Browsing by Subject "maksaminen"

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  • Björklund, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    There has been a lot of discussion on the downsides of cash during the 2010’s, while the new payment innovations during this same decade have provoked speculation that cash use will decrease considerably, potentially even disappear, in the upcoming years. However, cash is still used quite extensively, and to my knowledge, no systematic review on drivers of cash use has been made to date. The purpose of this thesis is to fill this gap by providing literature reviews both on the theory explaining cash use and the empirical evidence on the drivers of cash use. Additionally, Finland will be used as an illustration to study the relevance of the existing theories and empirical evidence in an environment where practically no barriers on switching completely from cash use to card use exist. The theoretical models explaining the choice between cash and cards at points of sale are built on assumptions that the pecuniary and/or non-pecuniary costs of cash and cards use differ. Particularly, cards are assumed to be more expensive than cash in some regard, which explains the cash choice. Behaviour wise, cash use is associated with lower transaction value, lower income, higher amounts of cash in the wallet and using cash to monitor liquidity. In empirical literature, factors that affect the payment instrument choice at point of sale are traditionally divided into four categories: payment instrument attributes, transaction specific characteristics, demographic factors and habit. Three out of the four theoretical models presented in this thesis seem relevant in explaining cash use in the view of the empirical evidence, although alternative explanations for the observed behaviour can also be found. Also, several other drivers of cash use are identified. Additionally, as making payments is a very frequent action, it is suggested that habit might have a bigger role in the payment instrument choice than is traditionally assumed, with several of the drivers being potentially a manifestation of habitual behaviour. A considerable limitation of the existing literature is that it focuses solely on explaining and analysing cash use for transaction purposes at points of sale. However, cash is also used for person-to-person transactions and as a store of value, and the reasons for cash use probably differ a lot in these other two use cases. Due to well-developed infrastructure, and cheap and fast card payments, many of the drivers of cash use identified by theoretical models and empirical evidence cannot explain cash use in Finland. In 2016 Finnish people used cash to pay small transactions, to control spending, because they perceived it to be easy to use, when they obtained it from another person or out of habit. Due to the quickly growing popularity of contactless card payments and the mobile phone applications for making easy person-to-person transactions, it is likely, that in future cash will decrease remarkably and it is mainly driven by the need to control spending, difficulty in using electronic payment instruments and habit.
  • Rautio, Heikki (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This qualitative study explores the consumption process of recorded music from the perspective of individual consumer. Data was collected by interviewing 11 active music consumers between the ages of 20 to 31. The interviews followed the form of a semi-structured interview. Analysis of the data is divided into three parts. Music consumption is being examined by its economic, symbolic and functional aspect. Hence the focus is on studying 1) the purchasing of music, 2) records as tangible objects and 3) the role of technology in recorded music consumption. The purpose is to find out how the new music consumption practices and the changes in general brought by the digital revolution are being perceived among the music consumers. In addition, the study compares the consumption processes of the physical and digital recordings and examines the dimensions and meanings associated with them. In the study, the physical recordings appear as significant objects to their owners. They hold different kinds of symbolic meanings of past situations and events in life. In addition to the symbolic meanings, the object value is increased with aesthetic qualities of sound recordings, such as fine album covers. Because of the perceived value of ownership of physical recordings, especially vinyl records are proved to be great objects to collect. At the same time physical recordings can be seen in a different light: as unnecessary matter taking up too much space at home. Digital music services can be seen as eco-efficient and as such, a good alternative to the consumption of physical recordings. The sense of ownership is clearly connected to tangible objects in this study. The interviewees find it hard or impossible to perceive digital files as something they can own, and therefore they are not that willing to pay for them. Instead, the interviewees respond more openly to paying for music streaming services. In the consumption process of physical recordings, digital music often acts as an informant. The study shows that the purchase of recordings has become much more rational than before the digitalization. On a general level, the willingness to pay for music is clearly influenced by consumers' values, ethics and sense of duty. The effortlessness of digital music consumption practices is seen as positive, but compared to the consumption process of physical recordings they are regarded as inferior from the experiential point of view - as an act of "mere listening". Overall, the impact of new technologies on recorded music consumption comes out bipartite. It is mentioned to simplify and diversify the music listening possibilities, but on the other hand it brings challenges for active listening. Furthermore, the consuming of music in the digital media is seen to have a single-use nature, which again may prevent deep musical and emotional bonds from developing.