Browsing by Subject "mechanosensing"

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  • Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Lehtimäki, Jaakko I.; Acheva, Anna; Schaible, Niccole; Lappalainen, Pekka; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Tojkander, Sari (2020)
    Summary Defects in the maintenance of intercellular junctions are associated with loss of epithelial barrier function and consequent pathological conditions, including invasive cancers. Epithelial integrity is dependent on actomyosin bundles at adherens junctions, but the origin of these junctional bundles is incompletely understood. Here we show that peripheral actomyosin bundles can be generated from a specific actin stress fiber subtype, transverse arcs, through their lateral fusion at cell-cell contacts. Importantly, we find that assembly and maintenance of peripheral actomyosin bundles are dependent on the mechanosensitive CaMKK2/AMPK signaling pathway and that inhibition of this route leads to disruption of tension-maintaining actomyosin bundles and re-growth of stress fiber precursors. This results in redistribution of cellular forces, defects in monolayer integrity, and loss of epithelial identity. These data provide evidence that the mechanosensitive CaMKK2/AMPK pathway is critical for the maintenance of peripheral actomyosin bundles and thus dictates cell-cell junctions through cellular force distribution.
  • Jiu, Yaming; Kumari, Reena; Fenix, Aidan M.; Schaible, Niccole; Liu, Xiaonan; Varjosalo, Markku; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Burnette, Dylan T.; Lappalainen, Pekka (2019)
    Summary Cell adhesion, morphogenesis, mechanosensing, and muscle contraction rely on contractile actomyosin bundles, where the force is produced through sliding of bipolar myosin II filaments along actin filaments. The assembly of contractile actomyosin bundles involves registered alignment of myosin II filaments and their subsequent fusion into large stacks. However, mechanisms underlying the assembly of myosin II stacks and their physiological functions have remained elusive. Here, we identified myosin-18B, an unconventional myosin, as a stable component of contractile stress fibers. Myosin-18B co-localized with myosin II motor domains in stress fibers and was enriched at the ends of myosin II stacks. Importantly, myosin-18B deletion resulted in drastic defects in the concatenation and persistent association of myosin II filaments with each other and thus led to severely impaired assembly of myosin II stacks. Consequently, lack of myosin-18B resulted in defective maturation of actomyosin bundles from their precursors in osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, myosin-18B knockout cells displayed abnormal morphogenesis, migration, and ability to exert forces to the environment. These results reveal a critical role for myosin-18B in myosin II stack assembly and provide evidence that myosin II stacks are important for a variety of vital processes in cells.
  • Karki, Tytti; Tojkander, Sari (2021)
    Biophysical cues from the cellular microenvironment are detected by mechanosensitive machineries that translate physical signals into biochemical signaling cascades. At the crossroads of extracellular space and cell interior are located several ion channel families, including TRP family proteins, that are triggered by mechanical stimuli and drive intracellular signaling pathways through spatio-temporally controlled Ca2+-influx. Mechanosensitive Ca2+-channels, therefore, act as critical components in the rapid transmission of physical signals into biologically compatible information to impact crucial processes during development, morphogenesis and regeneration. Given the mechanosensitive nature of many of the TRP family channels, they must also respond to the biophysical changes along the development of several pathophysiological conditions and have also been linked to cancer progression. In this review, we will focus on the TRPV, vanilloid family of TRP proteins, and their connection to cancer progression through their mechanosensitive nature.