Browsing by Subject "lysergic acid diethylamide"

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  • Elsilä, Lauri V.; Korhonen, Nuppu; Hyytiä, Petri; Korpi, Esa R. (2020)
    While interest in psychedelic drugs in the fields of psychiatry and neuroscience has re-emerged in recent last decades, the general understanding of the effects of these drugs remains deficient. In particular, there are gaps in knowledge on executive functions and goal-directed behaviors both in humans and in commonly used animal models. The effects of acute doses of psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on reward-driven decision making were explored using the mouse version of the Iowa Gambling Task. A total of 15 mice were trained to perform in a touch-screen adaptation of the rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task, after which single acute doses of LSD (0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg), serotonin 2A receptor-selective agonist 25CN-NBOH (1.5 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg), and saline were administered before the trial. 25CN-NBOH and the three lowest doses of LSD showed no statistically significant changes in option selection or in general functioning during the gambling task trials. The highest dose of LSD (0.4 mg/kg) significantly decreased premature responding and increased the omission rate, but had no effect on option selection in comparison with the saline control. Amphetamine significantly decreased the correct responses and premature responding while increasing the omission rate. In conclusion, mice can perform previously learned, reward-driven decision-making tasks while under the acute influence of LSD at a commonly used dose range.
  • Harkki, Juliana Sade Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: Alcohol dependence is a chronic severe substance use disorder that has devastating personal and public health consequences. The efficacy of the current pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of alcohol dependence are modest at best, therefore better alternatives are greatly needed. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has shown promise in treatment of alcohol dependence in several clinical trials. A sigle high dose of LSD has been suggested to have a treatment effect that last for at least six months, indicating a remarkably better efficacy than the currently available methods. LSD itself has been reported to have a low addiction potential. In mouse models, acute LSD has been demonstrated to reduce ethanol consumption. Yet, the mechanism of action behind these effects has remained largely unknown. LSD is an agonist of serotonin’s 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors which have been shown to modulate the dopaminergic activity of the reward circuitry, a crucial brain area in the initiation of addiction. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a procedure for a quantitative assessment of reward behavior in animal models. In ICSS, laboratory rodents self-administer electric stimulation to the dopaminergic pathways of the reward circuitry inducing a reinforcing effect similar to drug reward. Aim: The aim of the current body of work was to use ICSS to assess the acute effects of LSD on reward behavior in C57BL/6JRj mice. This was done to improve the understanding of the mechanism of action of LSD and to evaluate whether the ethanol-consumption-reducing effect of LSD in mice is mediated through the reward mechanism. Methods: Bipolar electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle were implanted in the brains of C57BL/6JRj mice in a stereotaxic surgery. The animals were trained to acquire the self-stimulation in the discrete-trial current-intensity procedure. First, the possible dose-dependent acute effects were tested with three different doses of LSD. Next, the acute effect of LSD on amphetamine-induced changes in ISCC were tested. Lastly, a small preliminary test on the effects of LSD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced changes on ICSS were conducted. Results and conclusions: Acute LSD did not affect reward behavior in ICSS on any of the tested doses. Accordingly, LSD did not affect the facilitation of ICSS induced by acute amphetamine. The results of the LPS experiment were likely to be skewed by the development of tolerance to LPS, therefore the evaluation of the possible effect of LSD was not possible. These findings suggest that the previously reported LSD-induced reduction in ethanol consumption in mice, is not mediated through alteration of the reward mechanism. At the same time, these findings provide further evidence supporting the suggestion that LSD itself does not induce facilitation of the reward circuitry needed for the development of addiction.