Browsing by Subject "mediation"

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  • Ervasti, Jenni; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Objectives We examined the extent to which an increase in physical activity would reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight and obese people (body mass index >= 25kg/m(2)). Methods We used counterfactual modelling approaches to analyze longitudinal data from two Finnish prospective cohort studies (total N=38 744). Weight, height and physical activity were obtained from surveys and assessed twice and linked to electronic records of two indicators of long-term work disability (>= 90-day sickness absence and disability pension) for a 7-year follow-up after the latter survey. The models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of long-term sickness absence for overweight compared to normal-weight participants was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.53]. An increase in physical activity among overweight compared to normal-weight individuals was estimated to reduce this HR to 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.48). In pseudo-trial analysis including only the persistently overweight, initially physically inactive participants, the HR for long-term sickness absence was 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.94) for individuals with increased physical activity compared to those who remained physically inactive. The results for disability pension as an outcome were similar. Conclusions These findings suggest that the excess risk of work disability among overweight individuals would drop by 3-4% if they increased their average physical activity to the average level of normal-weight people. However, overweight individuals who are physically inactive would reduce their risk of work disability by about 20% by becoming physically active.
  • Polynczuk-Alenius, Kinga (2021)
    This conceptual article proposes an approach to ethical consumption which is an alternative to “political consumerism”. By illuminating the aspects typically overlooked in political consumerism research, it re-embeds individualized ethical consumption in (1) the broader movement, (2) the communicative process, and (3) the social context. By adopting the notion of “ethical trade” it decenters individualized consumption as the exclusive way of enacting ethics in the marketplace, and by focusing on communication, it turns the spotlight away from individual consumers and onto organizations. Drawing extensively on communication studies, it is proposed that the main function of ethical trade organizations is to mediate between the geographically separated consumers and producers. Furthermore, greater sensitivity to the social context is introduced by distinguishing between two modes of mediation: “mediated familiarity” (the transmission of factual knowledge and the construction of affinity) and “moral education” (the subjectification of consumers who consider their impact on “distant others”)
  • Gustafsson, Jessica; Polynczuk, Kinga Natalia (2018)
    This editorial introduces the thematic issue of “Media and Communication between the Local and the Global”. It does so first by presenting the origin of this thematic issue: the Media, Globalization and Social Change division at the NordMedia 2017 conference. The thematic issue is then anchored theoretically through discussion of the widely conceived notion of mediation as a technological, symbolic and ethical process―highlighting the interest in how media actors and communication technologies, practices and artefacts mediate between global phenomena and local contexts, which is what unites the contributions to this thematic issue. Last, the final section of this editorial introduces the articles, which coalesce around three broad themes: migration, marginalised communities, and consumption.
  • Polynczuk-Alenius, Kinga (2018)
    To introduce economic justice into global trade, fair trade organizations strive to shorten the distance' between producers and consumers through mediation. This article problematizes the idea of shortening the distance' through the notion of maintaining the proper distance' in representing distant others. This perspective is used in narratological analysis of the content that fair trade organizations curate on their Facebook pages to represent Southern producers. The two organizations studied are: (1) Fairtrade Finland, a non-governmental organization (NGO); (2) Pizca del Mundo, a commercial brand in Poland. This article identifies the discursive and narrative forms of mediated agency that are offered to producers. The analysis revealed that Fairtrade Finland utilized Facebook to extend the narrative of producers as active subjects. By using the affordances of Facebook, Pizca del Mundo increased the mediated agency of producers but problematized the maintenance of the proper distance in their representations.
  • Heikkilä, Sampsa (2005)
    Etnografiani tutkii kokemuksen "samankaltaisuutta" erilaisissa sosiaali-historiallisissa olosuhteissa. Editoidun audiovisuaalisen materiaalin käyttöön perustuva systemaattinen tutkimus kartoittaa variabiliteettia, eli "jotenkin" samankaltaisuutta geneerisessä ilmaisukulttuurissa. Performanssiteorian, musiikkikokemuksen ja puheen etnografian metodien ja teorioiden pohjalta tehty työ tulkitsee näistä lähtökohdista käsin musiikillista mediaatiota erilaisissa symbolisissa kommunikaatioprosesseissa. Työn kontribuutio on näiden tutkimusalojen piirissä niin, että sen pohjalta tehtyjä antropologisia väittämiä voidaan hyödyntää esteettisiin konfiguraatioihin perustuvien performanssikulttuurien tutkimuksessa. Havaintojen validiteettia ja relevanssia lisää monipuolinen audiovisuaalisen materiaalin käyttö. Työ pohjautuu n. 5 kuukauden pituiseen kenttätyöhön Sevillan provinssissa Espanjassa. Etnografinen materiaali on flamenco-puheyhteisöistä. Etnografinen metodi hyödyntää haastatteluaineistoja, etnografista video-elokuvaa, sosiaalihistoriallisia dokumentteja sekä antropologista kirjallisuutta. Tutkimusongelma on yleisluonteinen: kuinka tulkita kyseistä informaation paljoutta? Ongelman jäsentämiseksi asetettu hypoteesi olettaa draamallisten muotojen kehityksen mahdollisuuden kokemuksen samankaltaisuudessa. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat näistä kaikista lähtökohdista käsin: Mitkä ovat ilmaisukulttuurin symbolisten kommunikaatioprosessien varioidut muodot ja mitkä niiden funktiot? Mitkä ovat sosiaalihistorian dynamiikan ehdollistamat performanssistruktuuritilanneriippuvaiset "ehdot"? Ongelmat ja kysymykset on tutkittu etnografian metodologian alueella analysoimalla ja tulkitsemalla työn visuaali-antropologinen toteutus. Puheen merkityksellisten tyylien, tyylillisten struktuurien sekä tyylillisten muotojen funktio ja merkitys sosiaalisesti jaettuina prosesseina nousee päällimäiseksi tulkinnaksi kahdella osa alueella. Kulttuurinen subversio ja metaforinen identifikaatio. Kumpaankin osa-alueeseen liittyy symbolisesti tulkitseva yksilö sosiaali-historiallisena agenttina ja aktorina. Osa-alueiden laajempaa tutkimusta ja oman työni rajallisia mahdollisuuksia hahmottaen on työn päätteksi ehdotettu metodologista reduktiota, jolla työn narratiivisesta kokonaisuudesta erottuvia piirteitä voidaan ymmärtää kahdella tavalla 1) ehdollisina "partikulaareina muotoina"; 2) performanssin yleisinä ehtoina. Yleisesti työn merkitys on paikallisessa kulttuurin jatkuvuuden tutkimuksessa ja symbolisten arvojen "taidevälityksessä". Yksilöä painottavan sosiaalitieteen kentässä sen merkitys on genren ja muiden symbolisten muotojen tulkitsevan käytön hahmottamisessa ja ymmärtämisessa.
  • Hilppö, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This study highlights the formation of an artifact designed to mediate exploratory collaboration. The data for this study was collected during a Finnish adaptation of the thinking together approach. The aim of the approach is to teach pulps how to engage in educationally beneficial form of joint discussion, namely exploratory talk. At the heart of the approach lies a set of conversational ground rules aimed to promote the use of exploratory talk. The theoretical framework of the study is based on a sociocultural perspective on learning. A central argument in the framework is that physical and psychological tools play a crucial role in human action and learning. With the help of tools humans can escape the direct stimulus of the outside world and learn to control ourselves by using tools. During the implementation of the approach, the classroom community negotiates a set of six rules, which this study conceptualizes as an artifact that mediates exploratory collaboration. Prior research done about the thinking together approach has not extensively researched the formation of the rules, which give ample reason to conduct this study. The specific research questions asked were: What kind of negotiation trajectories did the ground rules form during the intervention? What meanings were negotiated for the ground rules during the intervention The methodological framework of the study is based on discourse analysis, which has been specified by adapting the social construction of intertextuality to analyze the meanings negotiated for the created rules. The study has town units of analysis: thematic episode and negotiation trajectory. A thematic episode is a stretch of talk-in-interaction where the participants talk about a certain ground rule or a theme relating to it. A negotiation trajectory is a chronological representation of the negotiation process of a certain ground rule during the intervention and is constructed of thematic episodes. Thematic episodes were analyzed with the adapted intertextuality analysis. A contrastive analysis was done on the trajectories. Lastly, the meanings negotiated for the created rules were compared to the guidelines provided by the approach. The main result of the study is the observation, that the meanings of the created rules were more aligned with the ground rules of cumulative talk, rather than exploratory talk. Although meanings relating also to exploratory talk were negotiated, they clearly were not the dominant form. In addition, the study observed that the trajectories of the rules were non identical. Despite connecting dimensions (symmetry, composition, continuity and explicitness) none of the trajectories shared exactly the same features as the others.
  • Koebsch, Franziska; Sonnentag, Oliver; Järveoja, Järvi; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Alekseychik, Pavel; Aurela, Mika; Arslan, Ali Nadir; Dinsmore, Kerry; Gianelle, Damiano; Helfter, Carole; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Korrensalo, Aino; Leith, Fraser; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Lohila, Annalea; Lund, Magnus; Maddison, Martin; Mammarella, Ivan; Mander, Ülo; Minkkinen, Kari; Pickard, Amy; Pullens, Johannes W.M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peichl, Matthias (2020)
    Abstract The role of plant phenology as regulator for gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in peatlands is empirically not well constrained. This is because proxies to track vegetation development with daily coverage at the ecosystem scale have only recently become available and the lack of such data has hampered the disentangling of biotic and abiotic effects. This study aimed at unraveling the mechanisms that regulate the seasonal variation in GEP across a network of eight European peatlands. Therefore, we described phenology with canopy greenness derived from digital repeat photography and disentangled the effects of radiation, temperature and phenology on GEP with commonality analysis and structural equation modeling. The resulting relational network could not only delineate direct effects but also accounted for possible effect combinations such as interdependencies (mediation) and interactions (moderation). We found that peatland GEP was controlled by the same mechanisms across all sites: phenology constituted a key predictor for the seasonal variation in GEP and further acted as distinct mediator for temperature and radiation effects on GEP. In particular, the effect of air temperature on GEP was fully mediated through phenology, implying that direct temperature effects representing the thermoregulation of photosynthesis were negligible. The tight coupling between temperature, phenology and GEP applied especially to high latitude and high altitude peatlands and during phenological transition phases. Our study highlights the importance of phenological effects when evaluating the future response of peatland GEP to climate change. Climate change will affect peatland GEP especially through changing temperature patterns during plant-phenologically sensitive phases in high latitude and high altitude regions.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Shiri, Rahman; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Study Design. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Objective. To determine the associations for workload and health-related factors with incident and recurrent low back pain (LBP), and to determine the mediating role of health-related factors in associations between physical workload factors and incident LBP. Summary of Background Data. It is not known whether the risk factors for the development of LBP are also prognostic factors for recurrence of LBP and whether the associations between physical workload and incident LBP are mediated by health-related factors. We used data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. Those responding to any two subsequent surveys in 2010 to 2016 were included for the main analyses (N = 17,962). Information on occupational lifting, working in twisted positions, weight/height, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and sleep problems were self-reported. Incident LBP was defined as pain limiting daily activities in the preceding three months in participants free from LBP at baseline. Recurrent LBP was defined as having LBP both at baseline and follow-up. For the mediation analyses, those responding to three subsequent surveys were included (N = 3516). Methods. Main associations were determined using generalized estimating equation models for repeated measures data. Mediation was examined with counterfactual mediation analysis. Results. All risk factors at baseline but smoking and physical activity were associated with incident LBP after adjustment for confounders. The strongest associations were observed for working in twisted positions (risk ratio = 1.52, 95% CI 1.37, 1.70) and occupational lifting (risk ratio = 1.52, 95% CI 1.32, 1.74). These associations were not mediated by health-related factors. The studied factors did not have meaningful effects on recurrent LBP. Conclusion. The findings suggest that workload and health-related factors have stronger effects on the development than on the recurrence or progression of LBP, and that health-related factors do not mediate associations between workload factors and incident LBP.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Lipsanen, Jari; Virtanen, Marianna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kivimäki, Mika; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli (2020)
    The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and increased risk of depressive symptoms in adulthood is well established. We tested 1) the contribution of early exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage to later depressive symptoms throughout life, 2) the persistence of the potential association between early exposure and depressive symptoms, and 3) the contributions of other known risk factors to the association. Data were collected from the Young Finns Study, a prospective, population-based 32-year follow-up study that included participants aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. Participants were followed up with repeated measurements of depressive symptoms between 1992 and 2012 (n = 2,788) and linked to national grid data on neighborhood disadvantage via residential addresses. We examined the associations in mixed models separately for the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year follow-ups. Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood during childhood and adolescence was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms in adulthood during all follow-up periods (beta = 0.07, P = 0.001) than living in a nondisadvantaged area. Individual adulthood socioeconomic status mediated the associations. These findings suggest that living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area during childhood and adolescence has a long-lasting negative association with mental health irrespective of family-related risks, partially due to socioeconomic adversity later in life.
  • Vincze, László (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The focus of this Master’s degree thesis is on the role of priors in a small sample Bayesian serial mediation. In particular, it examines how changing the informativeness of priors influences posterior parameter estimates and probability distributions. The empirical example in the study is taken from the field of applied linguistics. The research hypotheses address how the linguistic composition of two bilingual municipalities in Finland impact on the frequency of interpersonal contact young Finnish speakers have with Swedish speakers, which, in turn, increases young Finnish speakers’ communicative competence in Swedish enhancing the use of Swedish in interpersonal communication. The datasets used in the study are exchangeable; they were collected in the same population, in the Finnish secondary schools in Kokkola/Karleby and Pietarsaari/Jakobstad, with identical measures. The first dataset was collected in 2014 (N = 202) and it is used as prior sample in the analyses. The second dataset was collected in 2014 (N = 55) and it is used as the focal sample in the analyses. The results demonstrate that the grade of informativeness of priors fundamentally influences the outcomes of the mediational analyses. When using noninformative priors, some parameters do not differ from zero and the model suggests no mediated effect. However, when using informative priors, both parameter estimates and the mediated effect appear to be different from zero. Controversies around using priors in Bayesian analysis and their significance in empirical applications are discussed.
  • Mattsson, Teppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The mediation of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been statutorily regulated in Finland since year 2006. Earlier IPV was mediated around Finland to different extents. The mediation of IPV has been very controversial from the very beginning. Status of victims has been considered bad, there have been doubts about her/his voluntariness and it has been seen that the suspect is too slightly affected. On the other hand there has been a lot good experiences of mediation and the parties have been instructed to further services. This thesis studies perceived justice and voluntariness in the mediation of IPV and perceived mediation procedures of mediation parties and mediators. As a control group in the study there were mediation parties and mediators of cases with other violence than IPV. The study was cross-sectional and the survey aimed to cover all parties and mediators of IPV and non-IPV violence mediation cases managed by three service providers in Finland during 12 months period. Measure of perceived justice was based on results by Colquitt (2001) and Gramatikov et al (2009), measure of voluntariness was based on self-regulation questionnaires of self-determination theory and measure of mediation procedure was based on the metamodel of Alexander (2008). The survey was tested by employees of mediation service providers and by voluntary mediators. After a short period it was found that the response rate is very low. As a corrective action the survey was truncated but despite survey simplification response rate did not achieve target level. Data (n = 169) was analysed with R software using illustrative figures, factor analysis, non-parametric test, linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Based on study data mediation parties perceive mediation as more fair than mediators. Parties also perceive that mediators control more the process than mediators assess but parties are more satisfied with the mediation than mediators assess. There are no differences of perceived voluntariness and justice between IPV mediation and other violence than IPV mediation. Facilitative mediation style is in positive relation with perceived justice in IPV cases but in control group no relation was seen between the constructs. Almost all mediation parties are very satisfied with the mediation and their perceived justice is very positive. Even the parties see that they are voluntarily in mediation, they might feel guilty if they were not aiming to reconciliation, or they might think that their refusal to participate mediation could upset the other party. Study data supports that it’s reasonable to continue IPV mediation but attention should be drawn to the genuine desire and capacity of the parties to participate mediation. In the thesis there are some recommendations how to develop mediation activities. Further studies are needed to understand better IPV mediation effectiveness and how the parties and mediators perceive the mediation. In the thesis a study design is presented to get valid and reliable data for continuous development of IPV mediation activities.