Browsing by Subject "mechanical forest industry"

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  • Valsta, Lauri; Poljatschenko, Victoria (2021)
    The carbon emissions displacement effect of Finnish logs for mechanical wood products by dominant tree species (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.; Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.; Birch, Betula spp.) was assessed by combining information from previous studies of current consumption patterns with displacement factors (DF) for structural construction, non-structural construction, and energy usage. We did not conduct additional life cycle analyses compared to the current literature. Our aim was to identify the factors that most extensively influence the displacement effect and to estimate the overall climate effect of Finnish logs in light of current production levels of mechanical forest industry. The analyses were based on information from both statistics and proprietary sources. Contrary to previous studies, we provide DFs by main tree species in Finland, which has been an unidentified area of research to date. Additionally, we apply a more detailed classification of structural and non-structural wood products. This study did not include effects on the forest carbon sink, as they depend case-wise on forest resources and forest management. According to our results, with current production and consumption trends, the average displacement effects for domestic Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch logs were 1.28, 1.16, and 1.43 Mg C/Mg C, respectively. The corresponding overall annual displacement effect caused by the current production of sawn wood and wood-based panels was 12.3 Tg CO2 for Finland for the BAU scenario and varied between 8.6 and 16.3 Tg CO2 depending on the wood use scenario.
  • Pirttilahti, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This Master’s Thesis studies the main barriers in exporting forest products from Finland to Russia. The barriers are studied on three levels: the home market in Finland, the host market in Russia, and the internal resources and organization of the firms. In addition, the perceptions of industry producers on Russia’s WTO membership are examined. The focus of the study is on the mechanical forest industry circumstances and on the perceptions of small and medium-size producers that are currently not exporting to Russia. The home and host markets are examined through analyses of previous findings with emphasis on the most influential aspects. In addition, a survey is conducted to study the perceptions of producers. The sample consists of 28 small and medium-size producers within the mechanical forest industry in Finland. The survey was conducted between January and February 2013. The main barriers on the home market were in connection to economic circumstances. The production costs and the challenging competitive circumstances in particular were highlighted. In the host market, challenges were more complex and emerged from a web of factors. Nevertheless, emphasis was given to bureaucracy, corruption, and legal aspects. The surveyed industry producers stressed barriers emerging from the host market. Smaller firms were particularly concerned with cultural and language aspects. The WTO membership was perceived to have only a neutral effect in terms of instigating export activities. The results of this study thus indicate that potential exporters in Finland face a number of export barriers, and Russia’s WTO membership alone does not result in greater inclination towards exporting.
  • Poljatschenko, Victoria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Finland has committed under Paris Agreement to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 ̊C compared to pre-industrial levels, and to reach carbon neutrality by 2035. Finnish forests have a key role in reaching these targets. Firstly, forests contribute to climate change mitigation by sequestrating carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Secondly, forest is a valuable resource pool of renewable low carbon material that has several advantageous attributes. Long-lived harvested wood products (HWP) function as external carbon pools supporting continuous growth of biomass in the forest, and substitute for fossil-intensive material. Processing of wood material result in substantially smaller life-cycle emissions compared to its energy intensive substitutes concrete, aluminium and steel. The substitution potential of wood use is particularly significant in construction sector that caused one third of both national and global GHG emissions in 2018. In this study the substitution effect of Finnish wood products by dominant tree species was assessed by combining information on current consumption with substitution factors (SF) for structural construction, non-structural construction and energy usage from previous studies. The aim was to identify those factors that influence the substitution potential most extensively and estimate the overall climate effect of mechanical forest industry in the light of current production levels and consumption trends. Current production volumes of mechanical forest industry are averages from LUKE statistical service from 2015-2018. Proprietary information on wood use in Finland was obtained from Forecon report on use of sawn wood and wood-based panels. Contrary to previous ones, this study provides substitution factors by tree species, which has been an unidentified area of research to date. The results show that with current consumption trends, the substitution effect for pine, spruce and birch were 1.37, 1.27 and 1.04 tC / tC, respectively. This implies that every ton of carbon used in wood product result to an emission reduction of 1.04-1.37 (3.8–5 t CO2) carbon tons. Sensitivity analyses showed that the SFs for coniferous trees were highly sensitive for changes in the use of general sawn wood, which represents the largest singular product group. The substitution effect of birch was determined by its use in short-lived products. The overall substitution effect of current consumption of sawn wood and wood-based panels equals to 3.3 Mt C (12,1 MtCO2). The results imply that the external carbon stock in produced wood products (2.5 Mt C, or 9.2 MtCO2) and its substitution effect (3.2 Mt or 12.1 MtCO2) could increasingly offset the reduction in forest carbon stock (6 Mt C or 22 MtCO2) due to raw-material acquisition, if forests are managed sustainably and wood is used primary for production of long-lasting wood products.