Browsing by Subject "mechanical ventilation"

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  • Koski, Tapio; Salmi, Heli; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Bille, Anders; Björnsson, Einar; Jessen, Casper; Forstholm, Ronnie; Lääperi, Mitja; Rautiainen, Paula (2022)
    Aim Early extubation after cardiac surgery shortens paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) length of stay (LOS) and decreases complications from mechanical ventilation (MV). We explored the duration of MV in Scandinavian paediatric heart centres. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the MV duration and PICU LOS of 696 children operated for atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) in four Scandinavian centres in 2015-2016. Neonates (n = 90) were included regardless of heart surgery type. Results Patients with ASD were extubated at a median of 3.25 h (interquartile range [IQR] 2.00-4.83), followed by patients with TCPC (median 5.00 h, IQR 2.60-16.83), VSD (median 7.00 h, IQR 3.69-22.25) and TOF (median 18.08 h, IQR 6.00-41.38). Neonates were not extubated early (median 94.42 h, IQR 45.03-138.14). Although MV durations were reflected in PICU LOS, this was not as apparent among those extubated within 12 h. The Swedish centres had shortest MV durations and PICU LOS. Extubation failed in 24/696 (3.4%) of patients. Conclusion Scandinavian paediatric heart centres differed in the duration of postoperative MV. Deferring extubation up to 12 h postoperatively did not markedly prolong PICU LOS.
  • Rentola, Raisa; Hästbacka, Johanna; Heinonen, Erkki; Rosenberg, Per H.; Häggblom, Tom; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the traditional method for measuring the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In mechanically ventilated patients a continuous noninvasive monitoring of carbon dioxide would obviously be attractive. In the current study, we present a novel formula for noninvasive estimation of arterial carbon dioxide. Eighty-one datasets were collected from 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Eleven animals were mechanically ventilated without interventions. In the remaining eight pigs the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was manipulated. The new formula (Formula 1) is PaCO2 = PETCO2 + k(PETO2 - PaO2) where PaO2 was calculated from the oxygen saturation. We tested the agreements of this novel formula and compared it to a traditional method using the baseline PaCO2 - ETCO2 gap added to subsequently measured, end-tidal carbon dioxide levels (Formula 2). The mean difference between PaCO2 and calculated carbon dioxide (Formula 1) was 0.16 kPa (+/- SE 1.17). The mean difference between PaCO2 and carbon dioxide with Formula 2 was 0.66 kPa (+/- SE 0.18). With a mixed linear model excluding cases with cardiorespiratory collapse, there was a significant difference between formulae (p <0.001), as well as significant interaction between formulae and time (p <0.001). In this preliminary animal study, this novel formula appears to have a reasonable agreement with PaCO2 values measured with ABG analysis, but needs further validation in human patients.
  • Schefold, Joerg C.; Bäcklund, Minna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Zuercher, Patrick; Mukherjee, Rajat; Mistry, Satish; Mayer, Stephan A.; Dziewas, Rainer; Bakker, Jan; Jakob, Stephan M. (2020)
    Introduction: Post-extubation dysphagia is commonly observed in ICU patients and associated with increased aspiration rates, delayed resumption of oral intake/ malnutrition, prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Conventional therapeutic approaches are limited. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) was previously shown to improve swallowing function and airway safety in severely dysphagic tracheostomised stroke patients. Methods: In a multi-center, single-blind, 1:1 randomized controlled study, up to 400 (360 evaluable) mixed emergency adult ICU patients with recent extubation following mechanical ventilation and confirmed oropharyngeal dysphagia will be enrolled at investigational academic ICUs. Primary objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of PES in reducing the severity of unsafe swallows. Patients will be randomized to receive PES (or sham) treatment on 3 consecutive days in addition to best supportive care. Primary endpoint is a composite of 2 endpoints with hierarchy based on clinical priorities: 1) Swallowing safety based on worst penetration-aspiration-scale (PAS) score in series of up to 4 boli using thin stimuli approx. From 24 to 60 hours after treatment completion, converted to a trichotomized ordinal response of safe (PAS 1-3), penetration (PAS 4-5), or aspiration (PAS 6-8). 2) Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale scores determined by bedside assessment 7 +/- 1 days after treatment completion. Oropharyngeal dysphagia will be assessed by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing by blinded study staff. Patients will be followed-up for a maximum of 90 days. Discussion: This study will evaluate the effects of PES on swallowing safety in critically ill ICU patients post mechanical ventilation with oropharyngeal dysphagia.