Browsing by Subject "measurement"

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  • Westman, Carl Johan; Starr, Michael; Laine, Jukka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Rufelt, Henry; Wiese, Björn (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Hari, Pertti; Kanninen, Markku; Kellomäki, Seppo; Luukkanen, Olavi; Pelkonen, Paavo; Salminen, Raimo; Smolander, Heikki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Kunnari, Anton; Sundvall, Jukka R. I.; Laakasuo, Michael (2020)
    The process dissociation procedure (PDP) for moral cognition was created to separately measure two dispositions of moral judgment based on the dual-process theory of moral reasoning: deontological and utilitarian inclinations. In this paper we raise some concerns from a psychometrics perspective regarding the structure, reliability, and validity of the moral PDP as a measure of individual differences. Using two simulation studies as well as a real sample of N = 1,010, we investigate the psychometric properties of the moral PDP. We present novel evidence showing that (1) some correlations between PDP parameters are mathematical artifacts, and as such cannot be taken as evidence in support of a theory, (2) there are severe response inconsistencies within dilemma batteries, and (3) reliability estimates for these scores seem to be far below the accepted standards. We discuss some potential theoretical and content-related reasons for these statistical issues and their implications. We conclude that in their current form, PDP measures of utilitarian and deontological tendencies are sub-optimal for assessing individual differences.
  • Sulkunen, Pekka (2017)
  • Luo, Fuhe (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Saarilahti, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Kaipio, Johanna; Karisalmi, N.; Hiekkanen, K.; Stenhammar, H.; Lahdenne, P. (IOS PRESS, 2019)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Patient experience (PX) is an important evaluation criterion for quality in healthcare. Compared to patient satisfaction, however less research has focused on the development of instruments to measure experiences of patients and their families. In the article, we describe the process of developing a PX questionnaire for the parents of pediatric patients in the context of children's hospital and illustrate the questionnaire items for measuring PX. The phases of the development process included retrospective interviews, description of the themes influencing PX and the metrics for measuring PX, as well as iterative development of three versions of questionnaires including data gathering and factor analysis. The final versions of the surveys suggested for implementation at the hospitals include eight PX statements for the outpatient clinic and five statements for the ward. Compared to satisfaction surveys, the developed surveys emphasize the aspects of parent's attitude towards the illness, support for families, and daily arrangements with a child patient. © 2019 American Psychological Association Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Alasaarela, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Ruukkusalaattien tuotanto on kasvanut Suomessa jo vuosikymmeniä. Kasvihuoneet mahdollistavat tuoreiden lehtivihannesten kasvatuksen ympärivuotisesti, mutta pimeä vuodenaika tai valonsaannin heikentyminen yhdessä korkean nitraattilannoituksen kanssa aiheuttavat nitraatin kertymistä salaattiin. Nitraatti ei itsessään ole kovin myrkyllistä ihmiselle, mutta sen aineenvaihduntatuotteet elimistössä voivat olla haitallisia. Siksi ravinnon nitraattipitoisuuksia rajoitetaan EU asetuksella ja kasvisten nitraattipitoisuuksia valvoo Ruokavirasto. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää jääsalaatin (Lactuca sativa L.) nitraattipitoisuuteen vaikuttavia tekijöitä yksityisellä kasvihuonepuutarhalla, ja ehdottaa helposti sovellettavia keinoja nitraattipitoisuuden alentamiseksi. Tutkimuksessa mitattiin vuorokaudenajan, iän ja olosuhteiden vaikutusta jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen. Mittaukset tehtiin eri kellonaikoina korjatuilta salaateilta, neljän, viiden ja kuuden viikon ikäisiltä salaateilta, sekä viikoittaisilla seurantamittauksilla kolmen kuukauden ajan syksyllä 2017. Salaattien nitraattipitoisuus määriteltiin pikamittausmenetelmällä. Kasveille tulevaa PAR-valoa ja kiertoliuoksen nitraattityppipitoisuutta mitattiin jatkuvatoimisella mittalaitteella. Lisäksi kasvihuoneen automaattisesta ohjausjärjestelmästä saatiin tietoa muista kasvuolosuhteista. Sadonkorjuun kellonaika ei vaikuttanut jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen. Ikä vaikutti neljän ja viiden viikon ikäisten salaattien nitraattipitoisuuteen, mutta paremmissa valo-olosuhteissa iän vaikutus heikkeni kuuden viikon ikäisillä salaateilla. Nitraattityppilannoituksella ei ollut suoraa vaikutusta salaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen, mutta enemmän valoa saaneissa salaateissa oli vähemmän nitraattia. Kasvuston tasolta tehdystä jatkuvatoimisesta valon mittauksesta on hyötyä salaatin nitraattipitoisuuden hallinnassa. Riski nitraatin enimmäispitoisuusrajan ylitykseen on suuri syyskuussa luonnonvalon määrän vähentyessä. Tekovalojen käytön lisäämisellä voidaan alentaa salaatin nitraattipitoisuutta.
  • Smolander, Heikki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
    Measurements were made of temporal and spatial microvariations in irradiance in a small part of the canopy of a 20-yr-old Scots pine stand. Linear integration of the variations gave biased estimates; second order Taylor series approximations were satisfactory only for a low curvature response; two-point distribution approximations were applicable to high and low curvature response but presupposed that the mean and variance were known. It is suggested that a light measuring method in which first power (mean) and second power (variance) of irradiance are integrated resolves these problems; the method takes into account the geometry of the shoot and can also be used in transpiration studies.
  • Kuusipalo, Jussi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Li, Xinyang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The impacts of dust aerosols on human health and climate change are increasing as the particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations and frequency of Sand and Dust Storm (SDS) episodes have shown an increasing trend in recent studies, especially for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In this thesis, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations were measured during May 2018–March 2019 in the urban atmosphere of Amman, Jordan. The PM sampling was 24-hours every 6 days. The overall mean PM10 mass concentration was 64±39 μg/m3 with the median (+interquartile range) value of 49.2+53.5 μg/m3, the PM2.5 mass concentration varied between 15 μg/m3 and 190 μg/m3 with an annual average 47±32 μg/m3 and with the median (+interquartile range) value of 35.8+26.3 μg/m3. The PM2.5 / PM10 ratio was 0.8±0.2. According to the Jordanian Air Quality standards, the annual mean PM10 needs to be below a limit value of 120 μg/m3, which was true in this work. However, the PM2.5 mass concentration was three times higher the corresponding limit value (65 μg/m3). However, both exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality annual guideline of 20 μg/m3 for PM10 and 10 μg/m3 for PM2.5. The results show that the observed PM10 mass concentrations in Jordan were lower than what was reported in other cities in the Middle East but were higher when compared to other Mediterranean cities. During the measurement period, Jordan was affected by Sand and Dust Storms (SDS), which were observed on 14 sampling days. The source origins of these SDS were traced back to North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Levant. The 24-hour PM10 concentrations during these SDS episodes ranged between 108.1 μg/m3 and 187.3 μg/m3. In the future, measurements with a higher time resolution (one sample per day) are recommended for a more precise seasonal trend interpretation.
  • Lampinen, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The natural carbon cycle is affected by human activity. Terrestrial carbon stocks have been decreasing as at the same time carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased causing climate change. The Paris Agreement sets the target to limit climate change to 1.5°C and to reach that goal, all possible mitigation practises should be included into global framework to avoid the most serious consequences of warming. Carbon sequestration into natural soil and biomass could be one mitigation practice. To enhance carbon sequestration activities and to include natural carbon stocks into to the EU climate policy, it would be necessary to quantify stock sizes and changes in those stocks. For developing carbon trading markets, the quantification methods should provide accurate results and at the same time be practical and financially achievable. Used research method in this thesis was comparatively literature survey and aim was to gather and compere information about currently used carbon stock quantification methods against developing carbon trading markets. Soil carbon stocks can be quantified with direct soil sampling, spectroscopic sensing methods or by mathematical models. Biomass carbon stocks can be quantified with inventory-based field measurements and modelling and by remote sensing. The full carbon budget on the ecosystem level can be achieved with carbon flux measurements. Quantification of different terrestrial carbon stocks and their changes is not a simple task. There is a lot of variation between different stocks and in some cases, the stock changes occur slow. Cost of carbon stock quantification depends on the accuracy, size of the area under focus and frequency of the measures. Methods for terrestrial carbon stock quantification are dependent on high quality data and there is demand for research considering carbon sequestration. For carbon offsetting purposes of developing carbon markets, the modelling approach is achievable, cost efficient, repeatable and transparent. There is no perfect model or one universal model that would fit to every situation and thus the differences must be known. At this stage, this approach could be one possibility to include small scale projects and enhance climate actions. Different quantification methods provide information which can be used to different method developments and to increase accuracies. It’s important to know, how all information can be effectively utilized.
  • Carrara, Arnaud; Kolari, Pasi; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Arriga, Nicola; Berveiller, Daniel; Dengel, Sigrid; Ibrom, Andreas; Merbold, Lutz; Rebmann, Corinna; Sabbatini, Simone; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Biraud, Sebastien C. (2018)
    Solar radiation is a key driver of energy and carbon fluxes in natural ecosystems. Radiation measurements are essential for interpreting ecosystem scale greenhouse gases and energy fluxes as well as many other observations performed at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). We describe and explain the relevance of the radiation variables that arc monitored continuously at ICOS ecosystems stations and define recommendations to perform these measurements with consistent and comparable accuracy. The measurement methodology and instruments are described including detailed technical specifications. Guidelines for instrumental set up as well as for operation, maintenance and data collection arc defined considering both ICOS scientific objectives and practical operational constraints. For measurements of short-wave (solar) and long wave (infrared) radiation components, requirements for the ICOS network are based on available well-defined state-of-the art standards (World Meteorological Organization, International Organization for Standardization). For photosynthetically active radiation measurements, some basic instrumental requirements are based on the performance of commercially available sensors. Since site specific conditions and practical constraints at individual ICOS ecosystem stations may hamper the applicability of standard requirements, we recommend that ICOS develops mid-tern coordinated actions to assess the effective level of uncertainties in radiation measurements at the network scale.
  • Pöllänen, Kari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Economics and Society
    The aim of the study was to explore the importance of evaluating leadership criteria in Finland at leader/subordinate levels of the insurance industry. The overall purpose of the thesis is tackled and analyzed from two different perspectives: - by examining the importance of the leadership criteria and style of Finnish insurance business leaders and their subordinates - by examining the opinions of insurance business leaders regarding leadership criteria in two culturally different countries: the US and Finland. This thesis consists of three published articles that scrutinise the focal phenomena both theoretically and empirically. The main results of the study do not lend support to the existence of a universal model of leadership criteria in the insurance business. As a matter of fact, the possible model seems to be based more on the special organizational and cultural circumstances of the country in question. The leadership criteria seem to be quite stable irrespective of the comparatively short research time period (3–5 years) and hierarchical level (subordinate/leader). Leaders have major difficulties in changing their leadership style. In fact, in order to bring about an efficient organizational change in the company you have to alternate the leader. The cultural dimensions (cooperation and monitoring) identified by Finnish subordinates were mostly in line with those of their managers, whilst emphasizing more the aspect of monitoring employees, which could be seen from their point of view as another element of managers’ optimizing/efficiency requirements. In Finnish surveys the strong emphasis on cooperation and mutual trust become apparent by both subordinates and managers. The basic problem is still how to emphasize and balance them in real life in such a way that both parties are happy to work together on a common basis. The American surveys suggests hypothetically that in a soft market period (buyer’s market) managers employ a more relationship-oriented leadership style and correspondingly adapt their leadership style to a more task-oriented approach in a hard market phase (seller’s market). In making business better Finnish insurance managers could probably concentrate more on task-oriented items such as reviewing, budgeting, monitoring and goal-orientation. The study also suggests that the social safety net of the European welfare state ideology has so far shielded the culture-specific sense of social responsibility of Finnish managers from the hazards of free competition and globalization.
  • Tyllinen, M.; Kaipio, Johanna; Lääveri, T. (IOS PRESS, 2019)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    In this paper, we report measured usability of two leading EHR systems during procurement. A total of 18 users participated in paired-usability testing of three scenarios: ordering and managing medications by an outpatient physician, medicine administration by an inpatient nurse and scheduling of appointments by nursing staff. Data for audio, screen capture, satisfaction rating, task success and errors made was collected during testing. We found a clear difference between the systems for percentage of successfully completed tasks, two different satisfaction measures and perceived learnability when looking at the results over all scenarios. We conclude that usability should be evaluated during procurement and the difference in usability between systems could be revealed even with fewer measures than were used in our study. © 2019 American Psychological Association Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Suhonen, Riitta; Lahtinen, Katja; Stolt, Minna; Pasanen, Miko; Lemetti, Terhi (2021)
    Patient-centredness in care is a core healthcare value and an effective healthcare delivery design requiring specific nurse competences. The aim of this study was to assess (1) the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Finnish version of the Patient-centred Care Competency (PCC) scale and (2) Finnish nurses' self-assessed level of patient-centred care competency. The PCC was translated to Finnish (PCC-Fin) before data collection and analyses: descriptive statistics; Cronbach's alpha coefficients; item analysis; exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; inter-scale correlational analysis; and sensitivity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable, high for the total scale, and satisfactory for the four sub-scales. Item analysis supported the internal homogeneity of the items-to-total and inter-items within the sub-scales. Explorative factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution, but the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure (Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) 0.92, goodness-of-fit index (GFI) 0.99, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) 0.065, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) 0.045) with 61.2% explained variance. Analysis of the secondary data detected no differences in nurses' self-evaluations of contextual competence, so the inter-scale correlations were high. The PCC-Fin was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of nurses' patient-centred care competence. Rasch model analysis would provide some further information about the item level functioning within the instrument.