated with the ERPs so that the ERPs to the repetitive standard stimuli were enhanced and reached their peak earlier in the infants who were evaluated to be more mature in their prelinguistic development. According to the results, the ERPs for the repetitive sounds are correlated with children's linguistic development and an early musical intervention can modify the neural network processing speech sounds in infants with a genetic risk for dyslexia. In the future, it should be followed if these intervention effects on brain functions also enhance the linguistic development of the children and it should be also explored how other parts of the auditory environment of the children besides the intervention have possibly affected their auditory skills.
  • Patronen, Senni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a new phonemic awareness test to study children who have potential problems in their reading skills. The children were second graders whose reading skills either had or had not caused worry at home or school. The phonemic awareness test was developed for investigating and providing intervention on phonemic awareness. This new method includes ten different ways to change phonemes in a word. We determined if some of these phonemic changes are better at separating the groups from each other and whether there are differences between the tasks in the degree of difficulty. In addition, the children were also tested with standardized neuropsychological tests that measure reading-related skills. The study was done completely remotely and one of its aims was also to get additional information on feasibility of neuropsychological testing in remote environments. Methods: 16 participants took part in the study. Eight of them were children whose reading skills had caused worry and other eight whose reading skills had not caused such worry. The study was done remotely using Zoom and the experiment took about 1-1,5 hours depending on how quickly the child completed the tasks. There were 11 tasks altogether, which assessed the child’s reading and writing skills and skills that can affect these, such as phonological skills, working memory and rapid naming. Results: The groups differed from each other almost in every standardized test and also in the new phonemic awareness test. In the new phonemic awareness test children who had caused worry on their reading skills got less points in every part, but the groups differed statistically significantly in five of them only. These five included changing the beginning or the ending of the word, diphthong, diphthong to long vowel and changing a vowel to a consonant. The degree of difficulty varied between the subtests of the phonemic awareness task, the pattern of performance being comparable in the two groups. Detecting differences between word beginnings and syllables was the easiest and detecting diphthong and vowel to consonant or consonant to vowel changes were the most difficult. These results are promising, suggesting that the phonemic awareness test could serve to identify problems in phonemic awareness in children whose reading skills are suspected to be poor. This study also suggested the feasibility of carrying out neuropsychological tests remotely.