Browsing by Subject "merentutkimus"

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  • Kankaanpää, Harri T.; Turja, Raisa; Lehtonen, Kari K. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Comment to: Kanwischer, M., N. Asker, A.S. Wernersson, M.A. Wirth, K. Fisch, E. Dahlgren, H. Osterholz, F. Habedank, et al. 2021. Substances of emerging concern in Baltic Sea water: Review on methodological advances for the environmental assessment and proposal for future monitoring. Ambio.
  • Myrberg, Kai (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 10
  • Kahru, Mati; Bittig, Henry; Elmgren, Ragnar; Fleming, Vivi; Lee, Zhongping; Rehder, Gregor (Inter-Research Science Center, 2022)
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Water transparency can be measured with optical instruments and estimated with satellite sensors, but such measurements have been widely available for only a few decades. Estimates of water transparency using a white disk called a Secchi disk have been made for over a century and can be used to estimate long-term trends. However, historic in situ measurements of the Secchi depth (ZSd) were irregular in space and time and are difficult to interpret in regular time series due to biases introduced by changing locations and the timing of measurements. Satellite data time series, on the other hand, have consistent resolution in both space and time but cover too short a time to resolve climate-scale trends. We normalized historic ZSd measurements in the Baltic Sea with a satellite-derived mean climatology at 5 d temporal and 4 km spatial resolutions and created a merged time series of ZSd for the last century. The mean ZSd in the Baltic Sea from 1927-2020 decreased by 4.2 +/- 0.6 m at a rate of 0.045 +/- 0.06 m yr-1. Most of the change happened before 1987, and a further decrease was evident primarily in the satellite data during the 1998-2008 period. After 2008, no significant trend in ZSd and or the coefficient of diffuse light attenuation was detected in the Baltic Sea. However, in some sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the decrease in ZSd continued even after that. The decrease in spectral water transparency in recent decades was highest in the 412 nm band, indicating an increase in the concentration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Olsonen, Riitta (Merentutkimuslaitos, 2007)
    Meri 59
  • Goncalves-Araujo, Rafael; Roettgers, Ruediger; Haraguchi, Lumi; Brandini, Frederico Pereira (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019)
    Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 716
    The South Brazilian Bight (SBB) is a hydrographically dynamic environment with strong seasonality that sustains a diverse planktonic community involved in diverse biogeochemical processes. The inherent optical properties (IOPs; e.g., absorption and scattering coefficients) of optically actives constituents of water (OACs; phytoplankton, non-algal particles–NAP, and colored dissolved organic matter–CDOM) have been widely employed to retrieve information on biogeochemical parameters in the water. In this study conducted in the SBB, a cross-shelf transect was performed for biogeochemistry and hydrographic sampling during a summer expedition. Our research aimed to determine the distribution and amount of the OACs based on their spectral signature, in relation to the distribution of water masses in the region. That allows us to get insights into the biogeochemical processes within each water mass and in the boundaries between them. We observed a strong intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf, mainly driven by the wind action. With that, phytoplankton development was fueled by the input of nutrients, and increased chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations were observed within the shallowest stations. Colored dissolved organic matter did not follow the distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Both CDOM and DOC presented high values at the low salinity Coastal Water (CW), as an indication of the continental influence over the shelf. However, CDOM was inversely correlated with salinity and lowest values were observed within Tropical Water (TW), whereas DOC values within TW were as high as within CW, indicating an autochthonous DOM source. Additionally, a deep Chl-a maximum (DCM) was noticed in the boundary between the TW and SACW. Along with the DCM, we observed the production of fresh, non-colored DOM attributed to the microbial community. Finally, our results suggest that CDOM is photodegraded at the surface of CW. This is mainly due to the Ekman transport effect over the region that traps CW at the surface, making it longer exposed to solar radiation.
  • Benito, Denis; Ahvo, Aino; Nuutinen, Jari; Bilbao, Dennis; Saenz, Jon; Etxebarria, Nestor; Lekube, Xabie; Izagirre, Urtzi; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Marigómez, Ionan; Zaldibar, Beñat; Soto, Manu (Elsevier, 2019)
    Science of The Total Environment 689 (2019), pages 1087-1103
    For reliable mussel monitoring programmes based on biomarkers, regionally relevant reference values and their natural variability need to be known. The Baltic Sea exhibits high inter-regional and seasonal variability in physical factors such as salinity, temperature and primary production. The aim of this pilot study is to depict the effects of season-related environmental factors in a selected battery of biomarkers in two environmentally different subregions of the Baltic Sea to help establishing reference data for biochemical, cellular and tissue-level biomarkers. In order to achieve that, mussels were collected from reference sites in Kiel (Germany) and Tvärminne (Finland) during three seasons: summer and autumn 2016, and spring 2017. Finally, in order to characterize the ecological situation, analysis of the chemical tissue burden was performed and chlorophyll‑a and particulate organic carbon concentration and temperature changes were analyzed at each sampling locality using satellite remote sensing images. An integrated biomarker response index was performed to summarize the biomarker responses of each locality and season. The biochemical endpoints showed seasonal variability regulated by temperature, food supply and reproductive cycle, while among the cellular endpoints only lipofuscin accumulation and lysosomal structural changes showed slight seasonal variation. Seasonal changes in tissue level biomarkers were observed only at the northern Baltic Sea site Tvärminne, dictated by the demanding energetic trade-off caused by reproduction. In conclusion, the characterization of the ecological variables and physico-chemical conditions at each site, is crucial to perform a reliable assessment of the effects of a hypothetical pollution scenario in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, reference levels of biomarkers and their responses to natural environmental conditions must be established.
  • Myrberg, Kai; Kuosa, Harri; Leppäranta, Matti (Yliopistopaino, 2006)
    Palmenia-sarja ; 17
    Itämeren fysiikka, tila ja tulevaisuus on ensimmäinen Itämeren fysiikan oppikirja, jossa tuodaan esille myös fysiikan kytkennät Itämeren tilaan ja ekologiaan. Alalta on olemassa runsaasti eritasoista tietoa. Tämä tieto on kuitenkin melko hajallaan, eikä kokonaisvaltaista kirjallisuutta ole vielä paljon. Kirja sisältää yksityiskohtaisen kuvauksen Itämeren altaista ja niiden topografiasta sekä hydrografiasta, Itämeren lämpötaloudesta ja kiertoliikkeestä sekä jääoloista. Lisäksi käydään läpi Itämeren kriittisiä prosesseja kuten suolapulssien esiintyminen, kumpuaminen ja vedenkorkeuden muutokset. Itämeren fysiikan ymmärtäminen on tärkeää, sillä se määrää ne ulkoiset olosuhteet, joissa meren kemialliset ja biologiset prosessit tapahtuvat. Meren fysikaalisten ominaisuuksien tuntemus luo perustan koko Itämeri-systeemin toiminnan ymmärtämiseen. Teoksen loppuosassa esitellään Itämeren pitkäaikaisia muutoksia ja tarkastellaan Itämeren tulevaisuutta erilaisten ilmastoskenaarioiden avulla.
  • Armelius, Nina; Ekman, Birgit; Heinänen, Marjatta; Pärnänen, Anu; Ristola, Mirja (Merentutkimuslaitos, 1977)
    Merentutkimuslaitoksen julkaisu 242
  • Rantajärvi, Eija; Karjala, Leena (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2015)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 21/2015
    Meren Pärskäys 2015 tarjoaa valikoidun koosteen Itämeren ympäristötutkimuksen ajankohtaisista teemoista ja meren tilasta sekä selventää vesipuitedirektiivin ja meristrategiadirektiivin (vesienhoitosuunnitelmat, merenhoitosuunnitelma) käsitteistöä ja toimeenpanoa Suomessa. Niiden ohella avataan myös uuden merialuesuunnitteludirektiivin periaatteita. Rehevöityminen ja haitalliset aineet ovat Itämeren pahimpia ongelmia. Julkaisussa tarkastellaan ainevirtojen alkuperän ohella muun muassa luonnonolojen vaikutusta kuormitukseen. Haitallisten aineiden osalta avataan myös vastetutkimuksia, joilla selvitetään aineiden vaikutuksia meren eliöstön terveyteen. Meren tilaa arvioidaan paitsi kasvi- ja eläinplanktonin, pohjaeläinyhteisöjen ja pohjien eliöyhteisöjen kautta, myös tarkastellen Itämeren ravintoverkon muutoksia kokonaisuutena. Lopussa valotetaan malleihin perustuvia ennusteita ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutuksista Itämeren ekosysteemiin. Julkaisu painottuu Suomen ympäristökeskuksen (SYKE) ja Elinkeino-, liikenne ja ympäristökeskusten (ELYt) aineistoihin, mutta mukana on myös Säteilyturvakeskuksen, Helsingin yliopiston, Geologian tutkimuskeskuksen sekä Ilmatieteen laitoksen tuottamaa aineistoa.
  • Révelard, Adèle; Tintoré, Joaquín; Verron, Jacques; Bahurel, Pierre; Barth, John A.; Belbéoch, Mathieu; Benveniste, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Pascal; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cravatte, Sophie; Davidson, Fraser; deYoung, Brad; Heupel, Michelle; Heslop, Emma; Hörstmann, Cora; Karstensen, Johannes; Le Traon, Pierre Yves; Marques, Miguel; McLean, Craig; Medina, Raul; Paluszkiewicz, Theresa; Pascual, Ananda; Pearlman, Jay; Petihakis, George; Pinardi, Nadia; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rayner, Ralph; Shepherd, Iian; Sprintall, Janet; Tanhua, Toste; Testor, Pierre; Seppälä, Jukka; Siddorn, John; Thomsen, Soeren; Valdés, Luis; Visbeck, Martin; Waite, Anya M.; Werner, Francisco; Wilkin, John; Williams, Ben (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
    Frontiers in marine science
    Understanding and sustainably managing complex environments such as marine ecosystems benefits from an integrated approach to ensure that information about all relevant components and their interactions at multiple and nested spatiotemporal scales are considered. This information is based on a wide range of ocean observations using different systems and approaches. An integrated approach thus requires effective collaboration between areas of expertise in order to improve coordination at each step of the ocean observing value chain, from the design and deployment of multi-platform observations to their analysis and the delivery of products, sometimes through data assimilation in numerical models. Despite significant advances over the last two decades in more cooperation across the ocean observing activities, this integrated approach has not yet been fully realized. The ocean observing system still suffers from organizational silos due to independent and often disconnected initiatives, the strong and sometimes destructive competition across disciplines and among scientists, and the absence of a well-established overall governance framework. Here, we address the need for enhanced organizational integration among all the actors of ocean observing, focusing on the occidental systems. We advocate for a major evolution in the way we collaborate, calling for transformative scientific, cultural, behavioral, and management changes. This is timely because we now have the scientific and technical capabilities as well as urgent societal and political drivers. The ambition of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) and the various efforts to grow a sustainable ocean economy and effective ocean protection efforts all require a more integrated approach to ocean observing. After analyzing the barriers that currently prevent this full integration within the occidental systems, we suggest nine approaches for breaking down the silos and promoting better coordination and sharing. These recommendations are related to the organizational framework, the ocean science culture, the system of recognition and rewards, the data management system, the ocean governance structure, and the ocean observing drivers and funding. These reflections are intended to provide food for thought for further dialogue between all parties involved and trigger concrete actions to foster a real transformational change in ocean observing.
  • Kangas, Pentti; Forsskåhl, Mikaela (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1986)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 68
  • Westerlund, Antti; Miettunen, Elina; Tuomi, Laura; Alenius, Pekka (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Ocean Science
    Water exchange through the Åland Sea (in the Baltic Sea) greatly affects the environmental conditions in the neighbouring Gulf of Bothnia. Recently observed changes in the eutrophication status of the Gulf of Bothnia may be connected to changing nutrient fluxes through the Åland Sea. Pathways and variability of sub-halocline northward-bound flows towards the Bothnian Sea are important for these studies. While the general nature of the water exchange is known, that knowledge is based on only a few studies that are somewhat limited in detail. Notably, no high-resolution modelling studies of water exchange in the Åland Sea area have been published. In this study, we present a configuration of the NEMO 3D hydrodynamic model for the Åland Sea–Archipelago Sea area at around 500 m horizontal resolution. We then use it to study the water exchange in the Åland Sea and volume transports through the area. We first ran the model for the years 2013–2017 and validated the results, with a focus on the simulated current fields. We found that the model reproduced current direction distributions and layered structure of currents in the water column with reasonably good accuracy. Next, we used the model to calculate volume transports across several transects in the Åland Sea. These calculations provided new details about water transport in the area. Time series of monthly mean volume transports showed consistent northward transport in the deep layer. In the surface layer there was more variability: while net transport was towards the south, in several years some months in late summer or early autumn showed net transport to the north. Furthermore, based on our model calculations, it seems that dynamics in the Lågskär Deep are more complex than has been previously understood. While Lågskär Deep is the primary route of deep-water exchange, a significant volume of deep water still enters the Åland Sea through the depression west of the Lågskär Deep. Better spatial and temporal coverage of current measurements is needed to further refine the understanding of water exchange in the area. Future studies of transport and nutrient dynamics will eventually enable a deeper understanding of eutrophication changes in the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Mustonen, Mirko; Klauson, Aleksander; Andersson, Mathias; Clorennec, Dominique; Folegot, Thomas; Koza, Radomił; Pajala, Jukka; Persson, Leif; Tegowski, Jarosław; Tougaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Sigray, Peter (Springer Nature, 2019)
    Scientific Reports
    During last decades, anthropogenic underwater sound and its chronic impact on marine species have been recognised as an environmental protection challenge. At the same time, studies on the spatial and temporal variability of ambient sound, and how it is affected by biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors are lacking. This paper presents analysis of a large-scale and long-term underwater sound monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the year 2014, sound was monitored in 36 Baltic Sea locations. Selected locations covered different natural conditions and ship traffic intensities. The 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 2 kHz one-third octave band sound pressure levels were calculated and analysed. The levels varied significantly from one monitoring location to another. The annual median sound pressure level of the quietest and the loudest location differed almost 50 dB in the 63 Hz one-third octave band. Largest difference in the monthly medians was 15 dB in 63 Hz one-third octave band. The same monitoring locations annual estimated probability density functions for two yearly periods show strong similarity. The data variability grows as the averaging time period is reduced. Maritime traffic elevates the ambient sound levels in many areas of the Baltic Sea during extensive time periods.
  • Kanwischer, Marion; Asker, Noomi; Wernersson, Ann-Sofie; Wirth, Marisa A.; Fisch, Kathrin; Dahlgren, Elin; Osterholz, Helena; Habedank, Friederike; Naumann, Michael; Mannio, Jaakko; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    The Baltic Sea is among the most polluted seas worldwide. Anthropogenic contaminants are mainly introduced via riverine discharge and atmospheric deposition. Regional and international measures have successfully been employed to reduce concentrations of several legacy contaminants. However, current Baltic Sea monitoring programs do not address compounds of emerging concern. Hence, potentially harmful pharmaceuticals, UV filters, polar pesticides, estrogenic compounds, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or naturally produced algal toxins are not taken into account during the assessment of the state of the Baltic Sea. Herein, we conducted literature searches based on systematic approaches and compiled reported data on these substances in Baltic Sea surface water and on methodological advances for sample processing and chemical as well as effect-based analysis of these analytically challenging marine pollutants. Finally, we provide recommendations for improvement of future contaminant and risk assessment in the Baltic Sea, which revolve around a combination of both chemical and effect based analyses.
  • Setälä, Outi; Tirroniemi, Jyri; Lehtiniemi, Maiju (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
    The use of citizen science in the collection of surface water marine microplastics (MP) samples with manta trawl was tested in the Baltic Sea, where the collection of surface water samples is often hampered by environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out at 7 locations around the Baltic Sea with a custom-made manta trawl which was operated onboard a sailing boat. The total concentrations of ≥ 0.3 mm MP in the samples ranged from 0.45 to 1.98 MP m−3. Based on the results and experiences from this study, citizen science could be introduced into the toolbox of monitoring large MP. When the common basic constraints of surface water sampling within a regional sea are defined and agreed upon, citizen science could be used for strengthening the power of assessments on the state of the marine environment by increasing the spatial coverage of the monitored area.
  • Tuomi, Laura (Merentutkimuslaitos, 2008)
    Meri 63
  • Tamminen, Timo; Kaitala, Seppo; Iliash, Ljudmila V. (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1984)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 56, 21-25
    Kolmen merellisen dinoflagellaatin glukoosinottopotentiaali
  • Canals, Miquel; Pham, Christopher K.; Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Hanke, Georg; van Sebille, Erik; Angiolillo, Michela; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Cau, Alessando; Ioakeimidis, Christos; Kammann, Ulrike; Lundsten, Lonny; Papatheodorou, George; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Schulz, Marcus; Vinci, Matteo; Chiba, Sanae; Langenkämper, Daniel; Möller, Tiia; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Ruiz, Marta; Suikkanen, Sanna; Woodall, Lucy; Fakiris, Elias; Eugenia, Maria; Jack, Molina; Giorgetti, Alessandra (IOP Publishing, 2021)
    Environmental Research Letters 16: 023001
    The seafloor covers some 70% of the Earth’s surface and has been recognised as a major sink for marine litter. Still, litter on the seafloor is the least investigated fraction of marine litter, which is not surprising as most of it lies in the deep sea, i.e. the least explored ecosystem. Although marine litter is considered a major threat for the oceans, monitoring frameworks are still being set up. This paper reviews current knowledge and methods, identifies existing needs, and points to future developments that are required to address the estimation of seafloor macrolitter. It provides background knowledge and conveys the views and thoughts of scientific experts on seafloor marine litter offering a review of monitoring and ocean modelling techniques. Knowledge gaps that need to be tackled, data needs for modelling, and data comparability and harmonisation are also discussed. In addition, it shows how research on seafloor macrolitter can inform international protection and conservation frameworks to prioritise efforts and measures against marine litter and its deleterious impacts.