Browsing by Subject "medetomidine"

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  • Granholm, Mikael (Helsingfors universitet, 1993)
    In veterinary practice intraveneous anaesthesia has numerous advantages. An important advantage is the ease and rapidity of induction. Compared to administration of inhalant anaesthetics, a minimum of apparatus is necessary in administration of intraveneous anaesthetic agents. The possibility of antagonization of certain drugs used as intraveneous anaesthetics increases the safety of anaesthesia. The unpleasant recovery period can also be shortened, which for a busy veterinarian and also the owner can be of great relief. Ideally, a postoperative patient should be conscious, co-operative, calm and free of pain. This will provide better homeostasis of vital functions, allow early diagnosis and treatment of complications and decrease the need for nursing care. The aim of these studies was to analyze the sedative/ analgetic / anaesthetic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects produced by a combination of medetomidine and climazolam at two different dose levels (1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg). Climazolam was also combined with fentanyl. Antagonization followed anaesthesia, using atipamezole, nalorphine and a new benzodiazepine antagonist, sarmazenil. 7 laboratory beagles were used inthis experimental study. In combination with medetomidine, climazolam produced smooth anaesthesia and had only small effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Total analgesia was not achived. Intubation was easily performed. The antagonization proved to be fast and complete. When combining climazolam with fentanyl, dose levels were chosen according to previous studies (Erhardt et al., 1986). The anaesthesia was light and short, probably due to the short action of fentanyl. This combination depressed the respiratory system in a much larger scale than the combination of medetomidine and climazolam did. Antagonization was effective.
  • Einwaller, Joy; Painer, Johanna; Raekallio, Marja; Gasch, Kristina; Restitutti, Flavia; Auer, Ulrike; Stalder, Gabrielle L. (2020)
    Objective To determine the effect of intravenous vatinoxan administration on bradycardia, hypertension and level of anaesthesia induced by medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Study design and animals A total of 10 healthy red deer were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, experimental, crossover study. Methods Deer were administered a combination of 0.1 mg kg-1 medetomidine hydrochloride and 2.5 mg kg-1 tiletamine-zolazepam intramuscularly, followed by 0.1 mg kg-1 vatinoxan hydrochloride or equivalent volume of saline intravenously (IV) 35 minutes after anaesthetic induction. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration rate (fR), end-tidal CO2 (PE′CO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), rectal temperature (RT) and level of anaesthesia were assessed before saline/vatinoxan administration (baseline) and at intervals for 25 minutes thereafter. Differences within treatments (change from baseline) and between treatments were analysed with linear mixed effect models (p <0.05). Results Maximal (81 ± 10 beats minute-1) HR occurred 90 seconds after vatinoxan injection and remained significantly above baseline (42 ± 4 beats minute-1) for 15 minutes. MAP significantly decreased from baseline (122 ± 10 mmHg) to a minimum MAP of 83 ± 6 mmHg 60 seconds after vatinoxan and remained below baseline until end of anaesthesia. HR remained unchanged from baseline (43 ± 5 beats minute-1) with the saline treatment, while MAP decreased significantly (112 ± 16 mmHg) from baseline after 20 minutes. PE′CO2, fR, and SpO2 showed no significant differences between treatments, while RT decreased significantly 25 minutes after vatinoxan. Level of anaesthesia was not significantly influenced by vatinoxan. Conclusion and clinical relevance Vatinoxan reversed hypertension and bradycardia induced by medetomidine without causing hypotension or affecting the level of anaesthesia in red deer. However, the effect on HR subsided 15 minutes after vatinoxan IV administration. Vatinoxan has the potential to reduce anaesthetic side effects in non-domestic ruminants immobilized with medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam.
  • Honkavaara, Juhana M.; Raekallio, Marja R.; Syrja, Pernilla M.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Knych, Heather K.; Kallio-Kujala, Ira J.; Vainio, Outi M. (2020)
    Objective To quantify the peripheral selectivity of vatinoxan (L-659,066, MK-467) in dogs by comparing the concentrations of vatinoxan, dexmedetomidine and levo-medetomidine in plasma and central nervous system (CNS) tissue after intravenous (IV) coadministration of vatinoxan and medetomidine. Study design Experimental, observational study. Animals A group of six healthy, purpose-bred Beagle dogs (four females and two males) aged 6.5 +/- 0.1 years (mean +/- standard deviation). Methods All dogs were administered a combination of medetomidine (40 mu g kg(-1)) and vatinoxan (800 mu g kg(-1)) as IV bolus. After 20 minutes, the dogs were euthanized with an IV overdose of pentobarbital (140 mg kg(-1)) and both venous plasma and CNS tissues (brain, cervical and lumbar spinal cord) were harvested. Concentrations of dexmedetomidine, levomedetomidine and vatinoxan in all samples were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and data were analyzed with nonparametric tests with post hoc corrections where appropriate. Results All dogs became deeply sedated after the treatment. The CNS-to-plasma ratio of vatinoxan concentration was approximately 1:50, whereas the concentrations of dexmedetomidine and levomedetomidine in the CNS were three- to seven-fold of those in plasma. Conclusions and clinical relevance With the doses studied, these results confirm the peripheral selectivity of vatinoxan in dogs, when coadministered IV with medetomidine. Thus, it is likely that vatinoxan preferentially antagonizes alpha(2)-adrenoceptors outside the CNS.
  • Turunen, Heta; Raekallio, Marja; Honkavaara, Juhana; Jaakkola, Johanna; Scheinin, Mika; Männikkö, Sofia; Hautajärvi, Heidi; Bennett, Rachel; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Objective To investigate the impact of intramuscular (IM) co-administration of the peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist vatinoxan (MK-467) with medetomidine and butorphanol prior to intravenous (IV) ketamine on the cardiopulmonary and anaesthetic effects in dogs, followed by atipamezole reversal. Study design Randomized, masked crossover study. Animals A total of eight purpose-bred Beagle dogs aged 3 years. Methods Each dog was instrumented and administered two treatments 2 weeks apart: medetomidine (20 mu g kg(-1)) and butorphanol (100 mu g kg(-1)) premedication with vatinoxan (500 mu g kg(-1); treatment MVB) or without vatinoxan (treatment MB) IM 20 minutes before IV ketamine (4 mg kg(-1)). Atipamezole (100 mu g kg(-1)) was administered IM 60 minutes after ketamine. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial (MAP) and central venous (CVP) pressures and cardiac output (CO) were measured; cardiac (CI) and systemic vascular resistance (SVRI) indices were calculated before and 10 minutes after MVB or MB, and 10, 25, 40, 55, 70 and 100 minutes after ketamine. Data were analysed with repeated measures analysis of covariance models. A p-value Results At most time points, HR and CI were significantly higher, and SVRI and CVP significantly lower with MVB than with MB. With both treatments, SVRI and MAP decreased after ketamine, whereas HR and CI increased. MAP was significantly lower with MVB than with MB; mild hypotension (57-59 mmHg) was recorded in two dogs with MVB prior to atipamezole administration. Sedation, induction, intubation and recovery scores were not different between treatments, but intolerance to the endotracheal tube was observed earlier with MVB. Conclusions and clinical relevance Haemodynamic performance was improved by vatinoxan co-administration with medetomidine-butorphanol, before and after ketamine administration. However, vatinoxan was associated with mild hypotension after ketamine with the dose used in this study. Vatinoxan shortened the duration of anaesthesia.
  • Tapio, H.; Raekallio, M. R.; Mykkänen, A.; Männikkö, S.; Scheinin, M.; Bennett, R. C.; Vainio, O. (2019)
    Background Medetomidine suppresses cardiovascular function and reduces gastrointestinal motility in horses mainly through peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Vatinoxan, a peripheral alpha(2)-antagonist, has been shown experimentally to alleviate the adverse effects of some alpha(2)-agonists in horses. However, vatinoxan has not been investigated during constant-rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine in standing horses. Objectives To evaluate effects of vatinoxan on cardiovascular function, gastrointestinal motility and on sedation level during CRI of medetomidine. Study design Experimental, randomised, blinded, cross-over study. Methods Six healthy horses were given medetomidine hydrochloride, 7 mu g/kg i.v., without (MED) and with (MED+V) vatinoxan hydrochloride, 140 mu g/kg i.v., followed by CRI of medetomidine at 3.5 mu g/kg/h for 60 min. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded and borborygmi and sedation levels were scored for 120 min. Plasma drug concentrations were measured. The data were analysed using repeated measures ANCOVA and paired t-tests as appropriate. Results Initially heart rate (HR) was significantly lower and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) significantly higher with MED compared with MED+V. For example at 10 min HR (mean +/- s.d.) was 26 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 5 beats/minute (P = 0.04) and MAP 129 +/- 15 and 103 +/- 13 mmHg (P
  • Puustinen, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Drug-drug interactions occur when a drug or a drug metabolite modifies the activity of a drug metabolizing enzyme. As a result the concentration of active drug can be too low to be effective or too high and possibly toxic. This is an increasing problem in drug therapy where polypharmacy is rather common today. Therefore, in drug discovery and development significant efforts have been made in order to predict such interactions in advance and avoid them, or at least minimize them. This study is focused on medetomidine, a drug metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). The aim of the study was to find inhibitors for medetomidine glucuronidation. Also the mechanism of possible inhibition was of interest. It is already common to test interactions of a given enzyme substrate with other enzymes of the same family either in phase I or phase II of drug metabolism in humans. It is less common, however, to examine such interactions between enzymes of two different families. In the present study it is tested if the compounds which are possible inhibitors of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) also inhibit UGTs. Inhibition of glucuronidation was studied with HPLC method previously developed for medetomidine glucuronidation. First glucuronidation of medetomidine was studied without inhibitor compounds. After that the impact of three possible inhibitors on medetomidine glucuronidation was studied and results were compared with the initial results. Three compounds were found to inhibit glucuronidation of medetomidine. Also an interesting change in UGT's enzyme kinetics after the binding of inhibitor was discovered. It is interesting that same compounds could inhibit both CYPs and UGTs. The results revealed that if a CYP and a UGT could bind for the same compound, it is also likely that structural analogues of that compound will interact with both enzymes. In drug discovery and development it is important to take into account both CYP-enzymes and less studied UGTs, and their possible interactions.
  • Kallio-Kujala, Ira J.; Raekallio, Marja R.; Honkavaara, Juhana; Bennett, Rachel C.; Turunen, Heta; Scheinin, Mika; Hautajärvi, Heidi; Vainio, Outi (2018)
    Objective: We determined the possible effects of a peripherally acting alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, MK-467, on the absorption of intramuscularly (IM) co-administered medetomidine, butorphanol and midazolam. Study design: Randomized, experimental, blinded cross-over study. Animals: Six healthy Beagle dogs. Methods: Two IM treatments were administered: 1) medetomidine hydrochloride (20 μg kg-1) + butorphanol (100 μg kg-1) + midazolam (200 μg kg-1) (MBM), and; 2) MBM + MK-467 hydrochloride (500 μg kg-1) (MBM-MK), mixed in a syringe. Heart rate was recorded at regular intervals. Sedation was assessed with visual analog scales (0 – 100 mm). Drug concentrations in plasma were analyzed with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, with chiral separation of dex- and levomedetomidine. Maximum drug concentrations in plasma (Cmax) and time to Cmax (Tmax) were determined. Paired t-tests, with Bonferroni correction when appropriate, were used for comparisons between the treatments. Results: Data from five dogs were analyzed. Heart rate was significantly higher from 20 until 90 minutes after MBM-MK. The Tmax for midazolam and levomedetomidine (mean ± standard deviation) were approximately halved with co-administration of MK-467, from 23 ± 9 to 11 ± 6 minutes (p = 0.049) for midazolam and from 32 ± 15 to 18 ± 6 minutes for levomedetomidine (p = 0.036), respectively. Conclusions and clinical relevance: MK-467 accelerated the absorption of IM co-administered drugs. This is clinically relevant as it may hasten the onset of peak sedative effects.
  • Adam, M.; Raekallio, M. R.; Keskitalo, T.; Honkavaara, J. M.; Scheinin, M.; Kajula, M.; Mölsä, S.; Vainio, O. M. (2018)
    The effect of MK-467, a peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, on plasma drug concentrations, sedation and cardiopulmonary changes induced by intramuscular (IM) medetomidine was investigated in eight sheep. Additionally, the interactions with atipamezole (ATI) used for reversal were also evaluated. Each animal was treated four times in a randomized prospective crossover design with 2-week washout periods. Medetomidine (MED) 30 mu g/kg alone or combined in the same syringe with MK-467 300 mu g/kg (MMK) was injected intramuscular, followed by ATI 150 mu g/kg (MED+ATI and MMK+ATI) or saline intramuscular 30 min later. Plasma was analysed for drug concentrations, and sedation was subjectively assessed with a visual analogue scale. Systemic haemodynamics and blood gases were measured before treatments and at intervals thereafter. With MK-467, medetomidine plasma concentrations were threefold higher prior to ATI, which was associated with more profound sedation and shorter onset. No significant differences were observed in early cardiopulmonary changes between treatments. Atipamezole reversed the medetomidine-related cardiopulmonary changes after both treatments. Sedation scores decreased more rapidly when MK-467 was included. In this study, MK-467 appeared to have a pronounced effect on the plasma concentration and central effects of medetomidine, with minor cardiopulmonary improvement.