Browsing by Subject "majava"

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  • Sauramo, Virva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Boreal lakes and wetlands that are abundant in the world are vital breeding and resting areas for birds. However, a significant part of wetlands has been globally lost due to human activity. In the study area of this research, Evo, lake habitats are somewhat stable especially in landscape level, changes are mainly lake-specific. Habitat use and its stability have been studied earlier on other bird species, such as ducks (Anas spp.) but little research exists about the matter on wader or shorebird species. This study aimed to compare the patch-scale habitat use stability of two waders; Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) and Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus). The comparison was also made between the pair densities of these species. Many species are known to benefit from beaver induced floods. However, previous studies have not measured the effect of beaver before, during and after beaver flooding. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence and abundance of Green Sandpiper at different stages of beaver flood. This study showed that the habitat use of Common Sandpiper was more stable than that of Green Sandpiper, although both species showed variation. Pair density of Common Sandpiper was lower than Green Sandpiper’s nearly throughout the study period. Pair density of Common Sandpiper, on the contrary, showed more variation compared to Green Sandpiper’s pair density. Green Sandpipers were observed in nearly all of the beaver ponds in this study. Presence and abundance of Green Sandpiper were highest during the beaver flood, but the numbers stayed high also after the flood. It could be concluded that Common Sandpiper is a species of high site-fidelity and more prone to changes in the environment than Green Sandpiper, which seems to be able to utilize variable habitats, such as flowages regularly created by beaver in the Evo region. In previous studies, many species have been known to benefit from beaver activity, and Green Sandpiper can be seen as a species of plastic habitat use and being able to profit from surroundings altered by beaver. Therefore, this wader benefits notably from beaver floods.
  • Suontakanen, Eeva-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Beavers (Castor spp.) are species which change the environment and by doing so maintain and create habitats which are important for many other species. That is why beavers are called as ecosystem engineers, key species and facilitators. Beaver creates a pond which offers shelter and food for example for the waterfowl. Previous studies have shown that especially the teal (Anas crecca) benefits from the beaver. Invertebrates, such as water fleas, are numerous in beaver ponds and the teal uses them as nutrition. Because of their feeding habits teals are also able to colonise new habitats, like beaver ponds, quickly. The aim of the thesis was to study the effect of the beaver to the teal on patch and landscape scale. Two landscapes - Evo and Nuuksio - were used in this study. Evo represents a landscape with beaver and Nuuksio without beaver. The pair and brood densities and brood production were compared on the patch scale before the beaver flood and during the beaver flood in order to find out whether the densities and brood production are higher during the flood. In addition, densities and brood production were compared in beaver occupied lakes and non-beaver lakes in Evo. In the landscape scale the annual pair and brood densities and brood production were compared between Evo and Nuuksio. Furthermore, the general linear mixed effect model was used to examine which variables explain the pair and brood numbers in the landscape scale. The results indicated that the brood density and brood production were higher during the beaver flood than before which means that the effect of the beaver to the teal was positive on the patch scale. Instead there was no positive effect on the pair density. Comparison between the beaver and non-beaver lakes showed that brood density and brood production were also higher on the beaver lakes and again there was no effect on pair density. The results also indicated that the pair and brood densities were higher in Evo than in Nuuksio but the brood production did not differ statistically between the regions. The modelling showed that the model which included location as an explanatory variable explained the pair numbers well and the model with location and spring flood as explanatory variables explained brood numbers well. However, there was some uncertainty considering the selection of the most suitable model due to the relatively small differences between the AIC values. As a conclusion it could be said that the facilitative effect of beaver appears both on patch and landscape scale. The beaver effect was especially important for the teal broods which has been noticed also in previous studies. As the beaver effect seems to be important on both scales one might consider whether the ecosystem engineering by beaver should be used in restoration purposes on those areas where the waterfowl density is low.