Browsing by Subject "marketing"

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  • Cheng, Yun (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Furniture is one of the most important necessities in people’s daily life. The development of furniture industry can also be regarded as the progress of society. China is the world’s biggest furniture manufacturer and exporter. After the rapid development in past few decades, the production, technology and quality of furniture has already mature. However, the traditional marketing models are showing disadvantages. It is important for furniture companies to explore profitable marketing models to grasp the market demands and obtain competitive advantages. In recent years, China's e-commerce saw a rapid development and is being used in different sectors such as clothes, shoes, books and beauty products. E-commerce platform is based on the internet, and it decreases the costs and makes shopping more convenient without the limitations on space and time. Chinese Premier Li Keqiang first landed out “Internet Plus” strategy in his government work report in 2015. The aim of this strategy is to promote the transformation of traditional manufacturing industries by using cloud computing, big data and internet of things based on the e-commerce platform. As a new concept, researchers seldom mention the operation of the e-commerce based internet plus strategy in the furniture industry. To fill this gap, this study was based on the perspective of companies, making practical explanations on internet plus and analyzed its application in furniture industry. In the methodology part, the business model canvas was applied to make qualitative analysis on the industrial level. Case study was also adopted to give quantitative support with the market data. Conclusion and discussions raised suggestions for future development and further studies.
  • Holopainen, Viljo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1960)
  • Lindeman, Mikaela; Katainen, Anu Hannele; Svensson, Johan; Kauppila, Emmi Katariina; Hellman, Carin Matilda Emelie (2019)
    Introduction and Aims This study has, for the first time, mapped the extent to which alcoholic beverage brands operating on the Swedish market follow national advertising regulations and industry self‐regulating codes in their postings on social media. Design and Methods All social media content posted on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram by 52 brands operating in the Swedish market was gathered from three sample months in 2014, 2016 and 2017. A content analysis was performed. Results An audit of the 1204 posts shows that the brands’ social media content conforms rather well with the industry's own self‐regulation codes. However, the studied beverage brands had alarmingly inadequate age‐gates to social media accounts. Advertisements for alcoholic beverages must be clearly distinguishable from advertisements for non‐alcoholic beverages, according to the Swedish Alcohol Act criteria. These criteria are fulfilled to a varying degree among the posts in the analysed data. Advertisements for non‐alcoholic beverages give companies a greater leeway in terms of shape and content of the post through logotypes, settings and connotations. However, advertisements of non‐alcoholic beverages continue to convey the brand connotations and image to consumers. Discussion and Conclusions Regulating alcohol advertising in online milieus can be very difficult because of the complex mixture between quickly evolving techniques and the diverse nature of communication messages targeting consumers. Many countries, including Sweden, are now focusing on how to enforce effective policies. This short report strives to shed some light on the scope and content of commercial messages on Swedish social media platforms.
  • Vuorio, Emma (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This study aims to find out if differentiation of the features of the 4P of the product milk can create value to customers in a particular customer segment. Creating value is in the core in every company´s actions. Customers buy products and services that create value to them and are willing to pay from the value they get. The more the product creates value, the more the customers are willing to pay. This study focused on the customer segment of young women with academic background who live in the capital region. Milk is a bulk product consumed widely in Finland. The product also has significant role in the nutritional history of the country and has a big role in Finnish nutritional recommendations. However the consumption of milk has decreased over the years. The theoretical background of this study is based on the following theories: marketing strategy and the 4P, customer value and differentiation. These theories formed the theoretical framework which gave the focus to the empirical experiment. The approach of the study was qualitative because qualitative research aims to understand the phenomenon it studies and the approach is more suitable for analysing verbal data. Qualitative research wants to get a deeper understanding and it gives room for individual´s thoughts and experience. The study was executed and a group interview using theme interview methods. For the study chosen features of the 4P of the product milk were differentiated and group interview focused on them. The differentiated features were the following. For product organic milk and milk with added protein, for price milk with a lower price, for place online shopping and for promotion advertising milk on social media. The findings of this study were that in some cases differentiation of the features if the 4P of the product milk can create value for customers but in most cases it does not. The focus group felt that the most valuable differentiated feature of the 4P was organically produced milk and other factors that supported the well-being of the production animals and the environment. If a company selling or producing milk tries to create value to its customers through differentiation of the features of the 4P, it needs to consider carefully which features to focus on.
  • Lepola, P.; Wang, Siri; Tötterman, A.M.; Gullberg, Ninna; Harboe, Kristine Moll; Kimland, Elin E. (2020)
    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the marketing status of the new paediatric medicinal products listed in the 10-year report as initially authorised between 2007 and 2016, reflecting the product availability in four Nordic countries. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Setting Analysis of the national medicine agency's databases in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Data source New medicinal products with paediatric indications and new paediatric formulations listed in the Annex of European Medicines Agency's EU Paediatric Regulation 10-year report. Data analysis The products were classified according to national marketing status between January 2019 and March 2019, whether a product was authorised and whether the product was marketed. Main outcome measures The percentages of the new medicinal products with paediatric indications and new paediatric formulations having a valid marketing authorisation and being marketed, both in terms of the sums of all countries and separately for each country. Results Across the four countries, 21%-32% (16/76-24/76) of the new medicinal products were not marketed. Of the new formulations relevant to children, 29%-50% (16/56-28/56) were not marketed, and a significant proportion of these products had never been marketed. Conclusions This study reflects the reality of the implementation of the Paediatric Regulation. The results show that several new paediatric medicines and new formulations are not marketed. This affects the product availability. Similar data from other countries are needed to evaluate the overall European status to find remedies to current situation and increase the availability of the medicines for children. ©
  • Kinnunen, Roosa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Increasing number of companion animals and market for companion animal drug products will bring about new challenges to the companion animal drug product marketing. Thus animal health companies have to rethink determinants of companion animal drug launch success so that their products could differ from other similar products. The aim of this study was to examine if the dominant approach of the new product launch (product-centered-, traditional sales and marketing- and strategic orientations approach) also more popular than relationship approach in the animal drug product marketing. The approach was chosen because big differences exist between the animal- and the human drug marketing. In addition it was researched how the recent changes of the animal health field has been effected to animal drug product marketing. The study was addressed to animal health marketing experts in Finland, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain and Italy by electronic questionnaire. A previously generated questionnaire was employed. It was used after slight modifications and repiloting. According to the study it was found that there is dominating the same procedures as generally in industries in the launch of veterinary drug products. However, relationship approach, which emphasizes the importance of customer relationships, is quite important in the launch of a new veterinary drug product. Based on the results, relationship approach complements dominant approach in the launch of veterinary drug product. Based on answers given to the open-ended questions, veterinary drug companies consider current chances positive and aim to take advantage of the changes. Based on this study at least the senior management of veterinary drug companies seems to be aware the importance of relationship activities. From the results it can be seen that the relationship activities have not been utilized in the launches as much as it would be potential. Veterinary drug companies lean too much on that the company's products will be succeed with very low relationship activities because veterinary drug market is small and they have much less competitors than the human drug companies has. In addition there is working primarily high experienced people in the veterinary pharmaceutical industry, which has an impact that marketing practices are not updated easily.
  • Wägar, Karolina; Björk, Peter; Ravald, Annika; West, Björn (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Working Papers
    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to explore the practice of marketing in micro firms. Which are the challenges micro firms encounter and how do they handle them? Methodology - The research methodology is based on the theory-in-use approach (Zaltman, Heffring & LeMasters 1982) in order to inductively explore the practice of marketing in micro firms. The empirical findings rest on ten case studies, where data has been generated through repeated interactions with each case. Findings - The empirical findings show that micro firms handle their marketing challenges in a distinctive manner, by creatively using available resources and network relations. Marketing in micro firms is largely about a long-term, gradual development of a position on the market. This process we label germinal marketing. Two key dimensions of germinal marketing were identified: “earning your position” and “being your brand”. Research limitations and implications - The findings rest on an explorative study consisting of ten cases and the general applicability of the results need to be validated by further studies. These cases are however sufficient to illuminate the need for further research into the area. Value of the paper - The value of the paper is twofold. First, it expands the theory-in-use approach, and presents a research method for successful inductive empirical studies of small firm phenomena. Secondly, the paper widens our understanding of the marketing reality and practice of micro firms, identifying new dimensions of marketing and revealing the strategic implications of ordinary business activities.
  • Orava, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Ready meal market is a mature business sector in Finland where competitive advantage is hard to achieve. When trying to get a foothold of the ready meal category, is it worthwhile to make a packaging redesign? Consumers buying behavior is considered to be rational and utility driven, but the interpretation has been challenged. The thesis uses eye tracking methodologies in studying consumer behavior. With eye tracking, it is possible to quantify consumer’s implicit visual search behavior into measurable and analyzable form, without the interference of conscious interpretation of perceived stimulus. Thus eye tracking data can assist companies in understanding their customer’s behavior and in creating effective and relevant packaging and marketing decisions. This thesis will provide insight on consumer behavior, eye tracking, and packaging and seizes the conducted research data; is it adequate to proceed with brand owners old design or should they consider moving to a new and unconventional, market-disrupting package design?
  • Anttila, Pekka (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The government of Lao PDR has promoted teak planting for over 40 years, resulting in a significant increase in the area of plantation teak. Most of the plantations are managed by individual farmers and play an important role as a kind of financial insurance system, and a ready source of quick income generation. By cultivating a teak plot it may be determined whether a farmer has land tenure to the plot and through cultivation whether they can afford to send children to school. In Northern Lao PDR the primary sales channel for teak in a complex environment are middlemen. The common association with middlemen is rather negative and they are perceived as rent-seeking actors in the value chain. However in the current teak market system in Lao PDR middlemen take responsibility for many time-consuming steps of performing teak sales in compliance with laws and regulations. In addition, unofficial fees in connection with felling and transporting strongly influence teak wood flows by increasing costs and making the process vulnerable to adversity. In general, middlemen save farmers the trouble of having to deal with unofficial costs and marketing, and therefore they represent a convenient sales channel for farmers. These extra costs are difficult for the society to tackle down as long as Lao PDR possess low effectiveness in the national formal and social control systems. This study focuses on the existing practices of teak middlemen and their implications for teak smallholders. Farmers’ perceptions of the various actors and issues with sales to be addressed are presented and discussed. In this study 120 semi-structured interviews with smallholder teak farmers and 11 with Lao authorities and non-governmental organizations throughout the forestry sector were conducted in four small villages and in Vientiane (the capital) in Northern Lao PDR. A middleman case study was included in the study to demonstrate current actions taken by middlemen. According to the results of this study farmers are lacking the time and motivation to participate in the highly regulated formalities of marketing teak, and prefer middlemen as their selling channel for their wood. Farmers do understand and, based on previous support, report of the importance of external development projects providing training and information related to teak markets, yet consider them challenging without more guidance and structural change in official governing practices.
  • Kulonen, Minna (1999)
    The thesis focuses on the sociopolitical value promotion by the multinational corporations, which according to the recent research has increased during 1990's. The phenomena is analysed with the help of the concept of 'moral markets', which refers to the continual flux of the contemporary moral values. The moral values are created and enhanced by the actors at the moral markets. The study is the so called pilot study on the phenomena, which has just begun to develop and of which there exists only minimal previous research. The aim of the thesis is to systematically analyse the value promotion of the corporations and the actors and elements related to the phenomena. The system theory, which emphasises the relationship between the organisation and the external environment, is used as a contextual theory. It has been used as a basis in order to form more specific model on the functions of 'the moral markets' and the power hierarchy behind it. The theory of legitimation of power by David Beetham forms the main theory of the study. The thesis is a case study, in which is used both quantitative content analysis and qualitative text analysis. The case corporations are Shell, Nestlé, McDonald's and Nike, which have been and still are on the boycott. The quantitative analysis pointed out that the promotion of values was both relatively extensive and intensive in three of the four case corporations. Also the so called boycott values were in a central position in three of the four cases, which may seem to indicate that boycotts are one essential reason for the value promotion of the case corporations. From the results of the quantitative analysis there was formed the following value promotion profiles: boycott-centric activity (Shell and Nike), 2) symbolic surplus value -centric activity (McDonald's) and 3) boycott-centric passivity (Nestlé). According to the analysis it seems to be that both Shell and Nike are actively involved in the value creation at the moral markets. Also McDonald's seems to participate in the functions of the moral markets. However, in the case of McDonald's the symbolic surplus values and core values seem to be used to direct the attention away from the actual boycotts and its consequences. In the case of Nestlé the corporation is more passive and defensive when regarding the value promotion. Also the legitimation of the corporation is mainly practised by the means of reactive form of control as the legislation and government intervention. The most important sources of the study are the web sites of the case corporations. The other sources of the study are both socio-scientific and economical reviews, journals and books. The material has been achieved also through the Internet.
  • Laitinen, Anna-Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Current food production and consumption practices have major impacts on the climate and the environment. Studies are calling for a transition towards plant-based diets as climate change poses an imminent threat of global natural catastrophes. Plant-based milk (PBM) products can be seen as radical innovations and as alternatives to liquid dairy milk that have started to break away from their former ethical and medical market niches. This study aims to gain understanding in how PBM products are positioned as alternatives to dairy milk and how the mainstreaming of these products could challenge the dairy sector. Specifically, the study is interested in how Finnish PBM products are marketed and how these PBM producers could be potential drivers of a sustainability transition in the food industry. This study focused on the digital marketing material that Finnish PBM producers used during the initial launch of their PBM products. The materials were collected online from existing and locatable sources (e.g. websites and social networking spaces) as well as from solicited material acquired from company representatives. The data was analyzed by conducting qualitative content analysis on the materials. The results showed that Finnish PBMs are marketed as alternative yet convenient products that are simultaneously health, tasty, and functional, as well as sustainable and plant-based. Even though Finnish producers were found to be hesitant to explicitly challenge the dairy sector, some brands positioned their products as part of a new food system that is transitioning away from the use of animal-products. These results suggest that the mainstreaming of Finnish PBMs and specifically oat milk is a positive shift towards more sustainable modes of production and consumption. Furthermore, the involvement of well-established food and dairy industry actors in the Finnish PBM market could have a role in reforming the institutional structures that empower people to eat animal-derived products. The seemingly neutral, non-provocative marketing style of Finnish PBM products is aiming to normalize the use of PBMs and thus claim its spot in Finnish food culture as an everyday consumer good.
  • Riihinen, Päiviö (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)
  • Haarasilta, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The concept of social media includes a wide range of online, word-of-mouth forums including blogs, company sponsored discussion boards, chat rooms, consumer product or service ratings websites, and social networking sites. Social media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers and consultants try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as YouTube, Facebook and Twitter. One of the main goals of an industrial company is to execute its new product development process in a way where new technological opportunities can be identified and commercialized before its competitors. In this study it was investigated how wood processing companies, log house builders and hardware stores currently exploit social media in their commercial efforts such as marketing and sales. Further it was also examined do wood processing companies, log house builders and hardware stores use social media in their new product development (NPD) process. The empirical part of the study was carried out by interviewing a small number of companies and conducting a desk research of the social media activity of a larger number of companies. Most of the companies studied were present in social media. The type and the intensity of social media presence varied depending on the type of the company. E.g. hardware stores used social media merely for marketing and sales related purposes whereas in wood processing companies the focus was on communication and PR. Besides the normal customer feedback systems there was no evidence that the companies of this study would actively use social media in collecting end user driven ideas for R&D purposes. Based on the theoretical background, framework of the study, desk research and company interviews a model for collecting feedback and product development ideas from end users is created. Furthermore some ideas for more effective usage of social media regarding the topic of the study are offered as well.
  • McVeigh, Tytti (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    This thesis investigates the development of the visibility of slavery in the brochures of four Virginia plantations over a time period of 90 years. The four plantations are Monticello, Mount Vernon, Belle Grove, and Long Branch, all of different sizes but with similar pasts as sites of enslavement prior to the abolishment of slavery in 1865. The goal is to discover how and why the narrative of slavery has changed over the years, and if any larger societal changes may have contributed to this development. As tour brochures have the ability to affect a visitor’s interpretation of a site, it is important to understand what type of discourses and images are directing the visitor’s gaze in the brochures. It is equally vital to attempt to understand the reasoning behind those choices of language and imagery. In this thesis, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used to discover what is being said, what is left unsaid, and why those decisions were made. The primary sources for this thesis are the print brochures collected at each plantation and the plantation websites. The material is primarily analyzed using textual analysis although some image analysis is also included to give a more comprehensive understanding of the content of the brochures. In addition, secondary sources are used to support the historical and conceptual framework of the thesis. The main result of this thesis is that the visibility of slavery in plantation brochures has developed from non-existent or minimal to attempted integration. Until the late 1970s the institution of slavery and the experiences of the enslaved, if mentioned, are trivialized, marginalized, and/or segregated. Slow but steady progress in increasing the presence of slavery in the brochures can be witnessed throughout the years as the general opinion in the United States became more accepting, even demanding, of racial equality. No individual event or phenomenon has had a direct impact on the content of the brochures but a clear development into including slavery can be seen. Based on the results, it is the conclusion of this thesis that the main themes of the brochures have not changed very much since the 1920s. Owner families, prestigious guests, architecture, gardens, and the achievements of the wealthy owners have remained the main focus of attention although some new themes can be found in the more recent brochures. It is also evident that these themes persist at the expense of others, such as slavery, bringing about an interesting discussion of remembering and forgetting. In addition, these conclusions raise an important question about the roles of plantation museums as educators, entertainers, and research facilities.