Browsing by Subject "mallintaminen"

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  • Frisk, Tom; Pennanen, Vappu (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1986)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 65, 98-107
    Kahden humusfraktion tasapainotilan malli
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Rabbil, Mehedi; Fazel, Nasim; Darabi, Hamid; Choubin, Bahram; Khan, Md. Motiur Rahman; Marttila, Hannu; Haghighi, Ali Torabi (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of the Total Environment 797 (2021), 149034
    Lake water level fluctuation is a function of hydro-meteorological components, namely input, and output to the system. The combination of these components from in-situ and remote sensing sources has been used in this study to define multiple scenarios, which are the major explanatory pathways to assess lake water levels. The goal is to analyze each scenario through the application of the water balance equation to simulate lake water levels. The largest lake in Iran, Lake Urmia, has been selected in this study as it needs a great deal of attention in terms of water management issues. We ran a monthly water balance simulation of nineteen scenarios for Lake Urmia from 2003 to 2007 by applying different combinations of data, including observed and remotely sensed water level, flow, evaporation, and rainfall. We used readily available water level data from Hydrosat, Hydroweb, and DAHITI platforms; evapotranspiration from MODIS and rainfall from TRMM. The analysis suggests that the consideration of field data in the algorithm as the initial water level can reproduce the fluctuation of Lake Urmia water level in the best way. The scenario that combines in-situ meteorological components is the closest match to the observed water level of Lake Urmia. Almost all scenarios showed good dynamics with the field water level, but we found that nine out of nineteen scenarios did not vary significantly in terms of dynamics. The results also reveal that, even without any field data, the proposed scenario, which consists entirely of remote sensing components, is capable of estimating water level fluctuation in a lake. The analysis also explains the necessity of using proper data sources to act on water regulations and managerial decisions to understand the temporal phenomenon not only for Lake Urmia but also for other lakes in semi-arid regions.
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka (1999)
    In this thesis we analyse the functioning of credit markets in environments where adverse selection interferes with an efficient allocation of capital. Throughout the thesis we assume that borrowers have private information on the profitability of their investment projects and, consequently, on the probability of being able to repay the funds they have loaned. A special feature of our thesis is that lenders can reduce or totally eliminate the adverse selection problem by expending resources on the ex-ante screening of borrowers. Thus, by investing in ex-ante screening lenders can reduce the informational gap between them and borrowers before the financial contract is signed. In the first model we derive the optimal financial contracts between a monopoly lender and two types of borrowers in an environment where good borrowers' return distributions first-order stochastically dominate bad borrowers' return distributions and where the lender has access to a costly and perfect screening technology. When the lender can commit to stochastic screening - that is, when she can commit to inspect only a certain proportion of loan applicants, the unique optimal contract for bad borrowers combines features of equity and call option contracts. This results contradicts earlier studies, where in an otherwise identical environment but with a large number of small and identical lenders the optimal contract is the standard debt contract. In our second model we investigate how the loan interest rate competition between two banks, only one of which has access to a costly but imperfect ex-ante monitoring technology, affects the optimal level of monitoring and, more generally, the feasibility of monitoring. We compare the investments in monitoring between a monopoly bank and a banking duopoly. We show that the state of economy is a crucial determinant of the effects of competition on the investment in monitoring: for low values of the state of economy, an increase in competition has no effects on monitoring incentives - for intermediate values of the state economy, competition reduces incentives to monitor - and for sufficiently high values of the state of economy, an increase in competition even increases investments in the monitoring technology. Furthermore, the intensity of competition between the two banks is shown to be an increasing function of the state of economy.
  • Syri, Sanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 19
    This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI produced similar estimates of deposition from Finnish sources as the original model, and long-term trends and the average level of deposition estimated with DAIQUIRI were found comparable with the monitored deposition levels and trends. For the mid-nineties situation, the regional nitrogen modeling resulted in 9% to 19% (depending on the region compared) larger estimates of areas with acidity critical load exceedances than when using European scale nitrogen deposition modeling.In this work, also a method for estimating the impacts of local NOx emissions on urban and sub-urban ozone levels was developed and tested. The study concentrated on representing the destruction of ozone by fresh NO emissions in urban areas for future use in integrated assessment modeling of ozone control strategies. Correlation coefficients between measured daytime ozone values in the study area were found to improve from 0.64 (correlation between urban and surrounding rural measurements) to 0.85, on the average. The average correlation between daytime large-scale model estimates and urban site measurements was found to improve from 0.37 to 0.58.In the study, also integrated assessment model applications were carried out at European, national and local levels. The synergies between control strategies for CO2 and acidification and ozone formation in the case of the UN/FCCC Kyoto protocol and the air quality targets of the EU were assessed with the help of coupled models. With two alternative energy scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO2, reductions of sulfur and NOx emissions between 12% and 22% and 8% to 12%, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43% cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60% in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8% more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol.An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels.
  • Raivio, Matti-Mikael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan analogisten miksaustyökalujen ja niitä mallintavien digitaalisten ohjelmistoliitännäisten välisiä eroavaisuuksia käyttötarkoituksen ja soinnin suhteen. Tutkimuskohteena ovat 1176- ja LA-2A-kompressorit, tarkemmin niiden analogiset laitteet ja niitä mallintavat digitaaliset ohjelmistoliitännäiset kahdelta eri valmistajalta. Teksti rakentuu analogisen soinnin ja sen mallintamisen ympärille vastaanoton näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena on selvittää minkälainen rooli kyseisillä kompressoreilla on nykypäivän studiotyöskentelyssä. Lähteenä käytetään aiempia tutkimuksia, alan tutkimuskirjallisuutta ja tutkimuskohteiden käyttöohjeita. Tutkimusmenetelmät jakaantuvat subjektiivisiin haastatteluihin ja kuuntelukokeisiin sekä objektiiviseen spektrianalyysiin. Haastattelut käsittävät kompressoreihin liittyviä kokemuksia ja ajatuksia käytön näkökulmasta. Kuuntelukokeet ja spektrianalyysi tarjoaa tietoa kompressorien tuottamista soinneista ja niiden välisistä eroavaisuuksista. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu miksaajien haastatteluista ja tutkimusta varten tuotetuista ääninäytteistä. Ääninäytteet on käsitelty tutkimuksessa esiintyneillä kompressoreilla ja niitä vertaillaan keskenään spektrianalyysin ja kuuntelukokeiden avulla. Tulokset osoittavat, että analogisia kompressoreita ja niitä mallintavia liitännäisiä käytetään rinnakkain ja molempia arvostetaan omista lähtökohdistaan. Analogisten kompressorien sointia pidetään tavoittelemisen arvoisena, mutta soinnin identtisyyttä niitä mallintavissa liitännäisissä ei koeta välttämättömänä. Käyttöliittymän identtisyys koetaan kuitenkin oleellisena. Eroavaisuuksia löytyy, mutta ne ovat vaikeasti havaittavissa ja kuultavissa. Toisissa ääninäytteissä ja kompressorimalleissa eroavaisuudet kuuluvat selkeämmin kuin toisissa. Mieltymykset ovat pääasiassa subjektiivisia, eikä kokonaisvaltaisia johtopäätöksiä voi tehdä.
  • Myrberg, Kai (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 10
  • Korpinen, Kasperi Nikolai (2005)
    Opinnäytetyössä on analysoitu pankkiryhmien yrityksille ja elinkeinonharjoittajille toimialoittain myöntämien lainojen korkoja. Korkoja on mallinnettu kovarianssianalyysin avulla. Estimointimenetelminä on käytetty pienimmän neliösumman ja painotetun pienimmän neliösumman menetelmiä. Korkoaineistolle estimoiduista paneeliaineistomalleista on johdettu aggregoimalla makromallit ja verrattu näitä suoraan aggregaattitasolla estimoituihin tavanomaisiin makromalleihin. Heterogeenisista paneeliaineistomalleista saadaan johdettua makromallit, joiden kertoimien keskivirheet ovat pienimmät. Kun painoina käytettiin uusien lainojen määrien neliöjuurimuunnoksia, painotetun pienimmän neliösumman menetelmällä päästiin paneeliaineistomalleissa parempiin aggregaattitason sovitteisiin. Muutokset eri pankkiryhmien eri toimialoille myöntämien uusien lainojen määrissä vaikuttavat aggregaattikorkoon. Tavanomaiset makromallit eivät sisällä informaatiota näissä markkinaosuuksissa tapahtuvista muutoksista. Selittävinä tekijöinä käytettiin konkurssialttiutta, keskuspankin ohjauskorkoa, kuluttajabarometriä, toimi-aloittaisia liikevaihto- ja arvonlisätietoja, Herfindahl-indeksiä, uusien lainojen osuuksia toimialan lainoista yhteensä sekä kokonaistuotannon kuukausikuvaajaa. Toimialakohtaiset muuttujat osoittautuivat epästabiileiksi ja aiheuttivat multikollineaarisuusongelmia. Merkitsevimmiksi ja vakaimmiksi selittäviksi tekijöiksi osoittautuivat ohjauskorko, uusien lainojen osuus toimialan uusista lainoista, kuluttajabarometri ja vuosivakiot. Tutkimuksessa todetaan, että korot vaihtelevat pankkiryhmittäin ja toimialoittain. Korkojen erot ovat vähentyneet koko tarkasteluperiodin aikana vuoden 1997 alusta vuoden 2002 loppuun. Lainamarkkinoiden keskittyneisyys on laskenut kaikilla toimialoilla paitsi maa- ja kalataloustoimialoilla. Samoin korkojen poikkeamat keskuspankin ohjauskorosta ovat pienentyneet. Korkojen ja ohjauskoron välisten erojen pieneneminen on tapahtunut eri vauhtia.
  • Niemi, Jorma; Eloranta, Juhani (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1984)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 57, 77-96
    FINNECO-mallin soveltaminen Tampereen Pyhäjärveen
  • Kylä-Harakka, Tellervo (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 52-59
    Streeter-Phelps-mallin soveltaminen Äänekosken vesireitille.
  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Parviainen, Tuuli; Rahikainen, Mika; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehikoinen, Annukka (Wiley Periodicals LLC / Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC), 2020)
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 17: 1
    Human activities both depend upon and have consequences on the environment. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a process of estimating the probability and consequences of the adverse effects of human activities and other stressors on the environment. Bayesian networks (BNs) can synthesize different types of knowledge and explicitly account for the probabilities of different scenarios, therefore offering a useful tool for ERA. Their use in formal ERA practice has not been evaluated, however, despite their increasing popularity in environmental modeling. This paper reviews the use of BNs in ERA based on peer-reviewed publications. Following a systematic mapping protocol, we identified studies in which BNs have been used in an environmental risk context and evaluated the scope, technical aspects, and use of the models and their results. The review shows that BNs have been applied in ERA, particularly in recent years, and that there is room to develop both the model implementation and participatory modeling practices. Based on this review and the authors’ experience, we outline general guidelines and development ideas for using BNs in ERA.
  • Kylä-Harakka-Ruonala, Tellervo (National Board of Waters and Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 2
    Yhteenveto: Kemikaalien teollisesta käsittelystä vesieliöille aiheutuvien riskien arviointi mallin avulla.
  • Fronzek, Stefan (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environmental Research No. 44
    Palsas are mounds with a permafrost core covered by peat. They occur in subarctic palsa mires, which are ecologically valuable mire complexes located at the outer margin of the permafrost zone. Palsas are expected to undergo rapid changes under global warming. This study presents an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the spatial distribution of palsa mires in northern Fennoscandia during the 21st century. A large ensemble of statistical climate envelope models was developed, each model defining the relationship between palsa occurrences and a set of temperature- and precipitation-based indicators. The models were used to project areas suitable for palsas in the future. The sensitivity of these models to changes in air temperature and precipitation was analysed to construct impact response surfaces. These were used to assess the behaviour of models when extrapolated into changed climate conditions, so that new criteria, in addition to conventional model evaluation statistics, could be defined for determining model reliability. A special focus has been on comparing alternative methods of representing future climate, applying these with impact models and quantifying different sources of uncertainty in the assessment. Climate change projections were constructed from output of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models as well as finer resolution regional climate models and uncertainties in applying these with impact models were explored. New methods were developed to translate probabilistic climate change projections to probabilistic estimates of impacts on palsas. In addition to future climate, structural differences in impact models appeared to be a major source of uncertainty. However, using the model judged most reliable according to the new criteria, results indicated that the area with suitable climatic conditions for palsas can be expected to shrink considerably during the 21st century, disappearing entirely for an increase in mean annual air temperature of 4°C relative to the period 1961-1990. The risk of this occurring by the end of the 21st century was quantified to be between 43% (for the B1 low emissions scenario) and 100% (for the A2 high emissions scenario). The projected changes in areas suitable for palsas are expected to have a significant influence on the biodiversity of subarctic mires and are likely to affect the regional carbon budget.
  • Forsius, John (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1984)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 60, 3-21
    Muuttuvan jokivirtauksen ja merkkiaineen kulkeutumisen laskeminen
  • Pilla, Rachel M.; Williamson, Graig E.; Adamovich, Boris V.; Adrian, Rita; Anneville, Orlane; Chandra, Sudeep; Colom-Montero, William; Devlin, Shawn P.; Dix, Margaret A; Dokulil, Martin T.; Gaiser, Evelyn E.; Girdner, Scott F.; Hambright, David K.; Hamilton, David P.; Havens, Karl; Hessen, Dag O.; Higgins, Scott N.; Huttula, Timo H.; Huuskonen, Hannu; Isles, Peter D. F.; Joehnk, Klaus D.; Jones, Ian D.; Keller, Wendel Bill; Knoll, Lesley B.; Korhonen, Johanna; Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Lepori, Fabio; Luger, Martin S.; Maberly, Stephen C.; Melack, John M.; Melles, Stephanie J.; Müller-Navarra, Dörthe C.; Pierson, Don C.; Pislegina, Helen V.; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Richardson, David C.; Rimmer, Alon; Rogora, Michela; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Salmaso, Nico; Saros, Jasmine E.; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Schindler, Daniel E.; Schmid, Martin; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Silow, Eugene A.; Sitoki, Lewis M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Strock, Kristin E.; Thiery, Wim; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Verburg, Piet; Vinebrooke, Rolf D.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Zadereev, Egor (Rebekah A. Canada, 2020)
    Scientific Reports 10, 1 (2020), 20514
    Globally, lake surface water temperatures have warmed rapidly relative to air temperatures, but changes in deepwater temperatures and vertical thermal structure are still largely unknown. We have compiled the most comprehensive data set to date of long-term (1970–2009) summertime vertical temperature profiles in lakes across the world to examine trends and drivers of whole-lake vertical thermal structure. We found significant increases in surface water temperatures across lakes at an average rate of + 0.37 °C decade−1, comparable to changes reported previously for other lakes, and similarly consistent trends of increasing water column stability (+ 0.08 kg m−3 decade−1). In contrast, however, deepwater temperature trends showed little change on average (+ 0.06 °C decade−1), but had high variability across lakes, with trends in individual lakes ranging from − 0.68 °C decade−1 to + 0.65 °C decade−1. The variability in deepwater temperature trends was not explained by trends in either surface water temperatures or thermal stability within lakes, and only 8.4% was explained by lake thermal region or local lake characteristics in a random forest analysis. These findings suggest that external drivers beyond our tested lake characteristics are important in explaining long-term trends in thermal structure, such as local to regional climate patterns or additional external anthropogenic influences.
  • Pääkkönen, Juho (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The thesis examines deflationist and substantivist formulations of theories of scientific representation within the context of philosophy of modelling. The main question considered is whether deflationary representation can be used to make sense of theoretical modelling in science. The focus is on Mauricio Suárez’s formulation of deflationary representation as a normative practice. The main argument of the thesis is that Suárez’s account can be used to conceptualise the norms which govern scientific modelling, and thus that deflationary representation can be a useful analytical concept in philosophy of modelling. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter briefly introduces the notions of theoretical modelling, representation, and deflationism about representation and describes the aims and structure of the thesis. The second chapter provides historical background for the subsequent discussion, focusing on the rise of the semantic view of theories as the predominant conception of scientific theories in the latter part of the 20th century. The chapter argues that the adoption of deflationism about representation can be seen as a reaction to the semantic view’s failure to solve problems facing its associated substantivist conception of the representational relationship between scientific models and the world. The third chapter examines in greater detail the problems involved in the substantivist conception of representation and classifies them as ontological, semantic, and epistemological problems. The problems are framed by introducing an account of modelling according to which models serve as surrogate systems in reasoning about phenomena in the world. The surrogate system view and the problems of representation are discussed using examples of modelling in the social sciences. The fourth chapter presents Suárez’s account of deflationism and distinguishes it from substantivism about representation. Suárez is argued to be contrasting his deflationism with a naïve dyadic formulation of substantivism which should be resisted. An amended formulation of substantivism is proposed, and five different forms of deflationism are distinguished on the basis of its rejection. The fifth and sixth chapters discuss two examples of theories of scientific representation, Suárez’s deflationary inferential conception and Michael Weisberg’s substantivist weighted feature matching account, in order to examine how they deal with the problems of representation presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 5 is dedicated to introducing the theories and arguing that they are deflationist and substantivist theories, respectively. Chapter 6 discusses the theories as answers to the problems of representation and articulates their strengths and weaknesses on this basis. In particular, Weisberg’s substantivist theory is argued to be problematic in its assumption that representation necessarily involves similarity, while Suárez’s deflationary conception is criticised for being vague in its characterisation of representation as a norm of inferential practice. The seventh chapter addresses the main question of the thesis, basing on the preceding discussion. Suárezian deflationism is contrasted with the roles that substantivism and another version of deflationism, stipulationism, reserve for representation in philosophy of modelling. The chapter argues that Suárez’s deflationism gives a more informative characterisation of representation than stipulationism, but is still deflationary in its characterisation of representation in terms of normative practices. Chapter eight concludes and proposes that the future development of Suárezian deflationism requires that the notion of normative practice be further clarified.
  • Gabrielsson, Beata (2000)
    I detta pro gradu arbete behandlas effektivt teamarbete ur ett externt perspektiv (Ancona 1987). Det externa perspektivet fokuserar på centrala och komplexa relationer som uppstår mellan ett team och dess omgivning. Forskningsintresset är fokuserat på hur en organisation påverkar gruppen samt på hur gruppen påverkar organisationen. Enligt det externa perspektivet påverkas teamarbetets effektivitet av hur ett team reglerar sin interaktion med omgivningen. Därmed är det viktigt att ett team kan styra sin interaktion med sin omgivningen på ett effektivt sätt. Den teoretiska referensramen utgår ifrån Sundströms, De Meuses och Futrells omfattande modell (1990). Modellen behandlar den organisatoriska kontexten, teamets inre gruppdynamik och teamets s.k. gränser. Gränserna styr och reglerar den interaktion som sker mellan den organisatoriska kontexten och teamets medlemmar. Alla dessa tre komponenter -kontexten, gränserna och teamet- anses påverka teamarbetets effektivitet. I detta pro gradu arbete står gränserna, som styr ett teams interaktion med omgivningen, i fokus för intresset. Sundströms, De Meuses och Futrells modell kompletteras av Anconas och Caldwells (1990a, 1990b, 1992) studier om effektiv reglering av interaktion. Den empiriska delen i pro gradu arbetet utfördes som en enkel omslutande fallstudie. Forskningsmaterialet bestod av nitton intervjuer, organisationens egna effektivitetsmätare samt av andra relevanta dokument. Syftet med undersökningen var att undersöka hur två team reglerar sin interaktion med omgivningen samt om det existerar ett samband mellan interaktionen och teamarbetets effektivitet. Detta gjordes utgående från den teoretiska referensramen, som klart styrde undersökningens struktur. Efter datainsamlingen analyserades materialet. På basen av analysen och med stöd av referensramen, gjordes antaganden om de undersökta teamens effektivitet. Därefter jämfördes undersökningens resultat med organisationens egna effektivitetsmätare. Effektivitetsmätarna gav stöd för den egna undersökningen. Därmed ser det ut att existera ett samband mellan aktiv interaktion och effektivt teamarbete.
  • Kettunen, Juhani; Leonov, Alexander V.; Varis, Olli (The National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the water and environment research institute 3, pp. 48-54
  • Tohka, Antti; Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 21/2006
  • Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 46/2006
    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the atmosphere have been associated with severe human health effects. This report explores future emissions of primary PM2.5, their reduction potential and related reduction costs in Finland. One activity pathway of 2020 of the Finnish Climate Strategy was studied with two different PM emission control utilization scenarios: (1) "Baseline" which involves PM control technology utilization complying with current legislation, and (2) "Reduction" which assumes the use of maximum technically and economically feasible emission reduction measures. The studied sectors included stationary combustion and industrial activities. The work was performed using the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model of Finnish environment institute (SYKE). Total emission reduction potential below "Baseline" was estimated at 6.7 Gg(PM2.5) a-1, or 22% of the total emissions. The biggest relatively cost-efficient reductions (marginal cost below 5000 € Mg-1) can be achieved by the use of small electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in domestic wood log boilers, 2.0 Gg a-1. In large-scale combustion installations in power plants and industry the reduction of 1.2 Gg a-1 is possible by fabric filter installations instead of ESPs. A comparable reduction with slightly higher costs can be achieved in small (below 5 MWth) industrial boilers by the introduction of ESPs. For industrial processes potential occurs in few individual plants. The uncertainties in emission reduction and cost estimates are biggest for domestic combustion and industrial processes. This report presents cost-efficiency estimates of future emission reductions per mass of PM2.5 reduced. However, the magnitude of health benefits gained from emission reductions are different for different emission sources, depending on e.g. the altitude of emission release, the emission location in relation to the location of population etc. The results of this study are used in the integrated assessment modeling framework developed in the KOPRA project in order to link the information of emission reductions and costs, atmospheric dispersion and induced health impacts.