Browsing by Subject "magnetic fields"

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  • Micelotta, Elisabetta R.; Juvela, Mika; Padoan, Paolo; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Alina, Dana; Malinen, Johanna (2021)
    Context. The all-sky survey from the Planck space telescope has revealed that thermal emission from Galactic dust is polarized on scales ranging from the whole sky down to the inner regions of molecular clouds. Polarized dust emission can therefore be used as a probe for magnetic fields on different scales. In particular, the analysis of the relative orientation between the density structures and the magnetic field projected on the plane of the sky can provide information on the role of magnetic fields in shaping the structure of molecular clouds where star formation takes place.Aims. The orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the density structures has been investigated using different methods. The goal of this paper is to explicitly compare two of these: the Rolling Hough Transform (RHT) and the gradient technique (GRAD).Methods. We generated synthetic surface brightness maps at 353 GHz (850 mu m) via magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We applied RHT and GRAD to two morphologically different regions identified in our maps. Region 1 is dominated by a dense and thick filamentary structure with some branches, while Region 2 includes a thinner filament with denser knots immersed in a more tenuous medium. Both methods derive the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the density structures, to which we applied two statistics, the histogram of relative orientation and the projected Rayleigh statistic, to quantify the variations of the relative orientation as a function of column density.Results. Both methods find areas with significant signal, and these areas are substantially different. In terms of relative orientations, in all our considered cases the predominant orientation of the density structures is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. When the methods are applied to the same selected areas the results are consistent with each other in Region 2 but show some noticeable differences in Region 1. In Region 1, RHT globally finds the relative orientation becoming more perpendicular for increasing column density, while GRAD, applied at the same resolution as RHT, gives the opposite trend. These disparities are caused by the intrinsic differences in the methods and in the structures that they select.Conclusions. Our results indicate that the interpretation of the relative orientation between the magnetic field and density structures should take into account the specificity of the methods used to determine such orientation. The combined use of complementary techniques such as RHT and GRAD provides more complete information, which can be advantageously used to better understand the physical mechanisms operating in magnetized molecular clouds.
  • Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Pomoell, Jens; Price, Daniel; Sarkar, Ranadeep; Asvestari, Eleanna (2021)
    We investigate here the magnetic properties of a large-scale magnetic flux rope related to a coronal mass ejection (CME) that erupted from the Sun on September 12, 2014 and produced a well-defined flux rope in interplanetary space on September 14-15, 2014. We apply a fully data-driven and time-dependent magnetofrictional method (TMFM) using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) magnetograms as the lower boundary condition. The simulation self-consistently produces a coherent flux rope and its ejection from the simulation domain. This paper describes the identification of the flux rope from the simulation data and defining its key parameters (e.g., twist and magnetic flux). We define the axial magnetic flux of the flux rope and the magnetic field time series from at the apex and at different distances from the apex of the flux rope. Our analysis shows that TMFM yields axial magnetic flux values that are in agreement with several observational proxies. The extracted magnetic field time series do not match well with in-situ components in direct comparison presumably due to interplanetary evolution and northward propagation of the CME. The study emphasizes also that magnetic field time-series are strongly dependent on how the flux rope is intercepted which presents a challenge for space weather forecasting.
  • Price, Daniel; Pomoell, Jens; Kilpua, Emilia (2020)
    Aims. We present a detailed examination of the magnetic evolution of AR 12473 using time-dependent, data-driven magnetofrictional modelling.Methods. We used maps of the photospheric electric field inverted from vector magnetogram observations, obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to drive our fully time-dependent, data-driven magnetofrictional model. Our modelled field was directly compared to extreme ultraviolet observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, also onboard SDO. Metrics were also computed to provide a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the magnetic field.Results. The flux rope associated with the eruption on 28 December 2015 from AR 12473 was reproduced by the simulation and found to have erupted due to a torus instability.
  • Vacca, V.; Murgia, M.; Govoni, F.; Loi, F.; Vazza, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Carretti, E.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Concu, R.; Melis, A.; Gheller, C.; Paladino, R.; Poppi, S.; Valente, G.; Bernardi, G.; Boschin, W.; Brienza, M.; Clarke, T. E.; Colafrancesco, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; Ferrari, C.; de Gasperin, F.; Gastaldello, F.; Girardi, M.; Gregorini, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Junklewitz, H.; Orru, E.; Parma, P.; Perley, R.; Taylor, G. B. (2018)
    We report the detection of diffuse radio emission which might be connected to a large-scale filament of the cosmic web covering a 8 degrees x 8 degrees area in the sky, likely associated with a z approximate to 0.1 overdensity traced by nine massive galaxy clusters. In this work, we present radio observations of this region taken with the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Two of the clusters in the field host a powerful radio halo sustained by violent ongoing mergers and provide direct proof of intracluster magnetic fields. In order to investigate the presence of large-scale diffuse radio synchrotron emission in and beyond the galaxy clusters in this complex system, we combined the data taken at 1.4 GHz with the Sardinia. Radio Telescope with higher resolution data taken with the NRAO VIA Sky Survey. We found 28 candidate new sources with a size larger and X-ray emission fainter than known diffuse large-scale synchrotron cluster sources for a given radio power. This new population is potentially the tip of the iceberg of a class of diffuse large-scale synchrotron sources associated with the filaments of the cosmic web. In addition, we found in the field a candidate new giant radio galaxy.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck full-sky maps. In this paper we make use of such full-sky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present full-sky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle psi, and dispersion function of polarization angles ?. The joint distribution (one-point statistics) of p and N-H confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing N-H. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, (max) = 22.0(-1.4)(+3.5) p max = 22 . 0 - 1.4 + 3.5 % at 353 GHz and 80 ' resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and ? found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the ?proportional to p(-1) relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, psi, and ? for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map ?xp, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 3-4 between N-H=10(20) cm(-2) and N-H=2x10(22) cm(-2), out of the Galactic plane, this product ?xp only decreases by about 25%. Because ? is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with N-H is determined mostly by the magnetic-field structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of ?xp with the dust temperature T-d, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion ? tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high ?. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emission-to-extinction ratios, R-P/p and R-S/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, p(V)/E(B-V), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p approximate to 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.
  • Price, D. J.; Pomoell, J.; Lumme, E.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2019)
    Aims. We present a detailed study of the magnetic evolution of AR 12673 using a magnetofrictional modelling approach. Methods. The fully data-driven and time-dependent model was driven with maps of the photospheric electric field, inverted from vector magnetogram observations obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our analysis was aided by studying the evolution of metrics such as the free magnetic energy and the current-carrying helicity budget of the domain, maps of the squashing factor and twist, and plots of the current density. These allowed us to better understand the dynamic nature of the magnetic topology. Results. Our simulation captured the time-dependent nature of the active region and the erupting flux rope associated with the X-class flares on 6 September 2017, including the largest of solar cycle 24. Additionally, our results suggest a possible threshold for eruptions in the ratio of current-carrying helicity to relative helicity. Conclusion. The flux rope was found to be a combination of two structures that partially combine during the eruption process. Our time-dependent data-driven magnetofrictional model is shown to be capable of generating magnetic fields consistent with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations.