Browsing by Subject "meret"

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  • Myrberg, Kai (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 10
  • Laurila, Leena; Kalliola, Risto (Miljöministeriet, 2008)
    Miljöministeriets rapporter 3sv/2008
    Av hela strandlinjen längs havskusten och kring öarna är i genomsnitt 41 % sluten. Det vill säga att de byggnader med gårdsplaner, som finns i närheten av stranden sluter stranden från övrig användning. Om man utesluter från kalkylerna öar som utgör mindre än 1 ha och därmed i praktiken inte lämpar sig för byggande, blir slutenhetsgraden för strandlinjen på fastlandet och på öar som är större än 1 ha 48 %. Därmed är slutenhetsgraden i 22 kommuner 60 % eller högre och i 6 av dessa kommuner 70 % eller högre. Den här rapporten behandlar mängden slutna stränder och fria stränder och deras läge, samt kvaliteten, tillgängligheten och sammanhängandet hos fria stränder.
  • Coppock, Rachel L.; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S.; Nakki, Pinja; Birgani, Hannah; Richards, Saskiya; Queirós, Ana M. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 415: 125583
    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the marine environment, however, the mechanisms governing their uptake by, and burial within, seabed habitats are poorly understood. In this study, microplastic burial and its impact on fauna-mediated sedimentary processes was quantified at three coastal sites, and the potential contribution of burrowing faunal communities to this process assessed via functional trait diversity analysis of field data. In addition, laboratory exposures were used to assess whether sediment-processing undertaken by the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, a key species in the sampled area, could explain the burial of microplastic fibres. Field observations confirmed broad-scale burial of microplastics across the coastal seabed, consistent across sites and seasons, with microplastic sequestration linked to benthic-pelagic exchange pathways, driven by burrowing fauna. Brittlestars were observed to bury and line their burrow walls with microfibres during experiments, and their burial activity was also modified following exposure to nylon fibres, relative to controls. Collectively, these results indicate that biodiverse and functionally important seabed habitats act as microplastic sinks, with burrowing fauna contributing to this process via well-known benthic-pelagic pathways, the rates of which are modified by plastic exposure.
  • Bergström, Irina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 38
    The carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from aquatic sediments have recently received considerable interest because of the role of these gases in enhancing climate warming. CO2 is the main end product of aerobic respiration and CH4 is produced in large amounts under anaerobic conditions. Shallow, vegetated sediments are an important source of both gases. CH4 may be transported via rhizomes and aerenchymal tissues of aquatic plants from the sediment to the atmosphere, thus avoiding oxidation in the aerated sediment surface and water column. Temperature is known to be a key factor affecting benthic CO2 and CH4 flux rates, but the interplay between other factors that may affect the fluxes from sediments is still poorly known. In order to study the spatial and temporal variability of carbon gas fluxes in boreal aquatic sediments, the area-based CO2 production rates in lake and brackish water sediments and CH4 emissions in vegetated lake littorals were measured in this work. The effects of temperature, sediment quality, plant species, zoobenthos and seasonal variation on flux rates were also estimated. The range of CO2 production rates measured in the field was 0.1–12.0 mg C m–2 h–1 and that of CH4 emission rates 0–14.3 mg C m–2 h–1. When incubated at elevated temperatures (up to 30 °C) in the laboratory, the CO2 production rates increased up to 70 mg C m–2 h–1. Temperature explained 70–94% of the temporal variation in the CO2 production in lake sites and 51% in a brackish water site. In the lake mesocosm, temperature explained 50–90% of the variation of CH4 emission. By contrast, CH4 oxidation rate was not dependent on temperature. The CH4 fluxes through the plants of six emergent and floating-leaved plant species were studied in the field (temperature range 20.4–24.9 °C). Stands of the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis emitted the largest amounts of CH4 (mean emission 13.9 ± 4.0 (SD) mg C m-2 h–1), the mean emission rate being correlated with mean net primary production (NPP) and mean solar radiation. In the stands of floating-leaved Nuphar lutea the mean CH4 efflux (0.5 ± 0.1 (SD) mg C m–2 h–1) was negatively correlated with mean fetch and positively with percentage cover of leaves on the water surface. On a regional level, stands of the emergents P. australis and Equisetum fluviatile emitted 32% more CH4 than natural open peatland during the growing season, although their areal coverage in the study region was only 41% of that of peatland area. Climate warming will presumably increase the carbon gas emission from vegetated littorals. The model-based estimated increase of CO2 production rate in June was 29% and for CH4 emissions as much as 65% for the time interval of 110 years from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100. The results indicate that carbon gas fluxes from aquatic sediments, especially from vegetated littorals, are significant at the landscape level. They are linked to temperature but also to several other interacting factors such as e.g. water and bottom quality and ecosystem composition. Detailed investigation of the overall links between the causes and effects is urgently needed in order to understand and predict the changes caused by warming climate.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Hyvärinen, Heini; Skyttä, Annaliina; Jernberg, Susanna; Meissner, Kristian; Kuosa, Harri; Uusitalo, Laura (Springer, 2021)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 193: 400
    Global deterioration of marine ecosystems, together with increasing pressure to use them, has created a demand for new, more efficient and cost-efficient monitoring tools that enable assessing changes in the status of marine ecosystems. However, demonstrating the cost-efficiency of a monitoring method is not straightforward as there are no generally applicable guidelines. Our study provides a systematic literature mapping of methods and criteria that have been proposed or used since the year 2000 to evaluate the cost-efficiency of marine monitoring methods. We aimed to investigate these methods but discovered that examples of actual cost-efficiency assessments in literature were rare, contradicting the prevalent use of the term “cost-efficiency.” We identified five different ways to compare the cost-efficiency of a marine monitoring method: (1) the cost–benefit ratio, (2) comparative studies based on an experiment, (3) comparative studies based on a literature review, (4) comparisons with other methods based on literature, and (5) subjective comparisons with other methods based on experience or intuition. Because of the observed high frequency of insufficient cost–benefit assessments, we strongly advise that more attention is paid to the coverage of both cost and efficiency parameters when evaluating the actual cost-efficiency of novel methods. Our results emphasize the need to improve the reliability and comparability of cost-efficiency assessments. We provide guidelines for future initiatives to develop a cost-efficiency assessment framework and suggestions for more unified cost-efficiency criteria.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (Finnish Environment Institute, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 8
  • Johansson, Milla M.; Launiainen, Jouko; Müller, Gerd; Brümmer, Burghard (Merentutkimuslaitos, 2005)
    Meri 54
  • Karlson, Bengt; Andersen, Per; Arneborg, Lars; Cembella, Allan; Eikrem, Wenche; John, Uwe; West, Jennifer Joy; Klemm, Kerstin; Kobos, Justyna; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lundholm, Nina; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Naustvoll, Lars; Poelman, Marnix; Provoost, Pieter; De Rijcke, Maarten; Suikkanen, Sanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Harmful Algae 102 (2021), 101989
    Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are recurrent phenomena in northern Europe along the coasts of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat-Skagerrak, eastern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. These HABs have caused occasional massive losses for the aquaculture industry and have chronically affected socioeconomic interests in several ways. This status review gives an overview of historical HAB events and summarises reports to the Harmful Algae Event Database from 1986 to the end of year 2019 and observations made in long term monitoring programmes of potentially harmful phytoplankton and of phycotoxins in bivalve shellfish. Major HAB taxa causing fish mortalities in the region include blooms of the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina leadbeateri in northern Norway in 1991 and 2019, resulting in huge economic losses for fish farmers. A bloom of the prymesiophyte Prymnesium polylepis (syn. Chrysochromulina polylepis) in the Kattegat-Skagerrak in 1988 was ecosystem disruptive. Blooms of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis spp. have caused accumulations of foam on beaches in the southwestern North Sea and Wadden Sea coasts and shellfish mortality has been linked to their occurrence. Mortality of shellfish linked to HAB events has been observed in estuarine waters associated with influx of water from the southern North Sea. The first bloom of the dictyochophyte genus Pseudochattonella was observed in 1998, and since then such blooms have been observed in high cell densities in spring causing fish mortalities some years. Dinoflagellates, primarily Dinophysis spp., intermittently yield concentrations of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, above regulatory limits along the coasts of Norway, Denmark and the Swedish west coast. On average, DST levels in shellfish have decreased along the Swedish and Norwegian Skagerrak coasts since approximately 2006, coinciding with a decrease in the cell abundance of D. acuta. Among dinoflagellates, Alexandrium species are the major source of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) in the region. PST concentrations above regulatory levels were rare in the Skagerrak-Kattegat during the three decadal review period, but frequent and often abundant findings of Alexandrium resting cysts in surface sediments indicate a high potential risk for blooms. PST levels often above regulatory limits along the west coast of Norway are associated with A. catenella (ribotype Group 1) as the main toxin producer. Other Alexandrium species, such as A. ostenfeldii and A. minutum, are capable of producing PST among some populations but are usually not associated with PSP events in the region. The cell abundance of A. pseudogonyaulax, a producer of the ichthyotoxin goniodomin (GD), has increased in the Skagerrak-Kattegat since 2010, and may constitute an emerging threat. The dinoflagellate Azadinium spp. have been unequivocally linked to the presence of azaspiracid toxins (AZT) responsible for Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) in northern Europe. These toxins were detected in bivalve shellfish at concentrations above regulatory limits for the first time in Norway in blue mussels in 2005 and in Sweden in blue mussels and oysters (Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas) in 2018. Certain members of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce the neurotoxin domoic acid and analogs known as Amnesic Shellfish Toxins (AST). Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia were common in the North Sea and the Skagerrak-Kattegat, but levels of AST in bivalve shellfish were rarely above regulatory limits during the review period. Summer cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea are a concern mainly for tourism by causing massive fouling of bathing water and beaches. Some of the cyanobacteria produce toxins, e.g. Nodularia spumigena, producer of nodularin, which may be a human health problem and cause occasional dog mortalities. Coastal and shelf sea regions in northern Europe provide a key supply of seafood, socioeconomic well-being and ecosystem services. Increasing anthropogenic influence and climate change create environmental stressors causing shifts in the biogeography and intensity of HABs. Continued monitoring of HAB and phycotoxins and the operation of historical databases such as HAEDAT provide not only an ongoing status report but also provide a way to interpret causes and mechanisms of HABs.
  • Unknown author (Vesihallitus, 1972)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 28
  • Furman, Eeva; Pihlajamäki, Mia; Välipakka, Pentti; Myrberg, Kai (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2014)
    Esityspaketin alkuosa tutustuttaa Itämeren fyysikaalis-kemiallisiin ja biologisiin ominaispiirteisiin. Toisessa osassa pohditaan alueen haasteita sekä yhteiskunnallisia vaikutusmahdollisuuksia Itämeren kestävän käytön turvaamiseksi nyt ja tulevaisuudessa. Lopuksi tietopaketti haastaa lukijansa kysymyksellä: Mitä sinä voit tehdä Itämeren hyväksi?
  • Räike, Antti; Koskela, Jarkko; Knuuttila, Seppo; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Pitkänen, Heikki; Risto, Maarit; Vuorinen, Jyrki (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 3/2015
    The report describes the results of the joint Polish–Finnish sampling expedition aimed at estimating the possible effects of the two Polish phosphogypsum stacks located in Wislinka (Gdańsk) and Police on the loading of the Baltic Sea and the nearby watercourses. The joint expedition was based on the agreement between the Polish and Finnish Ministers of the Environment in June 2013. The results indicate a clear effect of the phosphogypsum stack on phosphate and total phosphorus concentrations in the Martwa Wisla. The physical nature of the basin with no permanent flow into the sea weakens mixing and dilution and may cause a local enrichment of pollutants from external sources, compared with a normal river having a constant water flow into the sea. Our suggestion is that a comprehensive study should be carried out in the stack area of Wislinka, as well as in the Martwa Wisla and its catchment area, to be able to calculate water and phosphorus mass balances in the area, and the magnitude of inputs of phosphorus to the Baltic Sea caused by the stack. The role of sediments as sinks and sources of phosphorus and other pollutants in the Martwa Wisla should be studied as well. In Police the effects of the phosphogypsum stack were less obvious. This could be expected as a result of effective mixing and dilution due to the high flow in the Oder River. Additionally, measures have been implemented to prevent leakage, by means of a hydraulic barrier and by collecting runoff water and directing it to the local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). However, the results of the present expedition and also the results of the local monitoring programme from 2008 to 2012 indicate that the effects of the phosphogypsum stack on the quality of the recipient water cannot be ruled out. In order to estimate possible leakages in Police we suggest that an intensive monitoring programme for both groundwater and surface waters would be initiated. The sampling frequency for monitoring the leakage from the phosphogypsum stack should be increased to at least 12 annual samples at both the upstream and downstream stations. In addition, the water flow of the Oder between the stack and the nearby island should be continuously monitored. This would enable a reliable estimation of the potential phosphorus load into the Baltic Sea caused by the stack.
  • Wartiovaara, Jyrki (Vesihallitus, 1975)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 13
    Engl. summary: Amounts of substances discharged by rivers off the coast of Finland
  • Rahikainen, Esko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Verkkari 2006 (5)
  • Rantajärvi, Eija; Karjala, Leena (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2015)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 21/2015
    Meren Pärskäys 2015 tarjoaa valikoidun koosteen Itämeren ympäristötutkimuksen ajankohtaisista teemoista ja meren tilasta sekä selventää vesipuitedirektiivin ja meristrategiadirektiivin (vesienhoitosuunnitelmat, merenhoitosuunnitelma) käsitteistöä ja toimeenpanoa Suomessa. Niiden ohella avataan myös uuden merialuesuunnitteludirektiivin periaatteita. Rehevöityminen ja haitalliset aineet ovat Itämeren pahimpia ongelmia. Julkaisussa tarkastellaan ainevirtojen alkuperän ohella muun muassa luonnonolojen vaikutusta kuormitukseen. Haitallisten aineiden osalta avataan myös vastetutkimuksia, joilla selvitetään aineiden vaikutuksia meren eliöstön terveyteen. Meren tilaa arvioidaan paitsi kasvi- ja eläinplanktonin, pohjaeläinyhteisöjen ja pohjien eliöyhteisöjen kautta, myös tarkastellen Itämeren ravintoverkon muutoksia kokonaisuutena. Lopussa valotetaan malleihin perustuvia ennusteita ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutuksista Itämeren ekosysteemiin. Julkaisu painottuu Suomen ympäristökeskuksen (SYKE) ja Elinkeino-, liikenne ja ympäristökeskusten (ELYt) aineistoihin, mutta mukana on myös Säteilyturvakeskuksen, Helsingin yliopiston, Geologian tutkimuskeskuksen sekä Ilmatieteen laitoksen tuottamaa aineistoa.
  • Fjäder, Päivi (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2016)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 37/2016
    Merten roskaantuminen on viime aikoina yhä suurempaa huomiota saanut ympäristöongelma. Merten roskat voivat koostua useista erilaisista kiinteistä materiaaleista kuten muovista, kumista, metallista, paperista, tekstiileistä jne. Kelluvasta roskasta valtaosa on muovia ja se on pääasiassa peräsin maalla tapahtuvista toimista (60–80 %). Merkittävimpiä roskien päästölähteitä ja kulkeutumisreittejä ovat mm. huonosti hoidetut kaatopaikat, hulevedet, jätevedenpuhdistamot, roskaantuminen sekä laiton roskien dumppaus rannikoiden läheisyyteen. Myös jokien rooli roskien kuljettajana voi olla merkittävä. Noin 20 % roskista syntyy puolestaan merellä tapahtuvista toimista kuten liikenteestä, kalastuksesta ja vesiviljelystä. Muovin tuotanto on kasvanut nopeasti viimeisten vuosikymmenten aikana. Merissä olevan roskan ja tuotetun muovin määrät kulkevat käsi kädessä, minkä vuoksi merten roskamäärän ennustetaan kasvavan, ellei välittömiin toimenpiteisiin ryhdytä. Eniten roskaa löytyy tiheään asuttujen alueiden lähistöiltä, mutta kaukaisemmatkaan alueet eivät ole säästyneet roskaantumiselta. Nykyään etenkin muoviroskaa löytyy kaikkialta meriympäristöstä, niin rannoilta, vesipatsaasta, eliöstöstä kuin meren pohjasta. Mereen päädyttyään roskat voivat olosuhteista riippuen säilyä siellä pitkään. Mikroroskaksi kutsutaan yleisesti alle 5 mm:n kokoista roskaa. Mikromuovit saattavat puolestaan toimia vektoreina mm. erilaisille tulokaslajeille, taudinaiheuttajille sekä haitallisille orgaanisille yhdisteille. Mikropartikkeleiden sekä makroroskien päästölähteiden, kulkeutumisen ja esiintymisalueiden (vertikaalinen, horisontaalinen, maantieteellinen) selvittäminen on tärkeää niin vaikutus- ja riskinarvioinnin kuin mahdollisten päästövähennyskeinojen kannalta. Tietyillä alueilla roskaantuminen on jo varsin näkyvä ongelma, aiheuttaen lukuisia erilaisia sosioekonomisia sekä ekologisia haittoja. Tämän vuoksi erilaisiin vähennys- ja hallintatoimenpiteisiin tulisi ryhtyä välittömästi.
  • Koponen, Jorma; Alasaarela, Erkki; Lehtinen, Kari; Sarkkula, Juha; Simbierowicz, Pawel; Vepsä, Heino; Virtanen, Markku (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1992)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 7
    Yhteenveto: Laajan merialueen dynamiikan mallintaminen
  • Aroviita, Jukka; Hellsten, Seppo; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Järvenpää, Lasse; Järvinen, Marko; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Kauppila, Pirkko; Keto, Antton; Kuoppala, Minna; Manni, Kati; Mannio, Jaakko; Mitikka, Sari; Olin, Mikko; Perus, Jens; Pilke, Ansa; Rask, Martti; Riihimäki, Juha; Ruuskanen, Ari; Siimes, Katri; Sutela, Tapio; Vehanen, Teppo; Vuori, Kari-Matti (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita 7/2012
    Suomen ensimmäinen pintavesien ekologisen ja kemiallisen tilan luokittelu laadittiin vuonna 2008 vesienhoidon ensimmäisen suunnittelukauden ohjeistuksen (Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita OH 3/2009) mukaisesti. Tässä oppaassa esitetään päivitetyt arviointiperusteet pintavesien ekologisen ja kemiallisen tilan arviointiin ja luokitteluun vesienhoidon toista suunnittelukautta varten. Ohje on ensisijaisesti tarkoitettu ELY-keskuksille vesienhoidon suunnittelussa käytettäväksi vesien tilan luokitteluun. ELY-keskusten on tärkeää huomioida ja ottaa systemaattisesti käyttöön ohjeessa esitetyt päivitetyt arviointiperusteet. Vesien tilan luokittelussa käytettäviä parametreja on tapauskohtaisesti sisällytettävä toiminnanharjoittajien velvoitetarkkailuihin ja YVA-selvityksiin. Ohjeessa esitetään ne muutokset ja lisäykset, jotka vuosien 2012–2013 aikana toteutettavassa luokittelussa tulee huomioida verrattuna ensimmäisen suunnittelukauden ohjeistukseen. Muilta osin noudatetaan ensimmäisen luokittelukierroksen ohjeistusta (Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita OH 3/2009). Kaikki luokittelutekijöiden arviointiperusteet (vertailuarvot ja luokkarajat) ovat tässä ohjeessa liitteinä, eikä ohjeen OH 3/2009 liitetaulukoita tule käyttää.