Browsing by Subject "maataloustiede"

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  • Kaustell, Kim (2020)
    Agriculture and commercial fishing are among the most hazardous occupations world- wide, also in Finland. Various efforts have been developed to prevent and mitigate the effects of occupational accidents and diseases. The process of risk management comprises two significant stages: 1) risk assessment, and 2) risk treatment. Occupational safety and health (OSH) risk assessment builds on the evolution of accident causation models and of knowledge on human behavior over several decades. Risk treatment has also evolved, ranging from limited targeted efforts to multi-faceted interventions. The aims of this thesis were to identify factors that influence the incidence and se- verity of occupational accidents (risk assessment approach) and work system related factors that affect efficacy of occupational safety interventions (risk treatment approach). Information of the identified factors, called “occupational safety determinants” in this thesis, was composed into a list of occupational safety determinant clusters with respect to their contribution to occupational safety risk assessment and risk treatment. Four original articles were used as case studies to derive occupational safety determinants. Two of the articles focused on the occupational safety of farmers while the two other articles dealt with that of commercial fishers. For both occupations, there was one article based on accident insurance claim records, and one article based on user (farmer/fisher) centered surveys. The list of occupational safety determinant clusters was used to facilitate the assessment and discussion of occupational safety determinants. The list comprises the following nine titles: Physical environment, Organization and management, Individual, Task, Tools and technologies, External, Performance, Intervention mechanisms, and Intervention drivers and barriers. Analysis of occupational accident insurance claim records with a limited set of variables yielded a narrow quantitative set of safety determinants that mainly described the immediate accident context. The result was expected, because the national and the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) methods include sparse if any information on distal factors to the accident, such as the effect of work organization, management, or external factors of the accident etiology. The user centered surveys yielded a broader qualitative spectrum of occupational safety determinants, and provided also insight into additional, macro-ergonomic factors, such as the social and organizational context as well as contextual factors potentially influencing adoption of safety interventions. User centered research methods along with research that is based on accident claim records can assist in designing more effective occupational safety interventions. These methods contribute to understanding the individuals’ behavior in the context of work, both from accident and hazard analysis as well as from the accident prevention view- point. Multi-faceted approaches are needed to provide comprehensive information that is essential for reducing the excessive burden of injury and illness in agriculture and commercial fishing.
  • Niemelä, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera) is the major oilseed crop cultivated in Finland. The earliness of turnip rape favours its cultivation in northern climates, but its seed yield is low. Hybrid breeding has been utilized in many agricultural crops to improve the seed yield. The exploitation depends on the degree of heterosis that a specific crop shows and on the requirement of a functional hybrid system to cross the parent lines in the production of F1 hybrid seed. In this thesis, the possibility to advance hybrid breeding in developing higher-yielding spring turnip rape cultivars was studied. Spring turnip rape expressed heterosis for increased seed yield. Composite hybrids showed significantly higher yield potential than open-pollinated cultivars. Testing the combining abilities of the parent lines is important in turnip rape. A high degree of variation in commercial heterosis for seed yield was observed between the tested combinations within the groups in both synthetics and composite hybrids. The highest yield increase achieved in this study was 18% in synthetics and 23% in composite hybrids. The Ogu-INRA CMS/Rf hybrid system was selected for the study. To generate a functional, fertility-restoring male line for turnip rape, the Kosena fertility-restoring Rfk1 gene, originating from Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) and homologue to the Ogura fertility restoring gene Rfo, was transferred successfully from oilseed rape (B. napus) to turnip rape. Transferring of the gene was realized using interspecific crosses followed by traditional backcrossing. The TaqMan qPCR method proved useful in selecting homozygous restorer plants before flowering. Interpollination of selected plants instead of inbreeding is a benefit in cross-pollinating crops that suffer from inbreeding depression. The Rfk1 gene was able to restore the fertility of turnip rape with Ogura CMS, but the trait was unstable in the turnip rape genome. The Rfk1 gene was localized on an additional radish chromosome in the A genome of turnip rape. The BAC64 clone, carrying the Rfo locus, homolog to the Rfk1, identified the locus both in the additional radish chromosome and in the turnip rape chromosome (A09). The high homology of this locus between radish and turnip rape and its location in subterminal part of the chromosome in both genomes would facilitate the transfer of the fertility-restoring trait from radish to turnip rape. It was concluded that additional breeding techniques such as changing the ploidy level or using irradiation to increase the recombination activity between nonhomologous R and A genomes may be required. Even though 100% F1 hybrids were not tested here, the results of this thesis support the use of hybrid breeding in turnip rape. The breeding work towards a stable, fertility-restoring male line for the Ogu-INRA CMS/Rf hybrid system should be continued. To have a functional Ogu-INRA CMS/Rf hybrid system for turnip rape, it seems ideal if the homologous chromosomal area in the A genome could be substituted with the radish chromosome area having the restorer gene.
  • Nykänen, Arja (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 2008)
    In agricultural systems which rely on organic sources of nitrogen (N), of which the primary source is biological N fixation (BNF), it is extremely important to use N as efficiently as possible with minimal losses to the environment. The amount of N through BNF should be maximised and the availability of the residual N after legumes should be synchronised to the subsequent plant needs in the crop rotation. Six field experiments in three locations in Finland were conducted in 1994-2006 to determine the productivity and amount of BNF in red clover-grass leys of different ages. The residual effects of the leys for subsequent cereals as well as the N leaching risk were studied by field measurements and by simulation using the CoupModel. N use efficiency (NUE) and N balances were also calculated. The yields of red clover-grass leys were highest in the two-year-old leys (6 700 kg ha-1) under study, but the differences between 2- and 3-year old leys were not high in most cases. BNF (90 kg ha-1 in harvested biomass) correlated strongly with red clover dry matter yield, as the proportion of red clover N derived from the atmosphere (> 85%) was high in our conditions of organically farmed field with low soil mineral N. A red clover content of over 40% in dry matter is targeted to avoid negative N-balances and to gain N for the subsequent crop. Surprisingly, the leys had no significant effect on the yields and N uptake of the two subsequent cereals (winter rye or spring wheat, followed by spring oats). On the other hand, yield and C:N of leys, as well as BNF-N and total-N incorporated into the soil influenced on subsequent cereal yields. NUE of cereals from incorporated ley crop residues was rather high, varying from 30% to 80% (mean 48%). The mineral N content of soil in the profile of 0-90 cm was low, mainly 15-30 kg ha-1. Simulation of N dynamics by CoupModel functioned satisfactorily and is considered a useful tool to estimate N flows in cropping systems relying on organic N sources. Understanding the long-term influence of cultivation history and soil properties on N dynamics remains to be a challenge to further research.
  • Kallioniemi, Marja (MTT eli Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus, Taloustutkimus, 2013)
    The restructuring of agriculture in Finland has resulted in several types of change on farms during recent years. The field areas and sizes of herds per farm have been increasing, while the number of farms has been decreasing. Concurrently, the risks of agriculture have increased. Ongoing change has been described as a modernization process from traditional farming towards a more enterprise form of agriculture. Farms are mainly owned by private persons in Finland. The farm entrepreneurs and their well-being at work are at the core of this thesis. Human capacity, including work ability, health and coping has been assessed as a crucial element for the success of the farm enterprise. Stress is commonly described as a situation in which the demands of work are greater than the worker is able to cope with. This type of conflicting and strenuous situation may induce different kinds of symptoms and diseases in people. Agriculture is among the most injury-prone working sectors. The aims of this research were to determine the prevalence and symptoms of stress among full-time farm entrepreneurs, identify possibilities to increase occupational safety during animal handling work and characterise the negative and positive elements of women s working conditions on dairy farms. These aims were addressed through two main samples. The first was a telephone survey of 1 182 full-time farmers focusing on stress and symptoms among the respondents. Secondly, a qualitative study was carried out involving ten female farmers working on dairy farms that focused on occupational safety during animal handling and the working conditions of women. According to the results, full-time farmers experienced less stress than among the general working population in Finland. One in four (26%) full-time farmers had symptoms of weakness or fatigue and one in five (19%) farmers had symptoms of insomnia or difficulties in falling asleep. Both of these symptoms had increased statistically significantly when compared to an earlier follow-up survey in 1992. Problems with social relationships and lowered state of health were associated with stress and symptoms. Pesticide usage of over two weeks during the previous growing period had an association with symptoms. Based on the literature review, the most common stressors among farm entrepreneurs were the farm economy, regulations, the weather, dangers in farm work and new legislation. In the qualitative study occupational accidents were frequent: nearly all women had suffered one or more injuries during the previous two years. Unexpected animal behavior was considered as the most significant injury risk.The results revealed that a positive relationship between the stockperson and cattle as well as knowledge of animal behaviour and welfare enabled a safer working environment to gradually be built in the cattle barn. In practice, the stockperson should keep physical conditions animal friendly, perform positive and predictable routines, habituate young calves to people, avoid the separation of an individual animal, not dominate animals by force and be patient during work among farm animals. In addition, it is important to always be prepared for self-defence. Female respondents were involved in wide range of different work tasks on dairy farms. As a positive element, nearly all respondents considered work with animals and close to nature to be rewarding. On the other side, women s working days were long. Old traditions may create invisible barriers to organizing the work in a more functional way on enlarged farm units. Most women chose farm entrepreneur as their professional title, but their professional position was often undefined or misunderstood. The valuable contribution of female farm entrepreneurs to agriculture should be recognized and supported, because women s expertise within agriculture is important in finding solutions for future challenges such as sustainable, organic agriculture and animal welfare. Due to the ongoing restructuring of the agricultural sector in Finland, the well-being at work among farm entrepreneurs requires support, efforts and attention. The working environment related to agriculture includes several risks such as stress, injury and an impairment of work ability.