Browsing by Subject "mallintaminen"

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  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 20 /2018
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2017/2018 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM data base, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output fluxes in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments and an assessment of the role of internal nitrogen parameters - A progress report on dynamic soil-vegetation modelling - A literature review: Post disturbance vegetation succession and resilience in forest ecosystems - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 33/2019
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2018/2019 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - An interim report on aluminium fractions in surface waters draining catchments of ICP Integrated Monitoring network - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Frisk, Tom; Pennanen, Vappu (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1986)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 65, 98-107
    Kahden humusfraktion tasapainotilan malli
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Rabbil, Mehedi; Fazel, Nasim; Darabi, Hamid; Choubin, Bahram; Khan, Md. Motiur Rahman; Marttila, Hannu; Haghighi, Ali Torabi (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of the Total Environment 797 (2021), 149034
    Lake water level fluctuation is a function of hydro-meteorological components, namely input, and output to the system. The combination of these components from in-situ and remote sensing sources has been used in this study to define multiple scenarios, which are the major explanatory pathways to assess lake water levels. The goal is to analyze each scenario through the application of the water balance equation to simulate lake water levels. The largest lake in Iran, Lake Urmia, has been selected in this study as it needs a great deal of attention in terms of water management issues. We ran a monthly water balance simulation of nineteen scenarios for Lake Urmia from 2003 to 2007 by applying different combinations of data, including observed and remotely sensed water level, flow, evaporation, and rainfall. We used readily available water level data from Hydrosat, Hydroweb, and DAHITI platforms; evapotranspiration from MODIS and rainfall from TRMM. The analysis suggests that the consideration of field data in the algorithm as the initial water level can reproduce the fluctuation of Lake Urmia water level in the best way. The scenario that combines in-situ meteorological components is the closest match to the observed water level of Lake Urmia. Almost all scenarios showed good dynamics with the field water level, but we found that nine out of nineteen scenarios did not vary significantly in terms of dynamics. The results also reveal that, even without any field data, the proposed scenario, which consists entirely of remote sensing components, is capable of estimating water level fluctuation in a lake. The analysis also explains the necessity of using proper data sources to act on water regulations and managerial decisions to understand the temporal phenomenon not only for Lake Urmia but also for other lakes in semi-arid regions.
  • Grennfelt, Peringe; Engleryd, Anna; Forsius, Martin; Hov, Oystein; Rodhe, Henning; Cowling, Ellis (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Because of its serious large-scale effects on ecosystems and its transboundary nature, acid rain received for a few decades at the end of the last century wide scientific and public interest, leading to coordinated policy actions in Europe and North America. Through these actions, in particular those under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, air emissions were substantially reduced, and ecosystem impacts decreased. Widespread scientific research, long-term monitoring, and integrated assessment modelling formed the basis for the policy agreements. In this paper, which is based on an international symposium organised to commemorate 50 years of successful integration of air pollution research and policy, we briefly describe the scientific findings that provided the foundation for the policy development. We also discuss important characteristics of the science–policy interactions, such as the critical loads concept and the large-scale ecosystem field studies. Finally, acid rain and air pollution are set in the context of future societal developments and needs, e.g. the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We also highlight the need to maintain and develop supporting scientific infrastructures.
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (1999)
    In this thesis we analyse the functioning of credit markets in environments where adverse selection interferes with an efficient allocation of capital. Throughout the thesis we assume that borrowers have private information on the profitability of their investment projects and, consequently, on the probability of being able to repay the funds they have loaned. A special feature of our thesis is that lenders can reduce or totally eliminate the adverse selection problem by expending resources on the ex-ante screening of borrowers. Thus, by investing in ex-ante screening lenders can reduce the informational gap between them and borrowers before the financial contract is signed. In the first model we derive the optimal financial contracts between a monopoly lender and two types of borrowers in an environment where good borrowers' return distributions first-order stochastically dominate bad borrowers' return distributions and where the lender has access to a costly and perfect screening technology. When the lender can commit to stochastic screening - that is, when she can commit to inspect only a certain proportion of loan applicants, the unique optimal contract for bad borrowers combines features of equity and call option contracts. This results contradicts earlier studies, where in an otherwise identical environment but with a large number of small and identical lenders the optimal contract is the standard debt contract. In our second model we investigate how the loan interest rate competition between two banks, only one of which has access to a costly but imperfect ex-ante monitoring technology, affects the optimal level of monitoring and, more generally, the feasibility of monitoring. We compare the investments in monitoring between a monopoly bank and a banking duopoly. We show that the state of economy is a crucial determinant of the effects of competition on the investment in monitoring: for low values of the state of economy, an increase in competition has no effects on monitoring incentives - for intermediate values of the state economy, competition reduces incentives to monitor - and for sufficiently high values of the state of economy, an increase in competition even increases investments in the monitoring technology. Furthermore, the intensity of competition between the two banks is shown to be an increasing function of the state of economy.
  • Calderón, Silvia M.; Tonttila, Juha; Buchholz, Angela; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Komppula, Mika; Leskinen, Ari; Hao, Liqing; Moisseev, Dmitri; Pullinen, Iida; Tiitta, Petri; Xu, Jian; Virtanen, Annele; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami (Copernicus Publ., 2022)
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    We carried out a closure study of aerosol-cloud interactions during stratocumulus formation using a large eddy simulation model UCLALES-SALSA and observations from the 2020 cloud sampling campaign at the Puijo SMEAR IV station in Kuopio, Finland. The unique observational setup combining in situ and cloud remote sensing measurements allowed a closer look into the aerosol size-composition dependence of droplet activation and droplet growth in turbulent boundary layer driven by surface forcing and radiative cooling. UCLALES-SALSA uses spectral bin microphysics for aerosols and hydrometeors and incorporates a full description of their interactions into the turbulent-convective radiation-dynamical model of stratocumulus. Based on our results, the model successfully described the probability distribution of updraft velocities and consequently the size dependency of aerosol activation into cloud droplets, and further recreated the size distributions for both interstitial aerosol and cloud droplets. This is the first time such a detailed closure is achieved not only accounting for activation of cloud droplets in different updrafts, but also accounting for processes evaporating droplets and drizzle production through coagulation-coalescence. We studied two cases of cloud formation, one diurnal (24 September 2020) and one nocturnal (31 October 2020), with high and low aerosol loadings, respectively. Aerosol number concentrations differ more than 1 order of magnitude between cases and therefore, lead to cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) values which range from less than 100cm-3 up to 1000cm-3. Different aerosol loadings affected supersaturation at the cloud base, and thus the size of aerosol particles activating to cloud droplets. Due to higher CDNC, the mean size of cloud droplets in the diurnal-high aerosol case was lower. Thus, droplet evaporation in downdrafts affected more the observed CDNC at Puijo altitude compared to the low aerosol case. In addition, in the low aerosol case, the presence of large aerosol particles in the accumulation mode played a significant role in the droplet spectrum evolution as it promoted the drizzle formation through collision and coalescence processes. Also, during the event, the formation of ice particles was observed due to subzero temperature at the cloud top. Although the modeled number concentration of ice hydrometeors was too low to be directly measured, the retrieval of hydrometeor sedimentation velocities with cloud radar allowed us to assess the realism of modeled ice particles. The studied cases are presented in detail and can be further used by the cloud modellers to test and validate their models in a well-characterized modelling setup. We also provide recommendations on how increasing amount of information on aerosol properties could improve the understanding of processes affecting cloud droplet number and liquid water content in stratiform clouds.
  • Syri, Sanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 19
    This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI produced similar estimates of deposition from Finnish sources as the original model, and long-term trends and the average level of deposition estimated with DAIQUIRI were found comparable with the monitored deposition levels and trends. For the mid-nineties situation, the regional nitrogen modeling resulted in 9% to 19% (depending on the region compared) larger estimates of areas with acidity critical load exceedances than when using European scale nitrogen deposition modeling.In this work, also a method for estimating the impacts of local NOx emissions on urban and sub-urban ozone levels was developed and tested. The study concentrated on representing the destruction of ozone by fresh NO emissions in urban areas for future use in integrated assessment modeling of ozone control strategies. Correlation coefficients between measured daytime ozone values in the study area were found to improve from 0.64 (correlation between urban and surrounding rural measurements) to 0.85, on the average. The average correlation between daytime large-scale model estimates and urban site measurements was found to improve from 0.37 to 0.58.In the study, also integrated assessment model applications were carried out at European, national and local levels. The synergies between control strategies for CO2 and acidification and ozone formation in the case of the UN/FCCC Kyoto protocol and the air quality targets of the EU were assessed with the help of coupled models. With two alternative energy scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO2, reductions of sulfur and NOx emissions between 12% and 22% and 8% to 12%, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43% cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60% in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8% more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol.An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels.
  • Raivio, Matti-Mikael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan analogisten miksaustyökalujen ja niitä mallintavien digitaalisten ohjelmistoliitännäisten välisiä eroavaisuuksia käyttötarkoituksen ja soinnin suhteen. Tutkimuskohteena ovat 1176- ja LA-2A-kompressorit, tarkemmin niiden analogiset laitteet ja niitä mallintavat digitaaliset ohjelmistoliitännäiset kahdelta eri valmistajalta. Teksti rakentuu analogisen soinnin ja sen mallintamisen ympärille vastaanoton näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena on selvittää minkälainen rooli kyseisillä kompressoreilla on nykypäivän studiotyöskentelyssä. Lähteenä käytetään aiempia tutkimuksia, alan tutkimuskirjallisuutta ja tutkimuskohteiden käyttöohjeita. Tutkimusmenetelmät jakaantuvat subjektiivisiin haastatteluihin ja kuuntelukokeisiin sekä objektiiviseen spektrianalyysiin. Haastattelut käsittävät kompressoreihin liittyviä kokemuksia ja ajatuksia käytön näkökulmasta. Kuuntelukokeet ja spektrianalyysi tarjoaa tietoa kompressorien tuottamista soinneista ja niiden välisistä eroavaisuuksista. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu miksaajien haastatteluista ja tutkimusta varten tuotetuista ääninäytteistä. Ääninäytteet on käsitelty tutkimuksessa esiintyneillä kompressoreilla ja niitä vertaillaan keskenään spektrianalyysin ja kuuntelukokeiden avulla. Tulokset osoittavat, että analogisia kompressoreita ja niitä mallintavia liitännäisiä käytetään rinnakkain ja molempia arvostetaan omista lähtökohdistaan. Analogisten kompressorien sointia pidetään tavoittelemisen arvoisena, mutta soinnin identtisyyttä niitä mallintavissa liitännäisissä ei koeta välttämättömänä. Käyttöliittymän identtisyys koetaan kuitenkin oleellisena. Eroavaisuuksia löytyy, mutta ne ovat vaikeasti havaittavissa ja kuultavissa. Toisissa ääninäytteissä ja kompressorimalleissa eroavaisuudet kuuluvat selkeämmin kuin toisissa. Mieltymykset ovat pääasiassa subjektiivisia, eikä kokonaisvaltaisia johtopäätöksiä voi tehdä.
  • Myrberg, Kai (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 10
  • Korpinen, Kasperi Nikolai (2005)
    Opinnäytetyössä on analysoitu pankkiryhmien yrityksille ja elinkeinonharjoittajille toimialoittain myöntämien lainojen korkoja. Korkoja on mallinnettu kovarianssianalyysin avulla. Estimointimenetelminä on käytetty pienimmän neliösumman ja painotetun pienimmän neliösumman menetelmiä. Korkoaineistolle estimoiduista paneeliaineistomalleista on johdettu aggregoimalla makromallit ja verrattu näitä suoraan aggregaattitasolla estimoituihin tavanomaisiin makromalleihin. Heterogeenisista paneeliaineistomalleista saadaan johdettua makromallit, joiden kertoimien keskivirheet ovat pienimmät. Kun painoina käytettiin uusien lainojen määrien neliöjuurimuunnoksia, painotetun pienimmän neliösumman menetelmällä päästiin paneeliaineistomalleissa parempiin aggregaattitason sovitteisiin. Muutokset eri pankkiryhmien eri toimialoille myöntämien uusien lainojen määrissä vaikuttavat aggregaattikorkoon. Tavanomaiset makromallit eivät sisällä informaatiota näissä markkinaosuuksissa tapahtuvista muutoksista. Selittävinä tekijöinä käytettiin konkurssialttiutta, keskuspankin ohjauskorkoa, kuluttajabarometriä, toimi-aloittaisia liikevaihto- ja arvonlisätietoja, Herfindahl-indeksiä, uusien lainojen osuuksia toimialan lainoista yhteensä sekä kokonaistuotannon kuukausikuvaajaa. Toimialakohtaiset muuttujat osoittautuivat epästabiileiksi ja aiheuttivat multikollineaarisuusongelmia. Merkitsevimmiksi ja vakaimmiksi selittäviksi tekijöiksi osoittautuivat ohjauskorko, uusien lainojen osuus toimialan uusista lainoista, kuluttajabarometri ja vuosivakiot. Tutkimuksessa todetaan, että korot vaihtelevat pankkiryhmittäin ja toimialoittain. Korkojen erot ovat vähentyneet koko tarkasteluperiodin aikana vuoden 1997 alusta vuoden 2002 loppuun. Lainamarkkinoiden keskittyneisyys on laskenut kaikilla toimialoilla paitsi maa- ja kalataloustoimialoilla. Samoin korkojen poikkeamat keskuspankin ohjauskorosta ovat pienentyneet. Korkojen ja ohjauskoron välisten erojen pieneneminen on tapahtunut eri vauhtia.
  • Niemi, Jorma; Eloranta, Juhani (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1984)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 57, 77-96
    FINNECO-mallin soveltaminen Tampereen Pyhäjärveen
  • Kylä-Harakka, Tellervo (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 52-59
    Streeter-Phelps-mallin soveltaminen Äänekosken vesireitille.
  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Ärje, Johanna; Melvad, Claus; Jeppesen, Mads Rosenhoj; Madsen, Sigurd Agerskov; Raitoharju, Jenni; Rasmussen, Maria Strandgård; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tirronen, Ville; Gabbouj, Moncef; Meissner, Kristian; Hoye, Toke Thomas (British Ecological Society, 2020)
    Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11 8 (2020)
    1. Understanding how biological communities respond to environmental changes is a key challenge in ecology and ecosystem management. The apparent decline of insect populations necessitates more biomonitoring but the time-consuming sorting and expert-based identification of taxa pose strong limitations on how many insect samples can be processed. In turn, this affects the scale of efforts to map and monitor invertebrate diversity altogether. Given recent advances in computer vision, we propose to enhance the standard human expert-based identification approach involving manual sorting and identification with an automatic image-based technology. 2. We describe a robot-enabled image-based identification machine, which can automate the process of invertebrate sample sorting, specimen identification and biomass estimation. We use the imaging device to generate a comprehensive image database of terrestrial arthropod species which is then used to test classification accuracy, that is, how well the species identity of a specimen can be predicted from images taken by the machine. We also test sensitivity of the classification accuracy to the camera settings (aperture and exposure time) to move forward with the best possible image quality. We use state-of-the-art Resnet-50 and InceptionV3 convolutional neural networks for the classification task. 3. The results for the initial dataset are very promising as we achieved an average classification accuracy of 0.980. While classification accuracy is high for most species, it is lower for species represented by less than 50 specimens. We found significant positive relationships between mean area of specimens derived from images and their dry weight for three species of Diptera. 4. The system is general and can easily be used for other groups of invertebrates as well. As such, our results pave the way for generating more data on spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate abundance, diversity and biomass.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Parviainen, Tuuli; Rahikainen, Mika; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehikoinen, Annukka (Wiley Periodicals LLC / Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC), 2020)
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 17: 1
    Human activities both depend upon and have consequences on the environment. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a process of estimating the probability and consequences of the adverse effects of human activities and other stressors on the environment. Bayesian networks (BNs) can synthesize different types of knowledge and explicitly account for the probabilities of different scenarios, therefore offering a useful tool for ERA. Their use in formal ERA practice has not been evaluated, however, despite their increasing popularity in environmental modeling. This paper reviews the use of BNs in ERA based on peer-reviewed publications. Following a systematic mapping protocol, we identified studies in which BNs have been used in an environmental risk context and evaluated the scope, technical aspects, and use of the models and their results. The review shows that BNs have been applied in ERA, particularly in recent years, and that there is room to develop both the model implementation and participatory modeling practices. Based on this review and the authors’ experience, we outline general guidelines and development ideas for using BNs in ERA.
  • García-Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; García-Criado, Francisco; Fernández-Aláez, Camino; Alahuhta, Janne (Wiley Online Library, 2020)
    Ecography 43 8 (2020)
    Biotic interactions are fundamental drivers governing biodiversity locally, yet their effects on geographical variation in community composition (i.e. incidence-based) and community structure (i.e. abundance-based) at regional scales remain controversial. Ecologists have only recently started to integrate different types of biotic interactions into community assembly in a spatial context, a theme that merits further empirical quantification. Here, we applied partial correlation networks to infer the strength of spatial dependencies between pairs of organismal groups and mapped the imprints of biotic interactions on the assembly of pond metacommunities. To do this, we used a comprehensive empirical dataset from Mediterranean landscapes and adopted the perspective that community assembly is best represented as a network of interacting organismal groups. Our results revealed that the co-variation among the beta diversities of multiple organismal groups is primarily driven by biotic interactions and, to a lesser extent, by the abiotic environment. These results suggest that ignoring biotic interactions may undermine our understanding of assembly mechanisms in spatially extensive areas and decrease the accuracy and performance of predictive models. We further found strong spatial dependencies in our analyses which can be interpreted as functional relationships among several pairs of organismal groups (e.g. macrophytes–macroinvertebrates, fish–zooplankton). Perhaps more importantly, our results support the notion that biotic interactions make crucial contributions to the species sorting paradigm of metacommunity theory and raise the question of whether these biologically-driven signals have been equally underappreciated in other aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although more research is still required to empirically capture the importance of biotic interactions across ecosystems and at different spatial resolutions and extents, our findings may allow decision makers to better foresee the main consequences of human-driven impacts on inland waters, particularly those associated with the addition or removal of key species.
  • Koskiaho, Jari; Okruszko, Tomasz; Piniewski, Mikolaj; Marcinkowski, Pawel; Tattari, Sirkka; Johannesdottir, Solveig; Kärrman, Erik; Kämäri, Maria (Elsevier, 2020)
    Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology
    There exist numerous ecotechnologies for recovery and reuse of carbon and nutrients from various waste streams before they are lost to runoff. However, it remains largely unknown how growing implementation of such ecotechnologies affect nutrient emissions to surface waters at catchment scale. Here, this knowledge gap is addressed by application of SWAT model in three case study catchments draining to the Baltic Sea: Vantaanjoki (Finland), Fyrisån (Sweden) and Słupia (Poland). Sustainability analysis with Multi-Criteria Analysis was applied in the stakeholder workshops in the case study areas to assess different ecotechnology alternatives. The following ecotechnologies received the highest sustainability scores: in Vantaanjoki anaerobic digestion, based on mostly agricultural residues; in Fyrisån source-separation of wastewaters; in Słupia nutrient extraction within the wastewater treatment process. The effect of application of digestate on agricultural soils in the Vantaanjoki catchment was simulated by adjusting the model parameters describing the organic carbon content and physical properties of soil. The results showed small reductions of nutrient loads to the Gulf of Finland. Larger reductions of nutrient loads to Lake Mälaren in Sweden and the Baltic Sea in Poland were achieved as a result of the wastewater treatment upgrades. In the Fyrisån catchment, higher relative reductions were simulated for TN than TP, and in dry years than in wet years. Although the studied ecotechnologies did not show as high effectiveness in nutrient load reduction as combinations of traditional Best Management Practices reported in literature, they do have other multiple benefits including crop yield increase, electricity, heat and bio-based fertilizer production.
  • Kylä-Harakka-Ruonala, Tellervo (National Board of Waters and Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 2
    Yhteenveto: Kemikaalien teollisesta käsittelystä vesieliöille aiheutuvien riskien arviointi mallin avulla.
  • Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura; Alenius, Pekka; Myrberg, Kai; Miettunen, Elina; Vankevich, Roman E.; Hord, Robinson (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
    Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 71:1
    We studied circulation patterns in the Gulf of Finland (GoF), an estuary-like sub-basin of the Baltic Sea. Circulation patterns in the GoF are complex and vary from season to season and year to year. Estuarine circulation in the gulf is heavily modified by many factors, such as wind forcing, topography and geostrophic effects. Based on a 7-year run of the NEMO 3D hydrodynamic model with a 500 m horizontal resolution, we analysed seasonal changes of mean circulation patterns. We found that there were clear seasonal differences in the circulation patterns in the GoF. Features that moved or changed direction from season to season were damped or hidden in the averages. To further study these differences, we also carried out a self-organising map (SOM) analysis of currents for several latitudinal sections. The results of the SOM analysis emphasised the estuary-like nature of the GoF. Circulation changed rapidly from normal estuarine circulation to reverse estuarine circulation. The dominant southwesterly winds supported the reversal of the estuarine circulation. Both normal and reversed estuarine circulation were roughly as common in our data. The SOM analysis also demonstrated how the long-term cyclonic mean circulation field and the average salinity field emerged from the interaction of normal and reversed estuarine circulation.