Browsing by Subject "meret"

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  • Luoma, Emilia; Laurila-Pant, Mirka; Altarriba, Elias; Nevalainen, Lauri; Helle, Inari; Granhag, Lena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Srėbalienė, Greta; Olenin, Sergej; Lehikoinen, Annukka (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Biofouling of ship hulls form a vector for the introduction of non-indigenous organisms worldwide. Through increasing friction, the organisms attached to ships' hulls increase the fuel consumption, leading to both higher fuel costs and air emissions. At the same time, ship biofouling management causes both ecological risks and monetary costs. All these aspects should be considered case-specifically in the search of sustainable management strategies. Applying Bayesian networks, we developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model to compare biofouling management strategies in the Baltic Sea, given the characteristics of a ship, its operating profile and operational environment, considering the comprehensive environmental impact and the monetary costs. The model is demonstrated for three scenarios (SC1-3) and sub-scenarios (A-C), comparing the alternative biofouling management strategies in relation to NIS (non-indigenous species) introduction risk, eco-toxicological risk due to biocidal coating, carbon dioxide emissions and costs related to fuel consumption, in-water cleaning and hull coating. The scenarios demonstrate that by the careful consideration of the hull fouling management strategy, both money and environment can be saved. We suggest biocidal-free coating with a regular in-water cleaning using a capture system is generally the lowest-risk option. The best biocidal-free coating type and the optimal in-water cleaning interval should be evaluated case-specifically, though. In some cases, however, biocidal coating remains a justifiable option.
  • Belinskij, A.; Gamarena Gómez, T.; Kostamo, K.; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, A.; Piiparinen, A.; Spilling, K. (Finnish Environment Institute, GRASS-hanke, 2021)
    GRASS Policy Brief 2
  • Myrberg, Kai (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 10
  • Kahru, Mati; Bittig, Henry; Elmgren, Ragnar; Fleming, Vivi; Lee, Zhongping; Rehder, Gregor (Inter-Research Science Center, 2022)
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Water transparency can be measured with optical instruments and estimated with satellite sensors, but such measurements have been widely available for only a few decades. Estimates of water transparency using a white disk called a Secchi disk have been made for over a century and can be used to estimate long-term trends. However, historic in situ measurements of the Secchi depth (ZSd) were irregular in space and time and are difficult to interpret in regular time series due to biases introduced by changing locations and the timing of measurements. Satellite data time series, on the other hand, have consistent resolution in both space and time but cover too short a time to resolve climate-scale trends. We normalized historic ZSd measurements in the Baltic Sea with a satellite-derived mean climatology at 5 d temporal and 4 km spatial resolutions and created a merged time series of ZSd for the last century. The mean ZSd in the Baltic Sea from 1927-2020 decreased by 4.2 +/- 0.6 m at a rate of 0.045 +/- 0.06 m yr-1. Most of the change happened before 1987, and a further decrease was evident primarily in the satellite data during the 1998-2008 period. After 2008, no significant trend in ZSd and or the coefficient of diffuse light attenuation was detected in the Baltic Sea. However, in some sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the decrease in ZSd continued even after that. The decrease in spectral water transparency in recent decades was highest in the 412 nm band, indicating an increase in the concentration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter.
  • Olofsson, Malin; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kobos, Justyna; Wasmund, Norbert; Karlson, Bengt (Elsevier, 2020)
    Harmful Algae
    Almost every summer, dense blooms of filamentous cyanobacteria are formed in the Baltic Sea. These blooms may cause problems for tourism and ecosystem services, where surface accumulations and beach fouling are commonly occurring. Future changes in environmental drivers, including climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances, may further enhance these problems. By compiling monitoring data from countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea, we present spatial and temporal genus-specific distribution of diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria (Nostocales) during four decades (1979–2017). While the summer surface salinity decreased with a half up to one unit, the surface temperature in July-August increased with 2–3 °C in most sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, during the time period. The biovolumes of the toxic Nodularia spumigena did not change in any of the sub-basins during the period. On the other hand, the biovolume of the non-toxic Aphanizomenon sp. and the potentially toxic Dolichospermum spp. increased in the northern parts of the Baltic Sea, along with the decreased salinity and elevated temperatures, but Aphanizomenon sp. decreased in the southern parts despite decreased salinity and increased temperatures. These contradictory changes in biovolume of Aphanizomenon sp. between the northern and southern parts of the Baltic Sea may be due to basin-specific effects of the changed environmental conditions, or can be related to local adaptation by sub-populations of the genera. Overall, this comprehensive dataset presents insights to genus-specific bloom dynamics by potentially harmful diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. Highlights • Biovolumes of bloom-forming cyanobacteria during four decades in the Baltic Sea. • Aphanizomenon sp. has increased with decreased salinity in the Bothnian Sea. • Dolichospermum spp. has increased with temperature in Bothnian Sea. • The total biovolume of Nostocales has decreased in the Southern Baltic Proper. • The biovolume of the toxic Nodularia spumigena has not changed since the 1980s.
  • Laurila, Leena; Kalliola, Risto (Miljöministeriet, 2008)
    Miljöministeriets rapporter 3sv/2008
    Av hela strandlinjen längs havskusten och kring öarna är i genomsnitt 41 % sluten. Det vill säga att de byggnader med gårdsplaner, som finns i närheten av stranden sluter stranden från övrig användning. Om man utesluter från kalkylerna öar som utgör mindre än 1 ha och därmed i praktiken inte lämpar sig för byggande, blir slutenhetsgraden för strandlinjen på fastlandet och på öar som är större än 1 ha 48 %. Därmed är slutenhetsgraden i 22 kommuner 60 % eller högre och i 6 av dessa kommuner 70 % eller högre. Den här rapporten behandlar mängden slutna stränder och fria stränder och deras läge, samt kvaliteten, tillgängligheten och sammanhängandet hos fria stränder.
  • Coppock, Rachel L.; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S.; Nakki, Pinja; Birgani, Hannah; Richards, Saskiya; Queirós, Ana M. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 415: 125583
    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the marine environment, however, the mechanisms governing their uptake by, and burial within, seabed habitats are poorly understood. In this study, microplastic burial and its impact on fauna-mediated sedimentary processes was quantified at three coastal sites, and the potential contribution of burrowing faunal communities to this process assessed via functional trait diversity analysis of field data. In addition, laboratory exposures were used to assess whether sediment-processing undertaken by the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, a key species in the sampled area, could explain the burial of microplastic fibres. Field observations confirmed broad-scale burial of microplastics across the coastal seabed, consistent across sites and seasons, with microplastic sequestration linked to benthic-pelagic exchange pathways, driven by burrowing fauna. Brittlestars were observed to bury and line their burrow walls with microfibres during experiments, and their burial activity was also modified following exposure to nylon fibres, relative to controls. Collectively, these results indicate that biodiverse and functionally important seabed habitats act as microplastic sinks, with burrowing fauna contributing to this process via well-known benthic-pelagic pathways, the rates of which are modified by plastic exposure.
  • Näkki, Pinja; Setälä, Outi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju (2019)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 119 (1): 255-261
    Microplastics (MPs) are observed to be present on the seafloor ranging from coastal areas to deep seas. Because bioturbation alters the distribution of natural particles on inhabited soft bottoms, a mesocosm experiment with common benthic invertebrates was conducted to study their effect on the distribution of secondary MPs (different-sized pieces of fishing line < 1 mm). During the study period of three weeks, the benthic community increased MP concentration in the depth of 1.7-5.1 cm in the sediment. The experiment revealed a clear vertical gradient in MP distribution with their abundance being highest in the uppermost parts of the sediment and decreasing with depth. The Baltic clam Macoma balthica was the only study animal that ingested MPs. This study highlights the need to further examine the vertical distribution of MPs in natural sediments to reliably assess their abundance on the seafloor as well as their potential impacts on benthic communities.
  • Schumacher, Johanna; Bergqvist, Lisa; van Beest, Floris M.; Carstensen, Jacob; Gustafsson, Bo; Hasler, Berit; Fleming, Vivi; Nygård, Henrik; Pakalniete, Kristîne; Sokolov, Alexander; Zandersen, Marianne; Schernewski, Gerald (Frontiers in Marine Science, 2020)
    Frontiers Marine Science 7 (2020)
    Decision support tools (DSTs), like models, GIS-based planning tools and assessment tools, play an important role in incorporating scientific information into decision-making and facilitating policy implementation. In an interdisciplinary Baltic research group, we compiled 43 DSTs developed to support ecosystem-based management of the Baltic Sea and conducted a thorough review. Analyzed DSTs cover a wide variety of policy issues (e.g., eutrophication, biodiversity, human uses) and address environmental as well as socio-economic aspects. In this study, we aim to identify gaps between existing DSTs and end-user needs for DSTs for supporting coastal and marine policy implementation, and to provide recommendations for future DST development. In two online surveys, we assess the awareness and use of DSTs in general, as well as policy implementation challenges and DST needs of representatives of public authorities from all Baltic countries, in particular. Through a policy review we identify major policy issues, policies, and general implementation steps and requirements and develop the synthesis-matrix, which is used to compare DST demand and supply. Our results show that DSTs are predominantly used by researchers. End-users from public authorities use DSTs mostly as background information. Major obstacles for DST use are lacking awareness and experiences. DST demand is strongest for the policy issue eutrophication. Furthermore, DSTs that support the development of plans or programs of measures and assess their impacts and effectiveness are needed. DST supply is low for recently emerging topics, such as non-indigenous species, marine litter, and underwater noise. To overcome existing obstacles, a common database for DSTs available in the BSR is needed. Furthermore, end-users need guidance and training, and cooperation between DST developers and end-users needs to be enhanced to ensure the practical relevance of DSTs for supporting coastal and marine policy implementation. To fill existing gaps, DSTs that address impacts on human welfare and link environmental and socio-economic aspects should be developed. The Baltic Sea Region serves as a best practice case for studying DSTs and their practical use. Hence, our results can provide insights for DST development in other marine regions. Furthermore, our methodological approach is transferable to other areas.
  • Bergström, Irina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 38
    The carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from aquatic sediments have recently received considerable interest because of the role of these gases in enhancing climate warming. CO2 is the main end product of aerobic respiration and CH4 is produced in large amounts under anaerobic conditions. Shallow, vegetated sediments are an important source of both gases. CH4 may be transported via rhizomes and aerenchymal tissues of aquatic plants from the sediment to the atmosphere, thus avoiding oxidation in the aerated sediment surface and water column. Temperature is known to be a key factor affecting benthic CO2 and CH4 flux rates, but the interplay between other factors that may affect the fluxes from sediments is still poorly known. In order to study the spatial and temporal variability of carbon gas fluxes in boreal aquatic sediments, the area-based CO2 production rates in lake and brackish water sediments and CH4 emissions in vegetated lake littorals were measured in this work. The effects of temperature, sediment quality, plant species, zoobenthos and seasonal variation on flux rates were also estimated. The range of CO2 production rates measured in the field was 0.1–12.0 mg C m–2 h–1 and that of CH4 emission rates 0–14.3 mg C m–2 h–1. When incubated at elevated temperatures (up to 30 °C) in the laboratory, the CO2 production rates increased up to 70 mg C m–2 h–1. Temperature explained 70–94% of the temporal variation in the CO2 production in lake sites and 51% in a brackish water site. In the lake mesocosm, temperature explained 50–90% of the variation of CH4 emission. By contrast, CH4 oxidation rate was not dependent on temperature. The CH4 fluxes through the plants of six emergent and floating-leaved plant species were studied in the field (temperature range 20.4–24.9 °C). Stands of the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis emitted the largest amounts of CH4 (mean emission 13.9 ± 4.0 (SD) mg C m-2 h–1), the mean emission rate being correlated with mean net primary production (NPP) and mean solar radiation. In the stands of floating-leaved Nuphar lutea the mean CH4 efflux (0.5 ± 0.1 (SD) mg C m–2 h–1) was negatively correlated with mean fetch and positively with percentage cover of leaves on the water surface. On a regional level, stands of the emergents P. australis and Equisetum fluviatile emitted 32% more CH4 than natural open peatland during the growing season, although their areal coverage in the study region was only 41% of that of peatland area. Climate warming will presumably increase the carbon gas emission from vegetated littorals. The model-based estimated increase of CO2 production rate in June was 29% and for CH4 emissions as much as 65% for the time interval of 110 years from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100. The results indicate that carbon gas fluxes from aquatic sediments, especially from vegetated littorals, are significant at the landscape level. They are linked to temperature but also to several other interacting factors such as e.g. water and bottom quality and ecosystem composition. Detailed investigation of the overall links between the causes and effects is urgently needed in order to understand and predict the changes caused by warming climate.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Sörenson, Eva; Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna; Kremp, Anke; Krüger, Karen; Lindehoff, Elin; Legrand, Catherine (Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Environmental Microbiology Reports, 11: 425-433
    Phytoplankton and bacteria interactions have a significant role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Associations can range from mutualistic to parasitic, shaping biogeochemical cycles and having a direct influence on phytoplankton growth. How variations in phenotype and sampling location, affect the phytoplankton microbiome is largely unknown. A high-resolution characterization of the bacterial community in cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium was performed on strains isolated from different geographical locations and at varying anthropogenic impact levels. Microbiomes of Baltic Sea Alexandrium ostenfeldii isolates were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and were consistent over phenotypic and genotypic Alexandrium strain variation, resulting in identification of an A. ostenfeldii core microbiome. Comparisons with in situ bacterial communities showed that taxa found in this A. ostenfeldii core were specifically associated to dinoflagellate dynamics in the Baltic Sea. Microbiomes of Alexandrium tamarense and minutum, isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, differed from those of A. ostenfeldii in bacterial diversity and composition but displayed high consistency, and a core set of bacterial taxa was identified. This indicates that Alexandrium isolates with diverse phenotypes host predictable, species-specific, core microbiomes reflecting the abiotic conditions from which they were isolated. These findings enable in-depth studies of potential interactions occurring between Alexandrium and specific bacterial taxa.
  • Hyvärinen, Heini; Skyttä, Annaliina; Jernberg, Susanna; Meissner, Kristian; Kuosa, Harri; Uusitalo, Laura (Springer, 2021)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 193: 400
    Global deterioration of marine ecosystems, together with increasing pressure to use them, has created a demand for new, more efficient and cost-efficient monitoring tools that enable assessing changes in the status of marine ecosystems. However, demonstrating the cost-efficiency of a monitoring method is not straightforward as there are no generally applicable guidelines. Our study provides a systematic literature mapping of methods and criteria that have been proposed or used since the year 2000 to evaluate the cost-efficiency of marine monitoring methods. We aimed to investigate these methods but discovered that examples of actual cost-efficiency assessments in literature were rare, contradicting the prevalent use of the term “cost-efficiency.” We identified five different ways to compare the cost-efficiency of a marine monitoring method: (1) the cost–benefit ratio, (2) comparative studies based on an experiment, (3) comparative studies based on a literature review, (4) comparisons with other methods based on literature, and (5) subjective comparisons with other methods based on experience or intuition. Because of the observed high frequency of insufficient cost–benefit assessments, we strongly advise that more attention is paid to the coverage of both cost and efficiency parameters when evaluating the actual cost-efficiency of novel methods. Our results emphasize the need to improve the reliability and comparability of cost-efficiency assessments. We provide guidelines for future initiatives to develop a cost-efficiency assessment framework and suggestions for more unified cost-efficiency criteria.
  • Gunia, M.; Laine, M.; Malve, O.; Kallio, K.; Kervinen, M.; Anttila, S.; Kotamäki, N.; Siivola, E.; Kettunen, J.; Kauranne, T. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Environmental modelling and software
    Highlights •Operational data fusion system for coastal water quality monitoring was implemented. •Remote sensing and in-situ data sources are combined using ensemble Kalman smoother. •Result uncertainty is quantified to improve future data collection. •Simple process model captures relevant dynamics in presence of significant data gaps. Abstract We present an operational system for multi-sensor data fusion implemented at the Finnish Environment Institute. The system uses Ensemble Kalman filter and smoother algorithms, which are often used for probabilistic analysis of multi-sensor data. Uncertainty and spatial and temporal correlations present in the available observation data are accounted for to obtain accurate and realistic results. To test the data fusion system, daily chlorophyll-a concentration has been modelled across northern shoreline of Gulf of Finland over the period of August 1st – October 31st 2011. Chlorophyll-a data from routine monitoring stations, ferrybox measurements, and data derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite has been used as input. The data fusion system demonstrates the use of existing and well-known Ensemble Kalman filtering and smoothing methods for improving water quality monitoring programs and for ensuring compliance with ecological standards.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Nygård, Henrik; van Beest, Floris M.; Bergqvist, Lisa; Carstensen, Jacob; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Hasler, Berit; Schumacher, Johanna; Schernewski, Gerald; Sokolov, Alexander; Zandersen, Marianne; Fleming, Vivi (Springer Link, 2020)
    Environmental Management 66(6) (2020)
    Decision-support tools (DSTs) synthesize complex information to assist environmental managers in the decision-making process. Here, we review DSTs applied in the Baltic Sea area, to investigate how well the ecosystem approach is reflected in them, how different environmental problems are covered, and how well the tools meet the needs of the end users. The DSTs were evaluated based on (i) a set of performance criteria, (ii) information on end user preferences, (iii) how end users had been involved in tool development, and (iv) what experiences developers/hosts had on the use of the tools. We found that DSTs frequently addressed management needs related to eutrophication, biodiversity loss, or contaminant pollution. The majority of the DSTs addressed human activities, their pressures, or environmental status changes, but they seldom provided solutions for a complete ecosystem approach. In general, the DSTs were scientifically documented and transparent, but confidence in the outputs was poorly communicated. End user preferences were, apart from the shortcomings in communicating uncertainty, well accounted for in the DSTs. Although end users were commonly consulted during the DST development phase, they were not usually part of the development team. Answers from developers/hosts indicate that DSTs are not applied to their full potential. Deeper involvement of end users in the development phase could potentially increase the value and impact of DSTs. As a way forward, we propose streamlining the outputs of specific DSTs, so that they can be combined to a holistic insight of the consequences of management actions and serve the ecosystem approach in a better manner.
  • Polyakov, Igor V.; Tikka, Kimmo; Haapala, Jari; Alkire, Matthew B.; Alenius, Pekka; Kuosa, Harri (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Glider observations conducted between 2016 and 2021 were combined with shipborne surveys from the 1950s through the 2010s to provide critically important information about changes in the Bothnian Sea. Particularly, we evaluated the rate of warming and freshening in several layers of the basin and showed that warming of 0.3°C/decade in the upper 25m was sufficient to explain ~40% of the oxygen depletion since the mid-1950s. This depletion was driven by limited saturation of the surface mixed layer (SML), caused by warming and a (related) weakening of the surface oxygen flux during spring blooms. Below the SML, the role of warming in oxygen depletion decreased to less than 30%, whereas the role of freshening became increasingly important via establishing stronger stratification that reduced local ventilation across the basin’s halocline. The observed values in this study are not critical for the ecological system of the Bothnian Sea. However, the presented trends towards oxygen depletion should be considered as an early warning sign as future projections of the oxygen levels in the Bothnian Sea suggest further severe losses of the dissolved oxygen in the next decades. Thus, enhancement of both observational networks and the current physical and biogeochemical models is a high priority if we are to mitigate the potential impact of oxygen loss and develop a reliable monitoring system of the Bothnian Sea.
  • Rinne, Henna; Kostamo, Kirsi (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
    Red algae are an important component of the Baltic Sea rocky shores. Within the Finnish marine area, in the northern Baltic Sea, red algal communities (on habitat level) are currently listed as endangered, due to eutrophication effects and potential future decrease in salinity. At species level, Rhodomela confervoides and Ceramium virgatum are red-listed. Despite their common use in different management contexts within the Baltic Sea, e.g. their depth distribution used as an indicator of the status of the sea areas, we know little about the commonness and more detailed distribution patterns of the red algal species. This limits the reliability of algae-based assessments. The aim of this study was to describe the general occurrence patterns, abundance and prevalence of erect perennial and annual red algae, based on extensive scuba-diving inventories within the Finnish marine area. Furthermore, the most representative areas for the red algal communities were identified. The results show high variation in depth distribution and prevalence across environmental gradients for many red algal species, e.g. for the relatively common perennial species Furcellaria lumbricalis and Vertebrata fucoides. In comparison to older data, reductions in depth penetration and occurrence were identified especially for deep-occurring species such as Rhodomela confervoides. With improved knowledge on the occurrence patterns of red algal species in relation to environmental variation, our results enable more reliable use of red algae as indicators of the status of the sea areas. By identifying areas where red algal communities are currently most representative, the results also allow better targeting of management efforts aiming to improve their status, such as areal protection measures or reducing nutrient input from point sources.
  • Kumar, Eva; Koponen, Jani; Rantakokko, Panu; Airaksinen, Riikka; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Myllylä, Timo; Keinänen, Marja; Raitaniemi, Jari; Mannio, Jaakko; Junttila, Ville; Nieminen, Janne; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Jestoi, Marika (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a sub-category of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), is widespread in the environment. Food, especially fish meat, is a major pathway via which humans are exposed to PFAAs. As fish is an integral part of Nordic diet, therefore, in this study, several fish species, caught in selected Baltic Sea basins and freshwater bodies of Finland, were analysed for PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all Baltic Sea fish samples and in >80% fish samples from freshwaters. PFOS contributed between 46 and 100% to the total PFAA concentration in Baltic Sea fish samples and between 19 and 28% in fish samples from freshwaters. Geographically, concentration ratios of PFOS to other PFAAs differed between fish from the Baltic Sea and Finnish lakes suggesting that distribution of PFAAs differ in these environments. Results were compared with current safety thresholds – environmental quality standard for biota (EQSbiota) set by the European Commission and a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for the sum of four PFASs (∑PFAS-4) i.e. perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOS, recommended by the European Food Authority (EFSA). EQSbiota compliance was observed for PFOS in all species except smelt caught in the Baltic Sea and also in the River Aurajoki, where smelt had migrated from the Baltic Sea for spawning. Moderate consumption of most Baltic fishes (200 g week−1) results in an exceedance of the new TWI (4.4 ng kg−1 body weight week−1) for ∑PFAS-4.
  • Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (Finnish Environment Institute, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 8