Browsing by Subject "metaphor"

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  • Patomäki, Heikki (2020)
    The question I raise is whether the basic features of mind, social categories, and society are unchanging or changing. Some understandings of ontology would seem to suggest that social ontology is a branch of metaphysics. However, as the history of concepts such as metaphysical and ontology indicate, our concepts and knowledge are historical. It is widely held that society is concept‐ and activity‐dependent. I examine critically two strands of social ontology in terms of their answers to this problematic: (1) John Searle’s theory of the construction of social reality and (2) critical realist theory of mind and society as interlaced emergent layers of reality. Apart from emergence in natural systems, there is also emergence beyond nature as consciousness, agency and society cannot be completely explained in terms of biological realities; but how and when did this emergence occur? We need an account of the emergent order of language, reflectively conscious mind, and institutions not only for its own sake, but also because the process whereby new objects and properties emerge may be on‐going, path‐dependent, diverse, and open‐ended. The main argument is that the object of study of social theorists is geo‐historically specific, liable to diversity within any given world‐historical epoch, and open to further changes and new forms of emergence in the future.
  • Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne; Säntti, Risto (Sage Publications, 2010)
    This article focuses on cultural identity-building in the cross-border merger context. To provide an alternative to the dominant essentialist analyses of cultures and cultural differences, cultural identitybuilding is conceptualized as a metaphoric process. The focus is on two processes inherent in the cross-border merger context: construction of images of Us and Them and construction of images of a Common Future. Based on an analysis of a special metaphor exercise carried out in a recent Finnish–Swedish merger, the article illustrates how the metaphoric perspective reveals specific cognitive, emotional and political aspects of cultural identity-building that easily remain ‘hidden’ in the case of more traditional approaches.
  • Halonen, Risto; Kuula, Liisa; Antila, Minea; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2021)
    Accumulating evidence emphasizes the relevance of oscillatory synchrony in memory consolidation during sleep. Sleep spindles promote memory retention, especially when occurring in the depolarized upstate of slow oscillation (SO). A less studied topic is the inter-spindle synchrony, i.e. the temporal overlap and phasic coherence between spindles perceived in different electroencephalography channels. In this study, we examined how synchrony between SOs and spindles, as well as between simultaneous spindles, is associated with the retention of novel verbal metaphors. Moreover, we combined the encoding of the metaphors with respiratory phase (inhalation/exhalation) with the aim of modulating the strength of memorized items, as previous studies have shown that inhalation entrains neural activity, thereby benefiting memory in a waking condition. In the current study, 27 young adults underwent a two-night mixed-design study with a 12-h delayed memory task during both sleep and waking conditions. As expected, we found better retention over the delay containing sleep, and this outcome was strongly associated with the timing of SO–spindle coupling. However, no associations were observed regarding inter-spindle synchrony or respiratory phase. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the importance of SO–spindle coupling for memory. In contrast, the observed lack of association with inter-spindle synchrony may emphasize the local nature of spindle-related plasticity.
  • Pareyon, Gabriel (International Summer School for Semiotic and Structural Studies, 2010)
    Based on the Aristotelian criterion referred to as 'abductio', Peirce suggests a method of hypothetical inference, which operates in a different way than the deductive and inductive methods. “Abduction is nothing but guessing” (Peirce, 7.219). This principle is of extreme value for the study of our understanding of mathematical self-similarity in both of its typical presentations: relative or absolute. For the first case, abduction incarnates the quantitative/qualitative relationships of a self-similar object or process; for the second case, abduction makes understandable the statistical treatment of self-similarity, 'guessing' the continuity of geometric features to the infinity through the use of a systematic stereotype (for instance, the assumption that the general shape of the Sierpiński triangle continuates identically into its particular shapes). The metaphor coined by Peirce, of an exact map containig itself the same exact map (a map of itself), is not only the most important precedent of Mandelbrot’s problem of measuring the boundaries of a continuous irregular surface with a logarithmic ruler, but also still being a useful abstraction for the conceptualisation of relative and absolute self-similarity, and its mechanisms of implementation. It is useful, also, for explaining some of the most basic geometric ontologies as mental constructions: in the notion of infinite convergence of points in the corners of a triangle, or the intuition for defining two parallel straight lines as two lines in a plane that 'never' intersect.
  • Airaksinen, Timo (Brill, 2019)
    Value Inquiry Book Series
    Names: Airaksinen, Timo, 1947- author. Title: Vagaries of desire : a collection of philosophical essays / Timo Airaksinen. Description: Leiden ; Boston : Brill-Rodopi, 2019. | Series: Value inquiry book series, 0929-8436 ; volume 340. Philosophy, literature, and politics | Includes index. | Summary: “Vagaries of Desire is a major collection of new essays by Timo Airaksinen on the philosophy of desire. The first part develops a novel account of the philosophical theory of desire, including Girard. The second part discusses Kafka’s main works, namely The Castle, The Trial, and Amerika, and Thomas Hobbes and the problems of intentionality. The text develops such linguistic tropes as metaphor and metonymy in connection with topics like death and then applies them to Kafka’s texts. The third part makes an effort to understand the mysteries of sadism and masochism in philosophical and rhetorical terms. The last article criticizes Thomas Nagel’s influential account of sexual perversion and develops a viable alternative”--
  • Riad, Sally; Vaara, Eero (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2010)
    International mergers and acquisitions (M&As) often invoke national identification and national cultural differences. We argue that metonymy is a central linguistic resource through which national cultural identities and differences are reproduced in media accounts of international M&As. In this paper, we focus on two revealing cases: the acquisition of American IBM Personal Computer Division (PCD) by the Chinese company Lenovo and the acquisition of American Anheuser-Busch (A-B) by the Belgian-Brazilian company InBev. First, we identify the forms, functions and frequencies of national metonymy in media accounts of these cases. We present a typology that classifies varieties of national metonymy in international M&As. Second, we demonstrate how these metonyms combine with metaphor to generate evocative imagery, engaging wit, and subversive irony. Our findings show that national metonymy contributes to the construction of emotive frames, stereotypes, ideological differences, and threats. Combinations of national metonymy with metaphor also provide powerful means to construct cultural differences. However, combinations of metonymy with wit and irony enable the play on meanings that overturns and resists national and cultural stereotypes. This is the first study to unpack the deployment of metonymy in accounts of international M&As. In doing so, it also opens up new avenues for research into international management and the analysis of tropes in management and organization.
  • Viimaranta, Johanna; Mustajoki, Arto (2020)
    The study analyses occurrences of Russian nouns meaning‘science’,‘religion’,‘economy’,‘politics’and‘culture’as human-like subjects. This kind of use isinterpreted as an example of a conceptualization described as PERSONIFICATION-WITH-METONYMY.On the basis of the fact that Russian examples work well intranslation into other languages, we assume that similar conceptualization ofthese abstract nouns is not completely language-dependent. The study isbased on the analysis of examples taken from Integrum, a large non-annotated Russian corpus. The large number of examples found in newspapertexts and documented both quantitatively and qualitatively suggests thatsuch non-annotated corpora can be used for studying conceptualization.