Browsing by Subject "markets"

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  • Riihinen, Päiviö (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1963)
  • Oksanen, Eljas; Lewis, Michael (2020)
    This paper explores some 220,000 medieval objects recorded in the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) online database of archaeological small finds through Geographic Information System analysis of their relationship with contemporary market sites. First, an overview of the contents of the PAS database is presented in terms of its spatial and ‘object type’ distribution. Second, the relationship of the medieval finds data against documentary evidence of commercial activity is investigated at a national level. Finally, PAS data is contextualised in its historical landscape context through case studies. It is argued that the distribution of PAS finds on the national scale can be linked with patterns of commercial activity, and that while rural and urban finds scatters have distinguishing trends, the countryside population enjoyed access to a range of sophisticated metalwork culture; also, that certain assemblages can be analysed statistically to yield new data and perspectives on local historical development.
  • Riihinen, Päiviö (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1962)
  • Heinonen, Piia (2007)
    This case study analyses the economic operations of a group of Lusaka-based businesswomen in the formal economy. In the study, these businesswomen are considered 'new' since through their entrepreneurship they have actively adapted to the 1990s liberalisation of Zambian economy. There are signs indicating that the Zambian entrepreneurial development does not follow the modern trajectories, which makes entrepreneurship an interesting research topic. The concepts of economic citizenship and strategy are launched to understand individual operations in the context of state regulation and social setting. On one hand, I will examine the Zambian neoliberal tax policy and its impact on the economic operations and decision-making of the new businesswomen, such as tax registration. On the other hand, the empirical data from the interviews with businesswomen and from the Zambian literature and magazines are examined to grasp together a full picture of the social elements that influence businesswomen's economic operations. The study reveals that the economic citizenship of the new Lusaka businesswomen builds on a complex set of norms and responsibilities and is more likely based on the duties than on the rights of a citizen. The economic strategies of the businesswomen do not solely reflect the market rationalities, but also responsibilities towards the nation, employees and the extended family. The traditional connotations of female decency influence new businesswomen's operations as well.
  • Kantola, Anu (2002)
    In the early 1990s Finland experienced banking crisis that can be considered as one of the most severe ones in the OECD-countries since the Second World War. At the same time the crisis was a part of a larger political change as Finland was liberating financial markets and moving towards market oriented systems in society. This work analyses the talk of the Finnish political elites in this process. Theoretically the work draws of the work of Michel Foucault and especially his concepts of governance and governmentality. According to Foucault modern states develop special forms of political governance, which use language and special forms of knowledge such as economy and economics. Foucault aims to study the particular historical forms governance takes in various historical situations. In this case, the aim is to look at the particular case of Finland in the 1990s. What kind of regime of governance develops in the Finnish economic crisis? The study analyses biographical accounts of the crisis by the most important political decision-makers. The interviews were made by Sitra in 1995. Moreover, previous research on the crisis as well as already published memoirs of the political elite and background interviews of the elite are used as secondary sources. It is suggested that the economic crisis creates a regime of political governance named moral managerialism. Political and ideological distinctions are to a large extent wiped away from the talk of the political elite. Instead the elite is united by managerial talk, which thrives to solve given problems instead of discussing various political alternatives and interests. At the same time many decision-makers use moral analysis. The crisis is seen as a result of a moral failure as the morals of the common people failed. This moral managerialism in interpreted as a form of political governance, which is based on neoliberalistic, economistic and nationalistic ideas. The appearing regime does not endorse the ideals of democracy. On the contrary, elections, public discussion and citizens are in the eyes of many decision-makers a problem that hinders effective and rational management. At the same time markets gain a prominent position in elite talk and surpass politics, which gets a negative connotation as a word. The Finnish political elite appears in the crisis as a relatively homogeneous group. The elite is united in pragmatic talk based on national economy, while various political ideologies and ideas, that could create cleavages within the elite, are put aside.