Browsing by Subject "massa- ja paperiteollisuus"

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  • Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Ahkola, Heidi; Heinonen, Pertti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 14/2010
  • Nilsson, Pia; Puurunen, Karina; Vasara, Petri; Jouttijärvi, Timo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    The Finnish Environment 12/2007
    This report is the Finnish contribution to the second exchange of information defined in the Council Directive 96/61/EC and to the preparation of the second Reference Document of the European Commission on Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry (BREF). The report is the work of Pöyry Forest Industry Consulting Oy on behalf of the Finnish Forest Industries Federation and Finnish Environment Institute. In this report, a series of suggestions for improvements to the BREF are given. The suggestions are shored up with reasoning and examples behind them. Among key messages in this document we find: - Uphold and emphasise the key principles of the BAT BREF, and increase the readability of the BREF. - The need for ensuring smooth running and minimising accidental releases should be emphasised in the BREF. One way to ensure smoother running is to use simpler processes. - Cross-media effects should be further emphasised in the BREF. Lack of cross-media information and integrated views in decision making can result in wrong measures taken. -  The chapters dealing with new techniques could be improved by reshaping them into a readable, clear and concise analysis of the current technology trends and selected techniques, not forgetting key principles of the BREF. -  Based on information on both Finnish and international mills, it seems that not all the BAT ranges are on same level of stringency. In addition, BAT techniques do not necessarily go hand in hand with BAT emissions levels. It is recommended that this report is read together with the first pulp and paper BREF.
  • Pakarinen, Suvi (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2009)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 11/2009
  • Hildén, Mikael; Lepola, Jukka; Mickwitz, Per; Mulders, Aard; Palosaari, Marika; Similä, Jukka; Sjöblom, Stefan; Vedung, Evert (Finnish Environment Institute, 2002)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 21
    This research-based evaluation of environmental policy Instruments in Finland is focussed on regulatory instruments based on the Water Act, the Air Pollution Control Act and the Chemicals Act, on electricity taxation and on voluntary environmental management systems. The examined policy instruments have had several positive effects. They have directed major industrial point source polluters towards solving environmental problems. The transparency has been an important factor ensuring the success of the policy instruments and in avoiding the regulatory capture that could have thrived in a system largely based on negotiations between operators and authorities. The transparency has made it easy for Finnish firms to adopt environmental management systems and an open attitude to environmental reporting. The permit conditions have not directly resulted in innovations, but they have contributed to the diffusion of end-of-pipe technology and have contributed to innovations by expanding the market for environmentally better technical solutions. The permit systems have also indirectly contributed to innovations by creating a demand for environmental experts and environmental education.Networks have clearly developed as a consequence of and in response to regulatory instruments. These networks appear to have had their greatest significance prior to the permit procedures. The trend has been towards a greater emphasis of the communication in the networks prior to the presentation of an application in order to ensure a smoothly functioning permit process. In the networks contributing to innovations and the diffusion of innovations authorities have largely been outsiders, except when an innovation has become a de facto standard for permit conditions.The different kind of effects, the complexity of consequences and the uncertainties with respect to causes and effects mean that studies aiming at evaluating the overall worth and merit of an environmental policy instrument should never be structured from a single point of view using only one method. Multiple criteria should be used. The drawback of the multiple approach principle in evaluation is that the evaluations will run into data problems and all the difficulties of multi- and transdisciplinary research, but the multidisciplinarity is a necessary condition for developing an informed view of the functioning and effects of environmental policy instruments.This publication is the result of a project financed by the environmental cluster research programme.
  • Kalliola, Pirkko (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 165