Browsing by Subject "machiavellismi"

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  • Jaari, Aini (2000)
    The study is based on a measure of global self-esteem developed by Rosenberg (1965). The aims are (1) to investigate in an adult population the concept of self-esteem as defined by Rosenberg, (2) to develop measures for examining qualitative differences within this global concept, (3) to map out qualitative differences in self-esteem for the sample of adults involved in the study. Antonovsky (1979) provides the theoretical basis for measures to examine qualitative differences. These include a sense of coherence, machiavellism (Mach IV) and the 'Big Five' personality theories. Emerging qualitative factors (personality components) and their interrelationships are examined. Data was collected during 1995 through questionnares administered to course participants representing different work environments (n=368). Gender, age and education were independent variables. In methodological terms the study was quantitative. Results were examined first on the basis of percentages, averages and correlations. The predictors of the global concept of self-esteem were analysed by means of factor analysis and linear regression analysis. Analysis of variance examined whether, in terms of the predictors, there were differences between different professional groups. The following dimensions of coherence emerged: a sense of meaninglessness (a=.77), disappointment in interpersonal relationships (a=.74), anxiety (a=73). The components of machiavellism were: cynicism (a= .73) and honesty/moral respect (a=.65). The dimensions of a sense of competence were: a wish to please (a=.70), competence and success (a= .78) and success at school (a= .74). Other personality factors were: social competence and empathy (a=.78), willingness to experiment (a=.69), social and verbal influence (a=.78), a sense of shame (a=.70), a sense of guilt (a= .69) and conservatism (a= .67). Gender and age did not have an effect on global self-esteem (Rosenberg). However, level of education did. Those with more extensive education seemed to have higher levels of self-esteem. Weak sense of coherence, shame and guilt as predictors of low self-esteem were common to the whole sample. Education and age also contributed to qualitative predictors. Cynicism and disappointment in interpersonal relationships characterised low self-esteem in young men (aged below 31) who had less education. For employed young adults and women with more education, talkativeness, which was associated with low self-esteem, could be explained as a defence and compensatory mechanism. For women, low self-esteem was affected by aspects to do with a sense of life coherence, shame and guilt. Low self-esteem among educated men was explained by aspects of empathy and social competence. While for men success was the most important contributor, for women it was close interpersonal relationships, empathy and social interaction. The results are largely in agreement with the views expressed by Rosenberg, i.e. the importance of social, normative and institutional integration in affecting self-esteem. Rosenberg, M. (1965): Society and adolescent self-image. Rosenberg, M. (1979): Conceiving the self. Antonovsky, A. (1979): Health, stress and coping.
  • Repo, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aivoja tutkivien tieteiden kehityksen myötä nk. aivojenjäljittelyteknologia on noussut yleisen mielenkiinnon kohteeksi, herättäen ihmisissä sekä innostusta että vastustusta. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa aivojenjäljittelyteknologian hyväksyttävyyttä koskevia arvioita on tarkasteltu suhteessa erilaisiin selittäviin taustamuuttujiin, kuten persoonallisuuteen ja arvoihin. Tutkimatta on kuitenkin toistaiseksi ollut erilaisten moraaliperiaatteiden yhteys aivojenjäljittelyteknologiaa koskeviin asenteisiin. Tässä tutkielmassa koetellaan aiemmissa kokeissa havaittujen ilmiöön liittyvien yhteyksien toistettavuutta, sekä uutena elementtinä tutkitaan välineellisen vahingonteon hyväksymisen sekä psykopatian yhteyttä aivojen jäljittelyä koskeviin moraaliarvioihin. Tutkimuksen hypoteesit esitettiin rakenneyhtälömallissa, joka esirekisteröitiin ennen aineistonkeruuta. Aineisto kerättiin kyselytutkimuksena internet-pohjaisesti Prolific-tutkimusalustan kautta ja se koostui 1004 vastaajasta. Moraaliarvioita aivojäljittelyteknologiasta mitattiin aiemmin kehitetyn Aivojen jäljittelyn hyväksyttävyys -tarinan ja tähän liittyvän kysymysjoukon avulla. Taipumusta utilitaristiseen päätöksentekoon mitattiin Joshua Greenen moraalidilemmoilla sekä Oxford Utilitarianism Scale -mittarilla. Psykopatiaa mitattiin The Short Dark Triad -mittarilla. Esitetyn mallin yhteensopivuutta havaintoaineiston kanssa arvioitiin tarkastelemalla joukkoa ennalta määritettyjä yhteensopivuusindeksejä. Mallivertailun tulokset tukivat keskeisimpiä hypoteesejä. Erityisesti alttius hyväksyä vahingonteko yleisen edun nimessä oli yhteydessä aivojen jäljittelyn suurempaan hyväksymiseen. Ennakoitua yhteyttä psykopatian ja aivojen jäljittelyn hyväksymisen välillä ei havaittu, mutta psykopatiaan läheisesti liittyvän machiavellismi oli yhteydessä aivojen jäljittelyn suurempaan hyväksymiseen. Tulosten pohjalta esitettiin useita mahdollisia jatkotutkimushypoteesejä. Tutkimuksen toivotaan edistävän kysymysten ympärillä käytävää vuoropuhelua ja auttavan erilaisten teknologista kehitystä koskevien eettisten arvostelmien ymmärtämisessä.
  • Jaari, Aini (2004)
    This study aimed to clarify underlying variables of global self-esteem in work-aged Finnish men and women as assessed on a measure developed by M. Rosenberg (1965). The study examined the relationship between self-esteem and (1) sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1979) and sense of competence, (2) Machiavellism (Mach IV) and (3) personal values assessed through the Portraits measure (Schwartz, 2001) and completed in relation to work and spiritual values. Based on Eagly's (1987) theory of gender role differences, the self-esteem of young adults in further education or at work was compared. The study consisted of two data sets collected through questionnaires: the first in 1995 (n=368), the second in 2001 (n=1283). The central variables were gender, age, education and professional/occupational categories. The sets of data were also examined in relation to salary and type of occupational enterprise including farming. Results showed that neither gender nor age was related to level of self-esteem. However, the more educated the individuals the higher their self-esteem. Low self-esteem was best explained by a low sense of coherence and Machiavellian cynicism. Both can be considered related to weak social integration within society. Cynicism was highest among those men and women aged under 31 years with low levels of education and also those engaged in farming. Young people in further education had more problems with their sense of coherence than those in employment. Well-educated entrepreneurs achieved the highest scores on the self-esteem measure while those engaged in farming had the lowest scores. It seems that a proportion of the farming population perceive themselves deceived and marginalized within the Finnish society which, in turn, contributes to their low self-esteem, cynical attitude and conflicting values. Although this study showed that women were more social and emphatic than men, gender role differences at the workplace had narrowed. For both sexes, roles at the workplace were shaped by society's norms, expectations and demands. A sense of competence and success at the workplace was a very important correlate of self-esteem for both men and women. It can be concluded that work is an important route to social integration in society and work has a positive effect on the individual's sense of self-worth. According to the study, men and especially women at work appear to base their self-esteem on personal competence in the areas of knowledge, skills and social relations and on individual self-enhancement and values. The results of the study are in accordance with the views of Morris Rosenberg. Weak and problematic interpersonal relationships (integration between individuals) and weak institutional and norm-dependent behaviour are typical of persons with low self-esteem.