Browsing by Subject "mesothelioma"

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  • Kuryk, Lukasz; Moller, Anne-Sophie W.; Garofalo, Mariangela; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Pesonen, Sari; Alemany, Ramon; Jaderberg, Magnus (2018)
    Oncolytic adenoviral immunotherapy activates the innate immune system with subsequent induction of adaptive tumor-specific immune responses to fight cancer. Hence, oncolytic viruses do not only eradicate cancer cells by direct lysis, but also generate antitumor immune response, allowing for long-lasting cancer control and tumor reduction. Their therapeutic effect can be further enhanced by arming the oncolytic adenovirus with costimulatory transgenes and/or coadministration with other antitumor therapies. ONCOS-102 has already been found to be well tolerated and efficacious against some types of treatment-refractory tumors, including mesothelin-positive ovarian cancer (NCT01598129). It induced local and systemic CD8+ T-cell immunity and upregulated programmed death ligand 1. These results strongly advocate the use of ONCOS-102 in combination with other therapeutic strategies in advanced and refractory tumors, especially those expressing the mesothelin antigen. The in vivo work presented herein describes the ability of the oncolytic adenovirus ONCOS-102 to induce mesothelin-specific T-cells after the administration of the virus in bagg albino (BALB/c) mice with mesothelin-positive tumors. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the interferon-gamma the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to detect the induction of T-cells recognizing mesothelin, hexon, and E1A antigens in ONCOS-102treated mesothelioma-bearing BALB/c mice. Thus, the ELISPOT assay could be useful to monitor the progress of therapy with ONCOS-102.
  • Klebe, Sonja; Leigh, James; Henderson, Douglas W.; Nurminen, Markku (2020)
    This review updates the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing cumulative exposure and synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, and proposes an evidence-based and equitable approach to compensation for asbestos-related lung cancer cases. This update is based on several earlier reviews written by the second and third authors on asbestos and lung cancer since 1995. We reevaluated the peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies. In addition, selected in vivo and in vitro animal studies and molecular and cellular studies in humans were included. We conclude that the mechanism of lung cancer causation induced by the interdependent coaction of asbestos fibers and tobacco smoke at a biological level is a multistage stochastic process with both agents acting conjointly at all times. The new knowledge gained through this review provides the evidence for synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke in lung cancer causation at a biological level. The evaluated statistical data conform best to a multiplicative model for the interaction effects of asbestos and smoking on the lung cancer risk, with no requirement for asbestosis. Any asbestos exposure, even in a heavy smoker, contributes to causation. Based on this information, we propose criteria for the attribution of lung cancer to asbestos in smokers and non-smokers.
  • Ollila, Hely; Paajanen, Juuso; Wolff, Henrik; Ilonen, Ilkka; Sutinen, Eva; Välimäki, Katja; Östman, Arne; Anttila, Sisko; Kettunen, Eeva; Räsänen, Jari; Kallioniemi, Olli; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Pellinen, Teijo (2021)
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a rich stromal component containing mesenchymal fibroblasts. However, the properties and interplay of MPM tumor cells and their surrounding stromal fibroblasts are poorly characterized. Our objective was to spatially profile known mesenchymal markers in both tumor cells and associated fibroblasts and correlate their expression with patient survival. The primary study cohort consisted of 74 MPM patients, including 16 patients who survived at least 60 months. We analyzed location-specific tissue expression of seven fibroblast markers in clinical samples using multiplexed fluorescence immunohistochemistry (mfIHC) and digital image analysis. Effect on survival was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The outcome measurement was all-cause mortality. Univariate analysis revealed that high expression of secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich (SPARC) and fibroblast activation protein in stromal cells was associated with shorter survival. Importantly, high expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) in tumor cells, but not in stromal cells, was associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, p <0.001). A multivariable survival analysis adjusted for clinical parameters and stromal mfIHC markers revealed that tumor cell PDGFRB and stromal SPARC remained independently associated with survival (HR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.03 and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00-1.11, respectively). The prognostic effect of PDGFRB was validated with an artificial intelligence-based analysis method and further externally validated in another cohort of 117 MPM patients. In external validation, high tumor cell PDGFRB expression associated with shorter survival, especially in the epithelioid subtype. Our findings suggest PDGFRB and SPARC as potential markers for risk stratification and as targets for therapy.
  • Godbole, Nimish (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Background: Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal cancer of the mesothelial cells characterized by previous exposure to asbestos, long latency period and shorter survival time thereafter. Lack of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers and no curative treatment at present has made the continuous study of mesothelioma important. One of the biomarker under study are the microRNAs (miRNAs) which are small non-coding RNAs of about 20-22 nucleotides long which regulate post-translational gene expression. MiRNAs control several essential biological pathways including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. Their dysregulation can lead to disruption of these pathways and also to the development of cancer. Identifying and understanding the role played by these miRNAs in malignant mesothelioma will help in their development as an effective diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for this cancer. Aims: The study aims to first identify miRNAs previously linked with malignant mesothelioma, invasion and the EMT pathway based on review of literature. The study then aims to characterize miRNAs expression in established mesothelial cell lines used widely in mesothelioma research. Material & methods: Literature review is conducted using peer reviewed articles and limiting the articles published within the last 5 years. For characterizing the miRNAs, 6 mesothelial cell lines are used of which one is non-tumorigenic and used to represent a healthy control. Small RNA sequencing is done of all 6 cell lines and results analyzed using the Chipster analysis software. Results: A comprehensive list of 100 miRNAs was created which were linked to malignant mesothelioma, invasion, metastasis and EMT pathway. Small RNA sequencing of the cell lines revealed 134 miRNAs which were expressed in at least one of the cell lines. 34 of these miRNAs had higher counts in the healthy control as compared to all the cancer cell lines. In addition, we found 19 miRNAs having low counts in the control cell line but showed downregulation to zero in all the cancer cell lines. 4 miRNAs, namely miR-10a-5p, miR- 21-5p, miR-23b-3p and miR-183-5p, were also found in this study which were not previously linked with malignant mesothelioma. Conclusion: Characterization of the available mesothelial cell lines is the first step in understanding the role played by miRNAs in the development of this cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm the entire list of mesothelioma associated miRNAs found here, especially the 4 miRNAs which were not previously linked to mesothelioma. Validation of the miRNAs through comparison with patient samples with higher number of biological replicates and greater depth of libraries along with miRNA pathway analysis will help the development of miRNAs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for this cancer.