Browsing by Subject "lung function"

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  • Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Thawer, Narjis; Charles, David; Cassidy, Aedin; van Zele, Thibaut; Thilsing, Trine; Ahlström, Matti; Haahtela, Tari; Keil, Thomas; Matricardi, Paolo M.; Brozek, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Marek L.; Makowska, Joanna; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Rymarczyk, Barbara; Loureiro, Carlos; Bom, Ana Todo; Bachert, Claus; Forsberg, Bertil; Janson, Christer; Toren, Kjell; Potts, James F.; Burney, Peter G. J. (2018)
    Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA(2)LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC <LLN), and FEV1/FVC <LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA(2)LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes' procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC <LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a -coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a -coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes' procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults.
  • Tischer, Christina; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Flexeder, Claudia; Roponen, Marjut; Hyvarinen, Anne; Renz, Harald; Frey, Urs Peter; Fuchs, Oliver; Pekkanen, Juha (2021)
    Background Exposure to indoor moisture damage and visible mold has been found to be associated with asthma and respiratory symptoms in several questionnaire-based studies by self-report. We aimed to define the prospective association between the early life exposure to residential moisture damage or mold and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lung function parameters as objective markers for airway inflammation and asthma in 6-year-old children. Methods Home inspections were performed in children's homes when infants were on average 5 months old. At age 6 years, data on FeNO (n = 322) as well as lung function (n = 216) measurements were collected. Logistic regression and generalized additive models were used for statistical analyses. Results Early age major moisture damage and moisture damage or mold in the child's main living areas were significantly associated with increased FeNO levels (>75th percentile) at the age of 6 years (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, aOR (95% CI): 3.10 (1.35-7.07) and 3.16 (1.43-6.98), respectively. Effects were more pronounced in those who did not change residential address throughout the study period. For lung function, major structural damage within the whole home was associated with reduced FEV1 and FVC, but not with FEV1/FVC. No association with lung function was observed with early moisture damage or mold in the child's main living areas. Conclusion These results underline the importance of prevention and remediation efforts of moisture and mold-damaged buildings in order to avoid harmful effects within the vulnerable phase of the infants and children's immunologic development.
  • Hose, Alexander J.; Depner, Martin; Illi, Sabina; Lau, Susanne; Keil, Thomas; Wahn, Ulrich; Fuchs, Oliver; Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Schmausser-Hechfellner, Elisabeth; Genuneit, Jon; Lauener, Roger; Karvonen, Anne M.; Roduit, Caroline; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Riedler, Josef; Pekkanen, Juha; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Bauer, Carl Peter; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Wahn, Volker; Schuster, Antje; Bergmann, Renate L.; Bergmann, Karl E.; Reich, Andreas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Schaub, Bianca; Loss, Georg J.; Renz, Harald; Kabesch, Michael; Roponen, Marjut; Hyvarinen, Anne; Tiittanen, Pekka; Remes, Sami; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Frei, Remo; Kaulek, Vincent; Dalphin, Marie-Laure; Doekes, Gert; Blumer, Nicole; Frey, Urs; MAS Study Grp; PASTURE Study Grp (2017)
    Background: Phenotypes of childhood-onset asthma are characterized by distinct trajectories and functional features. For atopy, definition of phenotypes during childhood is less clear. Objective: We sought to define phenotypes of atopic sensitization over the first 6 years of life using a latent class analysis (LCA) integrating 3 dimensions of atopy: allergen specificity, time course, and levels of specific IgE (sIgE). Methods: Phenotypes were defined by means of LCA in 680 children of the Multizentrische Allergiestudie (MAS) and 766 children of the Protection against allergy: Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) birth cohorts and compared with classical nondisjunctive definitions of seasonal, perennial, and food sensitization with respect to atopic diseases and lung function. Cytokine levels were measured in the PASTURE cohort. Results: The LCA classified predominantly by type and multiplicity of sensitization (food vs inhalant), allergen combinations, and sIgE levels. Latent classes were related to atopic disease manifestations with higher sensitivity and specificity than the classical definitions. LCA detected consistently in both cohorts a distinct group of children with severe atopy characterized by high seasonal sIgE levels and a strong propensity for asthma; hay fever; eczema; and impaired lung function, also in children without an established asthma diagnosis. Severe atopy was associated with an increased IL-5/IFN-gamma ratio. A path analysis among sensitized children revealed that among all features of severe atopy, only excessive sIgE production early in life affected asthma risk. Conclusions: LCA revealed a set of benign, symptomatic, and severe atopy phenotypes. The severe phenotype emerged as a latent condition with signs of a dysbalanced immune response. It determined high asthma risk through excessive sIgE production and directly affected impaired lung function.
  • Kainu, A.; Timonen, K. L.; Toikka, J.; Qaiser, B.; Pitkaniemi, J.; Kotaniemi, J. T.; Lindqvist, A.; Vanninen, E.; Lansimies, E.; Sovijarvi, A. R. A. (2016)
    BackgroundDiagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. MethodsSpirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. ResultsThe predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 62% and 51% and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) by an average 42% and 30% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. ConclusionThis study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes.
  • Sivunen, Johanna; Piirila, Paivi; Karlberg, Susann; Kajosaari, Merja; Valmari, Pekka; Kupari, Markku; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Jalanko, Hannu; Sovijarvi, Anssi R. A. (2020)
    Background Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare growth restriction disorder with multiple organ manifestations caused by genetic defects affecting the TRIM37 protein. A perimyocardial heart disease is the most serious manifestation. Many MUL children appear to suffer from airway obstruction related to infection or exercise, prompting use of inhaled therapies. Asthma medication is continued up to adolescence or even to adulthood due to persisting of symptoms. The pulmonary pathophysiology has previously not been evaluated in any MUL cohort. Methods Thirty three finnish MUL patients (median age 20 years) were investigated with several lung function tests: spirometry with bronchodilatation test, single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, single-breath lung volume measurements with helium dilution, and thoracic gas volume, airway resistance and specific conductance measurements with a body plethysmograph. As MUL typically affects body proportions, all variables were compared with reference values and with predicted values calculated from sitting height. Results Total lung capacity and forced vital capacity were markedly reduced (total lung capacity [TLC] and forced vital capacity [FVC], P <.001, 51%-63% of predicted) and also forced expiratory volume in the first second was reduced (FEV1; P <.001, 47%-57%). No signs of airway obstruction was seen (normal FEV1/FVC and specific airway conductance SGaw). Diffusing capacity (DLCO) was decreased (P <.001, 60%-67%) but when related to alveolar volume it was increased (DLCO/VA, P <.001, 130%-148%). Bronchodilatation suggesting active asthma (FEV1 change >= 12% and >= 200 mL) was found only in one patient. Conclusion MUL patients typically have volume restriction of the lungs, but function of the pulmonary tissue remains intact. Evidence of asthma in lung function testing at adult age is rare.
  • Fawcett, Katherine A.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Melbourne, Carl; Shrine, Nick; Guyatt, Anna L.; John, Catherine; Luan, Jian'an; Richmond, Anne; Moksnes, Marta R.; Granell, Raquel; Weiss, Stefan; Imboden, Medea; May-Wilson, Sebastian; Hysi, Pirro; Boutin, Thibaud S.; Portas, Laura; Flexeder, Claudia; Harris, Sarah E.; Wang, Carol A.; Lyytikäinen, Leo Pekka; Palviainen, Teemu; Foong, Rachel E.; Keidel, Dirk; Minelli, Cosetta; Langenberg, Claudia; Bossé, Yohan; Berge, Maarten Van den; Sin, Don D.; Hao, Ke; Campbell, Archie; Porteous, David; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H.; Evans, David M.; Ring, Sue; Langhammer, Arnulf; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, Cristen; Ewert, Ralf; Stubbe, Beate; Pirastu, Nicola; Klaric, Lucija; Joshi, Peter K.; Patasova, Karina; Massimo, Mangino; Polasek, Ozren; Starr, John M.; Karrasch, Stefan; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Rudan, Igor; Rantanen, Taina; Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hall, Graham L.; Sly, Peter D.; Pennell, Craig E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lehtimäki, Terho; Vitart, Veronique; Deary, Ian J.; Jarvis, Debbie; Wilson, James F.; Spector, Tim; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Völzke, Henry; Henderson, John; Strachan, David P.; Brumpton, Ben M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hall, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.; Wain, Louise V. (2021)
    Background: Lung function is highly heritable and differs between the sexes throughout life. However, little is known about sexdifferential genetic effects on lung function. We aimed to conduct the first genome-wide genotype-by-sex interaction study on lung function to identify genetic effects that differ between males and females. Methods: We tested for interactions between 7,745,864 variants and sex on spirometry-based measures of lung function in UK Biobank (N=303,612), and sought replication in 75,696 independent individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Results: Five independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed genome-wide significant (P<5x10-8) interactions with sex on lung function, and 21 showed suggestive interactions (P<1x10-6). The strongest signal, from rs7697189 (chr4:145436894) on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P=3.15x10-15), was replicated (P=0.016) in SpiroMeta. The C allele increased FEV1 more in males (untransformed FEV1 β=0.028 [SE 0.0022] litres) than females (β=0.009 [SE 0.0014] litres), and this effect was not accounted for by differential effects on height, smoking or pubertal age. rs7697189 resides upstream of the hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP) gene and was previously associated with lung function and HHIP lung expression. We found HHIP expression was significantly different between the sexes (P=6.90x10-6), but we could not detect sex differential effects of rs7697189 on expression. Conclusions: We identified a novel genotype-by-sex interaction at a putative enhancer region upstream of the HHIP gene. Establishing the mechanism by which HHIP SNPs have different effects on lung function in males and females will be important for our understanding of lung health and diseases in both sexes.