Browsing by Subject "meriekologia"

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  • Luoma, Emilia; Laurila-Pant, Mirka; Altarriba, Elias; Nevalainen, Lauri; Helle, Inari; Granhag, Lena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Srėbalienė, Greta; Olenin, Sergej; Lehikoinen, Annukka (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Biofouling of ship hulls form a vector for the introduction of non-indigenous organisms worldwide. Through increasing friction, the organisms attached to ships' hulls increase the fuel consumption, leading to both higher fuel costs and air emissions. At the same time, ship biofouling management causes both ecological risks and monetary costs. All these aspects should be considered case-specifically in the search of sustainable management strategies. Applying Bayesian networks, we developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model to compare biofouling management strategies in the Baltic Sea, given the characteristics of a ship, its operating profile and operational environment, considering the comprehensive environmental impact and the monetary costs. The model is demonstrated for three scenarios (SC1-3) and sub-scenarios (A-C), comparing the alternative biofouling management strategies in relation to NIS (non-indigenous species) introduction risk, eco-toxicological risk due to biocidal coating, carbon dioxide emissions and costs related to fuel consumption, in-water cleaning and hull coating. The scenarios demonstrate that by the careful consideration of the hull fouling management strategy, both money and environment can be saved. We suggest biocidal-free coating with a regular in-water cleaning using a capture system is generally the lowest-risk option. The best biocidal-free coating type and the optimal in-water cleaning interval should be evaluated case-specifically, though. In some cases, however, biocidal coating remains a justifiable option.
  • Näkki, Pinja; Setälä, Outi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju (2019)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 119 (1): 255-261
    Microplastics (MPs) are observed to be present on the seafloor ranging from coastal areas to deep seas. Because bioturbation alters the distribution of natural particles on inhabited soft bottoms, a mesocosm experiment with common benthic invertebrates was conducted to study their effect on the distribution of secondary MPs (different-sized pieces of fishing line < 1 mm). During the study period of three weeks, the benthic community increased MP concentration in the depth of 1.7-5.1 cm in the sediment. The experiment revealed a clear vertical gradient in MP distribution with their abundance being highest in the uppermost parts of the sediment and decreasing with depth. The Baltic clam Macoma balthica was the only study animal that ingested MPs. This study highlights the need to further examine the vertical distribution of MPs in natural sediments to reliably assess their abundance on the seafloor as well as their potential impacts on benthic communities.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Sörenson, Eva; Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna; Kremp, Anke; Krüger, Karen; Lindehoff, Elin; Legrand, Catherine (Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Environmental Microbiology Reports, 11: 425-433
    Phytoplankton and bacteria interactions have a significant role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Associations can range from mutualistic to parasitic, shaping biogeochemical cycles and having a direct influence on phytoplankton growth. How variations in phenotype and sampling location, affect the phytoplankton microbiome is largely unknown. A high-resolution characterization of the bacterial community in cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium was performed on strains isolated from different geographical locations and at varying anthropogenic impact levels. Microbiomes of Baltic Sea Alexandrium ostenfeldii isolates were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and were consistent over phenotypic and genotypic Alexandrium strain variation, resulting in identification of an A. ostenfeldii core microbiome. Comparisons with in situ bacterial communities showed that taxa found in this A. ostenfeldii core were specifically associated to dinoflagellate dynamics in the Baltic Sea. Microbiomes of Alexandrium tamarense and minutum, isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, differed from those of A. ostenfeldii in bacterial diversity and composition but displayed high consistency, and a core set of bacterial taxa was identified. This indicates that Alexandrium isolates with diverse phenotypes host predictable, species-specific, core microbiomes reflecting the abiotic conditions from which they were isolated. These findings enable in-depth studies of potential interactions occurring between Alexandrium and specific bacterial taxa.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Data in Brief
    Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment over 15 days to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 plastic bags moored outside the Tvärminne Zoological Station at the SW coast of Finland. We used four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation; addition of a commercially available organic carbon additive called HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L-1); addition of inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 µM NH4 and 0.65µM PO4); and a final treatment of combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr+Hum) additions. Water samples were taken daily, and measured variables included water transparency, organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry.
  • Rinne, Henna; Kostamo, Kirsi (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
    Red algae are an important component of the Baltic Sea rocky shores. Within the Finnish marine area, in the northern Baltic Sea, red algal communities (on habitat level) are currently listed as endangered, due to eutrophication effects and potential future decrease in salinity. At species level, Rhodomela confervoides and Ceramium virgatum are red-listed. Despite their common use in different management contexts within the Baltic Sea, e.g. their depth distribution used as an indicator of the status of the sea areas, we know little about the commonness and more detailed distribution patterns of the red algal species. This limits the reliability of algae-based assessments. The aim of this study was to describe the general occurrence patterns, abundance and prevalence of erect perennial and annual red algae, based on extensive scuba-diving inventories within the Finnish marine area. Furthermore, the most representative areas for the red algal communities were identified. The results show high variation in depth distribution and prevalence across environmental gradients for many red algal species, e.g. for the relatively common perennial species Furcellaria lumbricalis and Vertebrata fucoides. In comparison to older data, reductions in depth penetration and occurrence were identified especially for deep-occurring species such as Rhodomela confervoides. With improved knowledge on the occurrence patterns of red algal species in relation to environmental variation, our results enable more reliable use of red algae as indicators of the status of the sea areas. By identifying areas where red algal communities are currently most representative, the results also allow better targeting of management efforts aiming to improve their status, such as areal protection measures or reducing nutrient input from point sources.
  • Kraft, Kaisa; Seppälä, Jukka; Hällfors, Heidi; Suikkanen, Sanna; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Anglès, Sílvia; Kielosto, Sami; Kuosa, Harri; Laakso, Lauri; Honkanen, Martti; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Oja, Johanna; Tamminen, Timo (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
    Frontiers in Marine Science 8: 594144
    Cyanobacteria are an important part of phytoplankton communities, however, they are also known for forming massive blooms with potentially deleterious effects on recreational use, human and animal health, and ecosystem functioning. Emerging high-frequency imaging flow cytometry applications, such as Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB), are crucial in furthering our understanding of the factors driving bloom dynamics, since these applications provide community composition information at frequencies impossible to attain using conventional monitoring methods. However, the proof of applicability of automated imaging applications for studying dynamics of filamentous cyanobacteria is still scarce. In this study we present the first results of IFCB applied to a Baltic Sea cyanobacterial bloom community using a continuous flow-through setup. Our main aim was to demonstrate the pros and cons of the IFCB in identifying filamentous cyanobacterial taxa and in estimating their biomass. Selected environmental parameters (water temperature, wind speed and salinity) were included, in order to demonstrate the dynamics of the system the cyanobacteria occur in and the possibilities for analyzing high-frequency phytoplankton observations against changes in the environment. In order to compare the IFCB results with conventional monitoring methods, filamentous cyanobacteria were enumerated from water samples using light microscopical analysis. Two common bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea, Aphanizomenon flosaquae and Dolichospermum spp. dominated the bloom, followed by an increase in Oscillatoriales abundance. The IFCB results compared well with the results of the light microscopical analysis, especially in the case of Dolichospermum. Aphanizomenon biomass varied slightly between the methods and the Oscillatoriales results deviated the most. Bloom formation was initiated as water temperature increased to over 15°C and terminated as the wind speed increased, dispersing the bloom. Community shifts were closely related to movements of the water mass. We demonstrate how using a high-frequency imaging flow cytometry application can help understand the development of cyanobacteria summer blooms.
  • Truchy, Amélie; Sarremejane, Romain; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Angeler, David G.; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Huusko, Ari; Johnson, Richard K.; Sponseller, Ryan A.; McKie, Brendan G. (Wiley, 2020)
    Global Change Biology 26 6 (2020)
    Ongoing climate change is increasing the occurrence and intensity of drought episodes worldwide, including in boreal regions not previously regarded as drought prone, and where the impacts of drought remain poorly understood. Ecological connectivity is one factor that might influence community structure and ecosystem functioning post-drought, by facilitating the recovery of sensitive species via dispersal at both local (e.g. a nearby habitat patch) and regional (from other systems within the same region) scales. In an outdoor mesocosm experiment, we investigated how impacts of drought on boreal stream ecosystems are altered by the spatial arrangement of local habitat patches within stream channels, and variation in ecological connectivity with a regional species pool. We measured basal ecosystem processes underlying carbon and nutrient cycling: (a) algal biomass accrual; (b) microbial respiration; and (c) decomposition of organic matter, and sampled communities of aquatic fungi and benthic invertebrates. An 8-day drought event had strong impacts on both community structure and ecosystem functioning, including algal accrual, leaf decomposition and microbial respiration, with many of these impacts persisting even after water levels had been restored for 3.5 weeks. Enhanced connectivity with the regional species pool and increased aggregation of habitat patches also affected multiple response variables, especially those associated with microbes, and in some cases reduced the effects of drought to a small extent. This indicates that spatial processes might play a role in the resilience of communities and ecosystem functioning, given enough time. These effects were however insufficient to facilitate significant recovery in algal growth before seasonal dieback began in autumn. The limited resilience of ecosystem functioning in our experiment suggests that even short-term droughts can have extended consequences for stream ecosystems in the world's vast boreal region, and especially on the ecosystem processes and services mediated by algal biofilms.
  • Seppänen, Pertti (University of Helsinki, 1971)
  • Raateoja, Mika; Myrberg, Kai; Pitkänen, Heikki; Lehtoranta, Jouni (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2015)
    SYKE Policy Brief
  • Blenckner, Thorsten; Möllmann, Christian; Stewart Lowndes, Julia; Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Campbell, Eleanore; De Cervo, Andrea; Belgrano, Andrea; Boström, Christoffer; Fleming, Vivi; Frazier, Melanie; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Niiranen, Susa; Nilsson, Annika; Ojaveer, Henn; Olsson, Jens; Palmlöv, Christine S.; Quaas, Martin; Rickels, Wilfried; Sobek, Anna; Viitasalo, Markku; Wikström, Sofia A.; Halpern, Benjamin S. (John Wiley & Sons, 2021)
    People and Nature 3: 2
    1. Improving the health of coastal and open sea marine ecosystems represents a substantial challenge for sustainable marine resource management, since it requires balancing human benefits and impacts on the ocean. This challenge is often exacerbated by incomplete knowledge and lack of tools that measure ocean and coastal ecosystem health in a way that allows consistent monitoring of progress towards predefined management targets. The lack of such tools often limits capabilities to enact and enforce effective governance. 2. We introduce the Baltic Health Index (BHI) as a transparent, collaborative and repeatable assessment tool. The Index complements existing, more ecological-oriented, approaches by including a human dimension on the status of the Baltic Sea, an ecosystem impacted by multiple anthropogenic pressures and governed by a multitude of comprehensive national and international policies. Using a large amount of social–ecological data available, we assessed the health of the Baltic Sea for nine goals that represent the status towards set targets, for example, clean waters, biodiversity, food provision, natural products extraction and tourism. 3. Our results indicate that the overall health of the Baltic Sea is suboptimal (a score of 76 out of 100), and a substantial effort is required to reach the management objectives and associated targets. Subregionally, the lowest BHI scores were measured for carbon storage, contaminants and lasting special places (i.e. marine protected areas), albeit with large spatial variation. 4. Overall, the likely future status of all goals in the BHI averaged for the entire Baltic Sea is better than the present status, indicating a positive trend towards a healthier Baltic Sea. However, in some Baltic Sea basins, the trend for specific goals was decreasing, highlighting locations and issues that should be the focus of management priorities. 5. The BHI outcomes can be used to identify both pan-Baltic and subregional scale management priorities and to illustrate the interconnectedness between goals linked by cumulative pressures. Hence, the information provided by the BHI tool and its further development will contribute towards the fulfilment of the UN Agenda 2030 and its Sustainability Development Goals.
  • Raateoja, Mika; Myrberg, Kai; Pitkänen, Heikki; Lehtoranta, Jouni (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    SYKE Policy Brief
  • Demina, Tatiana A.; Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Roux, Simon; Oksanen, Hanna M. (American Society for Microbiology, 2022)
    ABSTRACT Although we know the generally appreciated significant roles of microbes in sea ice and polar waters, detailed studies of virus-host systems from such environments have been so far limited by only a few available isolates. Here, we investigated infectivity under various conditions, infection cycles, and genetic diversity of the following Antarctic sea ice bacteriophages: Paraglaciecola Antarctic GD virus 1 (PANV1), Paraglaciecola Antarctic JLT virus 2 (PANV2), Octadecabacter Antarctic BD virus 1 (OANV1), and Octadecabacter Antarctic DB virus 2 (OANV2). The phages infect common sea ice bacteria belonging to the genera Paraglaciecola or Octadecabacter. Although the phages are marine and cold-active, replicating at 0°C to 5°C, they all survived temporal incubations at $30°C and remained infectious without any salts or supplemented only with magnesium, suggesting a robust virion assembly maintaining integrity under a wide range of conditions. Host recognition in the cold proved to be effective, and the release of progeny viruses occurred as a result of cell lysis. The analysis of viral genome sequences showed that nearly one-half of the gene products of each virus are unique, highlighting that sea ice harbors unexplored virus diversity. Based on predicted genes typical for tailed double-stranded DNA phages, we suggest placing the four studied viruses in the class Caudoviricetes. Searching against viral sequences from metagenomic assemblies, we revealed that related viruses are not restricted to Antarctica but are also found in distant marine environments. IMPORTANCE Very little is known about sea ice microbes despite the significant role played by sea ice in the global oceans as well as microbial input into biogeochemical cycling. Studies on the sea ice viruses have been typically limited to -omics-based approaches and microscopic examinations of sea ice samples. To date, only four cultivable viruses have been isolated from Antarctic sea ice. Our study of these unique isolates advances the understanding of the genetic diversity of viruses in sea ice environments, their interactions with host microbes, and possible links to other biomes. Such information contributes to more accurate future sea ice biogeochemical models.