Browsing by Subject "markkerit"

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  • Puntila-Dodd, R.; Bekkevold, D.; Behrens, J. W. (Springer, 2021)
    Hydrobiologia 848: 2
    Species invasions often occur on coasts and estuaries where abiotic conditions vary, e.g. salinity, temperature, runoff etc. Successful establishment and dispersal of non-indigenous species in many such systems are poorly understood, partially since the species tend to show genetic and ecological plasticity at population level towards many abiotic conditions, including salinity tolerance. Plasticity may be driven by shifting expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp70, which is widely recognized as indicator of physical stress. In this study, we developed a qPCR assay for expression of the hsp70 gene in the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tested the expression response of fish collected from a brackish environment in the western Baltic Sea to three different salinities, 0, 10 and 30. hsp70 expression was highest in fresh water, indicating higher stress, and lower at brackish (ambient condition for the sampled population) and oceanic salinities, suggestive of low stress response to salinities above the population’s current distribution. The highest stress in fresh water was surprising since populations in fresh water exist, e.g. large European rivers and Laurentian Great Lakes. The results have implications to predictions for the species’ plasticity potential and possible range expansion of the species into other salinity regimes.
  • Schuster, Romina; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Ahvo, Aino; Turja, Raisa; Maser, Edmund; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Brenner, Matthias (Elsevier, 2021)
    Marine Environmental Research 167 (2021), 105264
    Baltic mussels (Mytilus spp.) were exposed to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) for 96 h (0.31–10.0 mg/L) and 21 d (0.31–2.5 mg/L). Bioaccumulation of TNT and its degradation products (2- and 4-ADNT) as well as biological effects ranging from the gene and cellular levels to behaviour were investigated. Although no mortality occurred in the concentration range tested, uptake and metabolism of TNT and responses in antioxidant enzymes and histochemical biomarkers were observed already at the lowest concentrations. The characteristic shell closure behaviour of bivalves at trigger concentrations led to complex exposure patterns and non-linear responses to the exposure concentrations. Conclusively, exposure to TNT exerts biomarker reponses in mussels already at 0.31 mg/L while effects are recorded also after a prolonged exposure although no mortality occurs. Finally, more attention should be paid on shell closure of bivalves in exposure studies since it plays a marked role in definining toxicity threshold levels.
  • Benito, Denis; Ahvo, Aino; Nuutinen, Jari; Bilbao, Dennis; Saenz, Jon; Etxebarria, Nestor; Lekube, Xabie; Izagirre, Urtzi; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Marigómez, Ionan; Zaldibar, Beñat; Soto, Manu (Elsevier, 2019)
    Science of The Total Environment 689 (2019), pages 1087-1103
    For reliable mussel monitoring programmes based on biomarkers, regionally relevant reference values and their natural variability need to be known. The Baltic Sea exhibits high inter-regional and seasonal variability in physical factors such as salinity, temperature and primary production. The aim of this pilot study is to depict the effects of season-related environmental factors in a selected battery of biomarkers in two environmentally different subregions of the Baltic Sea to help establishing reference data for biochemical, cellular and tissue-level biomarkers. In order to achieve that, mussels were collected from reference sites in Kiel (Germany) and Tvärminne (Finland) during three seasons: summer and autumn 2016, and spring 2017. Finally, in order to characterize the ecological situation, analysis of the chemical tissue burden was performed and chlorophyll‑a and particulate organic carbon concentration and temperature changes were analyzed at each sampling locality using satellite remote sensing images. An integrated biomarker response index was performed to summarize the biomarker responses of each locality and season. The biochemical endpoints showed seasonal variability regulated by temperature, food supply and reproductive cycle, while among the cellular endpoints only lipofuscin accumulation and lysosomal structural changes showed slight seasonal variation. Seasonal changes in tissue level biomarkers were observed only at the northern Baltic Sea site Tvärminne, dictated by the demanding energetic trade-off caused by reproduction. In conclusion, the characterization of the ecological variables and physico-chemical conditions at each site, is crucial to perform a reliable assessment of the effects of a hypothetical pollution scenario in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, reference levels of biomarkers and their responses to natural environmental conditions must be established.
  • Wolf, Maija (University of Helsinki, 1996)
  • Jörgensen, Kirsten S.; Kreutzer, Anne; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Kankaanpää, Harri; Rytkönen, Jorma; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Truu, Jaak; Kõuts, Tarmo; Lilover, Madis-Jaak; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner; Johann, Sarah; Marigómez, Ionan; Soto, Manu; Lekube, Xabier; Jenssen, Bjørn M.; Ciesielski, Tomasz M.; Wilms, Lonnie B.; Högström, Rune; Pirneskoski, Mika; Virtanen, Seppo; Forsman, Björn; Petrich, Chris; Phuong-Dang, Nga; Wang, Feiyue (Springer Nature, 2019)
    Environmental Sciences Europe
    This article introduces the EU Horizon 2020 research project GRACE (Integrated oil spill response actions and environmental effects), which focuses on a holistic approach towards investigating and understanding the hazardous impact of oil spills and the environmental impacts and benefits of a suite of marine oil spill response technologies in the cold climate and ice-infested areas of the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea. The response methods considered include mechanical collection in water and below ice, in situ burning, use of chemical dispersants, natural biodegradation, and combinations of these. The impacts of naturally and chemically dispersed oil, residues resulting from in situ burning, and non-collected oil on fish, invertebrates (e.g. mussels, crustaceans) and macro-algae are assessed by using highly sensitive biomarker methods, and specific methods for the rapid detection of the effects of oil pollution on biota are developed. By observing, monitoring and predicting oil movements in the sea through the use of novel online sensors on vessels, fixed platforms including gliders and the so-called SmartBuoys together with real-time data transfer into operational systems that help to improve the information on the location of the oil spill, situational awareness of oil spill response can be improved. Methods and findings of the project are integrated into a strategic net environmental benefit analysis tool (environment and oil spill response, EOS) for oil spill response strategy decision making in cold climates and ice-infested areas.