Browsing by Subject "masennusoireilu"

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  • Hemnell, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Aims. There is a growing body of research indicating that childhood experiences interact with genetic vulnerabilities in the development of depression. Parent-child relationship quality has been shown to have a critical role in the development of depression later in life. Moreover, research has shown that the quality of parenting can also have long-term and persistent effects on various neurobiological systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Indeed, the impaired function of HPA axis has been the most consistently found association with depression. This makes genes related to HPA axis regulation of particular interest to researchers. One possible candidate gene is FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene, which has been shown to interact with adverse childhood experiences in predicting future risk of depression. This study examines whether perceived quality of parent-child relationship predicts depressive symptoms in adulthood and whether this association is moderated by the FKBP5 polymorphisms. Methods. This study is part of The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Total of 1 667 subjects completed a psychological questionnaire in 2004, including the Beck Depression Inventory (21 item, BDI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (25 item, PBI). This study utilised the three factor structure of PBI; care, denial of psychological autonomy and encouragement of behavioral freedom, which were measured separately for mother and father. The study looked at three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms: rs1360780, rs9394309 and rs9470080 extracted from the genome-wide data genotyped with modified Illumina 610k array. The study utilised two models 1 and 2; model 1 adjusted for age and gender and additionally model 2 adjusted for childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status (SES) as well as separation experiences. Results and conclusions. As hypothesised and in line with previous studies the quality of parenting predicted depressive symptoms in adulthood. Participants, who perceived having received more care and encouragement of behavioral freedom reported fewer depressive symptoms. Whereas denial of psychological autonomy resulted in reporting more depressive symptoms. None of the polymorphisms predicted depressive symptoms. More importantly, this is the first study to show that FKBP5 polymorphisms modify the relationship between perceived mother-child relationship and depressive symptoms. Among participants with two minor alleles, perceived lack of maternal care and maternal denial of psychological autonomy were most strongly associated with more depressive symptoms. Participants with one minor allele had similar results. Whereas among participants with two major alleles, perceived parenting had a smaller effect on the amount of depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that in addition to adverse experiences and traumas, also deficiencies in parenting can predispose to depression depending on the amount of minor alleles in FKBP5 polymorphisms.
  • Honkanen, Heidi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. Obesity and depression are global health problems that cause enormous burden to the society as well as to the individuals. There is supposed to be a bidirectional association between obesity and depression which means that obesity cause depression and depression cause obesity. Previous research has partially supported this view, although there have been only few studies focusing on bidirectional association so far. This study examined whether there is a bidirectional association between obesity and depressive symptoms and how potential confounders and risk factors explain this relationship. Methods. The sample of this study (n = 1272) is part of an ongoing Young Finns Study, which began in 1980. Young Finns Study is an extensive Finnish population based follow-up study that examines cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. Subjects were randomly chosen from the national register and data originally consisted of 3596 children and youths. Weight and depressive symptoms were measured in 2001 and 2007 and the confounders and risk factors in 2001. Examined confounders and risk factors in this study were socioeconomic status, social support and health behavior. Weight was examined by calculating body mass index and depressive symptoms were measured by using a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Subjects of this study were 30–45 years old in 2007. Results and conclusions. Bidirectional association between obesity and depressive symptoms was found in this study. However, obesity did not predict change in depression nor did depression predict change in obesity in six years. In addition, male gender, higher age, low socioeconomic status, higher consumption of alcohol and low attention to health behavior functioned as risk factors for obesity. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were female gender, lack of social support and low attention to health behavior. These factors also partly explained the association between obesity and depressive symptoms. To conclude, in the current study there was a bidirectional association between obesity and depression, which was partly explained by confounders and other risk factors.
  • Vihlman, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective Depression and high blood pressure are becoming more common problems, but their relation remains unclear. This master's thesis studied the relation between depression and high blood pressure in the longitudinal Young Finns Study over a follow-up of four years. The aim was to examine whether 1) baseline depressive symptoms predict blood pressure over the follow-up, 2) the relation between depression and blood pressure differs among men and women, 3) health choices affect the relation, and 4) there is a relation between the duration of depression and blood pressure. Methods The participants (N=909) were about 42 years old, and 61 % of them were women. Their blood pressure and BDI-II depression scores were measured in 2007 ja 2011. Three-step regression analysis was used to predict the systolic and diastolic blood pressure based on the baseline depression score. The first model was controlled for age, gender and baseline blood pressure, the second model also for education and income, and the third model additionally for health choices. The average blood pressures of non-depressed, once depressed and twice depressed participants were compared in analysis of variance. The group comparisons were additionally controlled for age, gender and baseline blood pressure in analysis of covariance. Results and conclusions Baseline depressive symptoms did not predict blood pressure. Among women, a positive relation between depression and blood pressure was found in the first model, but not in the more controlled models. The relation between depression and blood pressure was partly explained by health choices; higher body mass index predicted higher blood pressure. Controlling for age, gender and baseline blood pressure, the duration of depression was connected to higher blood pressure; the diastolic blood pressure was higher, when the participant was depressed both in the beginning and end of the follow-up.
  • Ränninranta, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of this study is to examine whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to perinatal risk factors is linked to depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol consumption at age 40. There is a lot of scientific information about perinatal risk factors and their effects in childhood and connection to ADHD, but only few studies have researched adults. ADHD generally has a wide psychiatric comorbidity. This study examines whether ADHD related to perinatal risk factors is linked to depressive symptoms or excessive alcohol consumption in adulthood. Examinees consists of people who have 1) ADHD related to perinatal risks (n=45), 2) perinatal risks without ADHD (n=387) and 3) a control group (n=73). Research problems are: Does the ADHD group have 1) more depression symptoms and 2) more excessive alcohol consumption in their fourties than other groups, 3) is there a similar pattern of correlations between adulthood ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption between all groups and 4) does alcohol consumption mediate the correlation between adulthood ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms? ADHD related to perinatal risks had a connection to more substantial depressive symptoms comparing to other risk group but not to control group. Alcohol consumption on average did not differ from other groups. ADHD group did have more severe depressive symptoms and more harmful or addictional alcohol consumption. In all groups adulthood ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption shared a similar correlation pattern. The correlation between ADHD and depressive symptoms was greatest and that correlation was strongest in the ADHD group. When the alcohol consumption was controlled over all groups, it was possible to notice that alcohol consumption mediates the correlation between adulthood ADHD and depressive symptoms. These results suggests that depressive symptoms and harmful alcohol consumption are possible associative problem to ADHD related to perinatal risks. This emphasized the significance of early symptoms recognizing and support to people with ADHD and also continuing psychosocial support until adulthood.