Browsing by Subject "methodology"

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  • Van Der Wel, Kjetil A.; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle; Korhonen, Kaarina; Martikainen, Pekka; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer (2019)
    Aims: Future research on health inequality relies on data that cover life-course exposure, different birth cohorts and variation in policy contexts. Nordic register data have long been celebrated as a ?gold mine? for research, and fulfil many of these criteria. However, access to and use of such data are hampered by a number of hurdles and bottlenecks. We present and discuss the experiences of an ongoing Nordic consortium from the process of acquiring register data on socio-economic conditions and health in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Methods: We compare experiences of data-acquisition processes from a researcher?s perspective in the four countries and discuss the comparability of register data and the modes of collaboration available to researchers, given the prevailing ethical and legal restrictions. Results: The application processes we experienced were time-consuming, and decision structures were often fragmented. We found substantial variation between the countries in terms of processing times, costs and the administrative burden of the researcher. Concerned agencies differed in policy and practice which influenced both how and when data were delivered. These discrepancies present a challenge to comparative research. Conclusions: We conclude that there are few signs of harmonisation, as called for by previous policy documents and research papers. Ethical vetting needs to be centralised both within and between countries in order to improve data access. Institutional factors that seem to facilitate access to register data at the national level include single storage environments for health and social data, simplified ethical vetting and user guidance.
  • Tahko, Tuomas (2008)
    In this paper I will offer a novel understanding of a priori knowledge. My claim is that the sharp distinction that is usually made between a priori and a posteriori knowledge is groundless. It will be argued that a plausible understanding of a priori and a posteriori knowledge has to acknowledge that they are in a constant bootstrapping relationship. It is also crucial that we distinguish between a priori propositions that hold in the actual world and merely possible, non-actual a priori propositions, as we will see when considering cases like Euclidean geometry. Furthermore, contrary to what Kripke seems to suggest, a priori knowledge is intimately connected with metaphysical modality, indeed, grounded in it. The task of a priori reasoning, according to this account, is to delimit the space of metaphysically possible worlds in order for us to be able to determine what is actual.
  • James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Bertolacci, Gregory J.; Cunningham, Matthew; Henry, Nathaniel J.; LeGrand, Kate E.; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abedi, Aidin; Abegaz, Kedir Hussein; Abosetugn, Akine Eshete; Abushouk, Abdelrahman; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Advani, Shailesh M.; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Ahmad, Tauseef; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Ahmed, Rushdia; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour; Alema, Niguse Meles; Alemu, Biresaw Wassihun; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir; Ali, Saqib; Alinia, Cyrus; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Almasri, Nihad A.; Altirkawi, Khalid; Amer, Yasser Sami Abdeldayem; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anvari, Davood; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Arabloo, Jalal; Arab-Zozani, Morteza; Arefi, Zohreh; Aremu, Olatunde; Ariani, Filippo; Arora, Amit; Asaad, Malke; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Ayano, Getinet; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Azarian, Ghasem; Badawi, Alaa; Badiye, Ashish D.; Baig, Atif Amin; Bairwa, Mohan; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Balachandran, Arun; Banach, Maciej; Banerjee, Srikanta K.; Banik, Palash Chandra; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Barzegar, Akbar; Bayati, Mohsen; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Belete, Habte; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhe, Kidanemaryam; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhat, Anusha Ganapati; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bibi, Sadia; Bijani, Ali; Boloor, Archith; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Borzi, Antonio Maria; Boufous, Soufiane; Braithwaite, Dejana; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Brugha, Traolach; Budhathoki, Shyam S.; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Carvalho, Felix; Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castelpietra, Giulio; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cerin, Ester; Chandan, Joht S.; Chapman, Jens Robert; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Chattu, Soosanna Kumary; Chatziralli, Irini; Chaudhary, Neha; Cho, Daniel Youngwhan; Choi, Jee-Young J.; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Dinh-Toi Chu,; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Coelho, Joao M.; Costa, Vera M.; Dahlawi, Saad M. A.; Daryani, Ahmad; Alberto Davila-Cervantes, Claudio; De Leo, Diego; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Demsie, Desalegn Getnet; Deribe, Kebede; Desai, Rupak; Nasab, Mostafa Dianati; da Silva, Diana Dias; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Hoa Thi Do,; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Adema, Bereket Duko; Eagan, Arielle Wilder; Elemineh, Demelash Abewa; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Faris, Pawan Sirwan; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Ferrara, Pietro; Fischer, Florian; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Fomenkov, Artem Alekseevich; Foroutan, Masoud; Francis, Joel Msafiri; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle; Gebremariam, Hadush; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork; Gebremeskel, Leake G.; Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn; Gebremichael, Berhe; Gedefaw, Getnet Azeze; Geta, Birhanu; Getenet, Agegnehu Bante; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Ghamari, Farhad; Gheshlagh, Reza Ghanei; Gholamian, Asadollah; Gilani, Syed Amir; Gill, Tiffany K.; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Grivna, Michal; Guimaraes, Rafael Alves; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Gaurav; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hall, Brian James; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassan, Shoaib; Hassanipour, Soheil; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hendrie, Delia; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hijar, Martha; Ho, Hung Chak; Chi Linh Hoang,; Hole, Michael K.; Holla, Ramesh; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Guoqing; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, M. Mofizul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jalilian, Farzad; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jha, Ravi Prakash; John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jones, Kelly M.; Joseph, Nitin; Joukar, Farahnaz; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Ali; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalankesh, Leila R.; Kalhor, Rohollah; Kamil, Teshome Abegaz; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kapoor, Neeti; Karami, Manoochehr; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassaye, Hagazi Gebremedhin; Kavetskyy, Taras; Kayode, Gbenga A.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khan, Maseer; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Junaid; Khanna, Tripti; Khazaei, Salman; Khazaie, Habibolah; Khundkar, Roba; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Daniel; Kisa, Sezer; Kisa, Adnan; Komaki, Hamidreza; Kondlahalli, Shivakumar K. M.; Koolivand, Ali; Korshunov, Vladimir Andreevich; Koyanagi, Ai; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Krishan, Kewal; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, Nithin; Kumar, Manasi; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Narinder; Kumaresh, Girikumar; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Lasrado, Savita; Latifi, Arman; Lauriola, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Xuefeng; Lopez, Alan D.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lyons, Ronan A.; Machado, Daiane Borges; Madadin, Mohammed; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Maled, Venkatesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Amir; Manda, Ana-Laura; Manjunatha, Narayana; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Maravilla, Joemer C.; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Melketsedik, Zeleke Aschalew; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Merie, Hayimro Edemealem; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirica, Andreea; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi; Mithra, Prasanna; Moazen, Babak; Moghadaszadeh, Masoud; Mohamadi, Efat; Mohammad, Yousef; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Jemal Abdu; Mohebi, Farnam; Bandpei, Mohammad A. Mohseni; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moodley, Yoshan; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Muluneh, Atalay Goshu; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Naik, Gurudatta; Naimzada, Mukhammad David; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Naserbakht, Morteza; Nayak, Vinod; Nazari, Javad; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Diep Ngoc Nguyen,; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen,; Nikbakhsh, Rajan; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oghenetega, Onome Bright; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Bali, Ahmed Omar; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Orpana, Heather M.; Ota, Erika; Otstavnov, Nikita; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pakhale, Smita; Pakshir, Keyvan; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Park, Eun-Kee; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pathak, Ashish; Pati, Sanghamitra; Paulos, Kebreab; Peden, Amy E.; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino; Pereira, Jeevan; Phillips, Michael R.; Polibin, Roman; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Prakash, Swayam; Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga; Puri, Parul; Syed, Zahiruddin Quazi; Rabiee, Navid; Rabiee, Mohammad; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiee, Ata; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rajabpour-Sanati, Ali; Rajati, Fatemeh; Rakovac, Ivo; Rao, Sowmya J.; Rashedi, Vahid; Rastogi, Prateek; Rathi, Priya; Rawaf, Salman; Rawal, Lal; Rawassizadeh, Reza; Renjith, Vishnu; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezapour, Aziz; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Rickard, Jennifer; Rios Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Saddik, Basema; Safarpour, Hamid; Safdarian, Mahdi; Sajadi, S. Mohammad; Salamati, Payman; Salem, Marwa R. Rashad; Salem, Hosni; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sarveazad, Arash; Sathian, Brijesh; Sawhney, Monika; Sayyah, Mehdi; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Sha, Feng; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Shahabi, Saeed; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Sheikh, Aziz; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Jae Il; Shiri, Rahman; Siabani, Soraya; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Soheili, Amin; Soriano, Joan B.; Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Taddele, Biruk Wogayehu; Tefera, Yonatal Mesfin; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekulu, Gebretsadkan Hintsa; Tesema, Ayenew Kassie Tesema; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Thapar, Rekha; Titova, Mariya Vladimirovna; Tlaye, Kenean Getaneh; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Topor-Madry, Roman; Khanh Bao Tran,; Bach Xuan Tran,; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Tsai, Alexander C.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Ullah, Irfan; Ullah, Saif; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Upadhyay, Era; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Valdez, Pascual R.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wiangkham, Taweewat; Wolde, Haileab Fekadu; Woldeyes, Dawit Habte; Wondmeneh, Temesgen Gebeyehu; Wondmieneh, Adam Belay; Wu, Ai-Min; Wyper, Grant M. A.; Yadav, Rajaram; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaya, Sanni; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Youm, Yoosik; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Yu, Chuanhua; Yu, Yong; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zarei, Fatemeh; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Yunquan; Ziapour, Arash; Zodpey, Sanjay; Dandona, Rakhi; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Hay, Simon; Mokdad, Ali H.; Pigott, David M.; Reiner, Robert C.; Vos, Theo (2020)
    Background While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. Methods In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. Results GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes. Conclusions GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
  • Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti; Taimela, Simo; Kanto, Kari; Järvinen, Teppo L. N. (2017)
    Introduction: Arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is the most commonly performed surgical intervention for shoulder pain, yet evidence on its efficacy is limited. The rationale for the surgery rests on the tenet that symptom relief is achieved through decompression of the rotator cuff tendon passage. The primary objective of this superiority trial is to compare the efficacy of ASD versus diagnostic arthroscopy (DA) in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS), where DA differs only by the lack of subacromial decompression. A third group of supervised progressive exercise therapy (ET) will allow for pragmatic assessment of the relative benefits of surgical versus non-operative treatment strategies. Methods and Analysis: Finnish Subacromial Impingement Arthroscopy Controlled Trial is an ongoing multicentre, three-group randomised controlled study. We performed two-fold concealed allocation, first by randomising patients to surgical (ASD or DA) or conservative (ET) treatment in 2:1 ratio and then those allocated to surgery further to ASD or DA in 1:1 ratio. Our two primary outcomes are pain at rest and at arm activity, assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS). We will quantify the treatment effect as the difference between the groups in the change in the VAS scales with the associated 95% CI at 24 months. Our secondary outcomes are functional assessment (Constant score and Simple shoulder test), quality of life (15D and SF-36), patient satisfaction, proportions of responders and non-responders, reoperations/treatment conversions, all at 2 years post-randomisation, as well as adverse effects and complications. We recruited a total of 210 patients from three tertiary referral centres. We will conduct the primary analysis on the intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and Dissemination: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Pirkanmaa Hospital District and duly registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. The findings of this study will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. © 2017 Article author(s).
  • Peltonen, Matti (2004)
    I would argue that a problem lies in the way Foucault's texts were introduced in the mid to late 1980s. The problem is that most of the methodological work in the social sciences and cultural studies treats Foucault's method primarily as discourse analysis. This is, however, an excessively narrow view, especially when we take into account not just his methodological texts, but also his empirical works and in particular Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality. This failure holds the danger of forgetting what was most original and interesting in Foucault's thinking. In several of his more popular empirical studies Foucault was interested in a much wider phenomenon than discourse. He also studied practices and an abstraction that he called dispositifs, by which he meant historically specific totalities of discourses and practices. In English translations of Foucault's works dispositifis translated using various terms (apparatus, deployment, construct, alignment, positivities, etc.) which together make the central importance of the concept unnecessarily difficult to detect. Seeing Foucault only as a discourse theorist also gives the new cultural history an excessively narrow view of culture. This perhaps helps to explain why it has not led to the intellectual breakthrough expected in the late 1980s.
  • Kanduri, C.; Järvelä, I. (2017)
    Modern high-throughput studies often yield long lists of genes, a fraction of which are of high relevance to the phenotype of interest. To prioritize the candidate genes of complex genetic traits, our R/Bioconductor package GenRank ranks genes based on convergent evidence obtained from multiple layers of independent evidence. We implemented three methods to rank genes that integrate gene-level data generated from multiple layers of evidence: (a) the convergent evidence (CE) method aggregates evidence based on a weighted vote counting method; (b) the rank product (RP) method performs a meta-analysis of microarray-based gene expression data, and (c) the traditional method combines p-values. The methods are implemented in R and are available as a package in the Bioconductor repository. (http://bioconductor.org/packages/GenRank/). © 2017 Kanduri C and Järvelä I.
  • Tallqvist, Nina; Anttila, Heidi; Kallinen, Mauri; Koskinen, Eerika; Hämäläinen, Harri; Kauppila, Anna-Maija; Täckman, Anni; Vainionpää, Aki; Arokoski, Jari; Hiekkala, Sinikka (2019)
    Background and purpose: The purpose of the Finnish Spinal Cord Injury Study (FinSCI) is to identify factors related to the health and functioning of people with spinal cord injury, their challenges with accessibility, and how such factors are interconnected. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used as a structured framework in the study. Design: Protocol of mixed methods study. Results: Study participants were recruited from all 3 spinal cord injury outpatient clinics in Finland. The final target group consists of 1,789 subjects with spinal cord injury. The final questionnaire was formed from 5 different patient-reported instruments. The spinal cord injury-specified instruments are the Spinal Cord Injury Secondary Condition Scale, the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, and the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory Short Form. In addition, questions from the following generic instruments were chosen after a selection process: the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, PROM'S (R), and the National Study of Health, Well-being and Service, FinSote. Altogether, the final questionnaire covers 64 ICF categories and consists of 151 ICF-linked questions. Conclusion: The formulated questionnaire covers widely different aspects of health, functioning and accessibility. The questionnaire results and subsequent interviews will help in developing care and rehabilitation policies and services for people with spinal cord injury.
  • Halme-Tuomisaari, Miia Marika (2018)
    How can anthropologists negotiate access in high-profile, bureaucratic apparatuses, such as a UN human rights monitoring mechanism – and what can a detailed account of these negotiations tell us of such apparatuses, their operational dynamics and the processes through which they exert an impact, broadly construed? This article addresses these questions through the notion of tactical subjectivity by anchoring its discussion on the category of the intern and detailing how this category became informative of the ‘fuzzy logic’ of the UN apparatus. The article outlines three techniques mobilised in the process – name-dropping, ‘playing blonde’ and opportunism – all embedded in a tactical matrix of exaggerated transparency. The article further shares attempts to flesh out relations and thus form ‘liaisons’ between my interlocutors and myself at sessions of the UN Human Rights Committee, the most influential of all the UN treaty bodies overseeing how states comply with their covenant-bound obligations. The ultimate aim was to become a conspicuous ethnographer with constant access – a volatile goal in the unpredictable microstructures of this awesome global apparatus.
  • Peng, Shikui (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
    A study of a 194.3 ha area of forest land dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine in central S. Finland. A general procedure is presented and discussed for integrating data from permanent sample plots and from satellite images for continuous forest inventory of large areas and for compartment estimations. Methods for estimation, updating and statistical analysis are examined.
  • Repo, Tapani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Welsh, John (2018)
    This article attempts a properly critical and political analysis of the “police power” immanent to the form and logic of academic rankings, and which is reproduced in the extant academic literature generated around them. In contrast to the democratising claims made of rankings, this police power short-circuits the moment of democratic politics and establishes the basis for the oligarchic power of the State and its status quo. Central in this founding political moment is the notion of the Arkhè, a necessarily asymmetric “distribution of the sensible” that establishes the basis of the political order, in this case an oligarchic political order. Drawing on Foucault and Rancière, the article argues for a necessary “dissensus” with both the ranking practice and its attendant academic literature, as the first step towards a politics of ranking that is properly critical, and therefore genuinely political.
  • Mireles-Flores, Luis (2018)
    This essay is a review of the recent literature on the methodology of economics, with a focus on three broad trends that have defined the core lines of research within the discipline during the last two decades. These trends are: (a) the philosophical analysis of economic modelling and economic explanation; (b) the epistemology of causal inference, evidence diversity, and evidence-based policy, and (c) the investigation of the methodological underpinnings and public policy implications of behavioural economics. The final output is inevitably not exhaustive, yet it aims at offering a fair taste of some of the most representative questions in the field on which many philosophers, methodologists, and social scientists have recently been placing a great deal of intellectual effort. The topics and references compiled in this review should serve at least as safe introductions to some of the central research questions in the philosophy and methodology of economics.
  • Säily, Tanja (2016)
    This paper presents ongoing work on Säily and Suomela’s (2009) method of comparing type frequencies across subcorpora. The method is here used to study variation in the productivity of the suffixes -ness and -ity in the eighteenth-century sections of the Corpora of Early English Correspondence and of the Old Bailey Corpus (OBC). Unlike the OBC, the eighteenth-century section of the letter corpora differs from previously studied materials in that there is no significant gender difference in the productivity of -ity. The study raises methodological issues involving periodization, multiple hypothesis testing, and the need for an interactive tool. Several improvements have been implemented in a new version of our software.
  • Wang, Shengyu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Natural scientists study a wide variety of species, but whether they have identified all studied samples correctly to species is rarely evaluated. Species misidentification in empirical research can cause significant losses of money, information, and time, and contribute to false results. Thus, I study the abundance of species misidentification and ecologists’ perceptions of such mistakes through a web survey targeting researchers from scientific institutes around the globe (including universities, research societies and museums) who completed their doctoral degree in any ecology-related field of science. I received 117 responses with either work or educational background from 30 countries. I found that species misidentification widely existed in respondents’ research: almost 70% of the respondents noticed species misidentification in their own research, while the estimated proportion of existing studies with species misidentification was 34% (95% CI: 28% - 40%). Although misidentification was mainly found during specimen collection, specimen handling and data analysis, misidentifications in reporting stages (writing, revision and after publishing) could persist until publication. Moreover, according to respondents, reviewers seldom comment about species identification methods or their accuracy, which may affect respondents’ (both leading and not leading a research team) low reporting frequency about the possibility of misidentification. Expert checking, training students, and DNA barcoding are the most prevalent approaches to ensure identification accuracy among respondents. My results imply that species misidentification might be widespread in existing ecological research. Although the problem of species misidentification is widely recognized, such an issue seldom be appropriately handled by respondents. To increase the accuracy of species identification and maintain academic integrity, I suggest that researchers need to focus more on the study species (e.g., sampling process, identification method, and accuracy) when writing and reviewing papers. Furthermore, I appeal for guidelines about reporting species identification methods and their accuracy in papers, as well as research on education about identification skills in universities, as these two topics may constrain the precision of species identification.
  • Sjöman, Heikki; Kalasniemi, Jani; Vartiainen, Matti; Steinert, Martin (2018)
    Prototyping (iterative loops of design-build-test) is a proven method of efficiently developing new products. Developing products not only quickly, but that are also fit for purpose, implies engaging the end users and iterating the technology at hand. However, there is currently little research on how engineering design can approach developing connected devices. The purpose of this paper is to distinguish and discuss design approaches that are suitable for connected devices. Internet of Things devices consist of both the physical products themselves and the data that is coming out of the products, which we define as the external and internal data, respectively. They both can be prototyped separately, but since the data acquired can influence the design of the device and vice versa, we propose to link these two together in the product development process. This issue becomes more apparent when designing networks of sensors, e.g., for complex artificial intelligence (AI) databases. We explain the principle by describing the development of 1Balance through six different prototypes for human balance measurement. Technologically quantifying balance is an underused approach for objectively evaluating the state of a human's performance. The authors have developed a mobile application for monitoring balance as a physiological signal (amount of sway) via a compact wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor strapped to the body of the subject for the duration of the measurement. We describe the design process for developing this connected medical device, as well as how the acquired data was used to improve the design of the product. In conclusion, we propose conceptually connecting the external and internal data prototyping loops.
  • ClimMani Working Grp; Halbritter, Aud H.; De Boeck, Hans J.; Eycott, Amy E.; Reinsch, Sabine; Robinson, David A.; Vicca, Sara; Berauer, Bernd; Christiansen, Casper T.; Estiarte, Marc; Grunzweig, Jose M.; Gya, Ragnhild; Hansen, Karin; Jentsch, Anke; Lee, Hanna; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John; Penuelas, Josep; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Stuart-Haentjens, Ellen; Wilfahrt, Peter; Vandvik, Vigdis; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Mänd, Pille (2020)
    Climate change is a world-wide threat to biodiversity and ecosystem structure, functioning and services. To understand the underlying drivers and mechanisms, and to predict the consequences for nature and people, we urgently need better understanding of the direction and magnitude of climate change impacts across the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. An increasing number of climate change studies are creating new opportunities for meaningful and high-quality generalizations and improved process understanding. However, significant challenges exist related to data availability and/or compatibility across studies, compromising opportunities for data re-use, synthesis and upscaling. Many of these challenges relate to a lack of an established 'best practice' for measuring key impacts and responses. This restrains our current understanding of complex processes and mechanisms in terrestrial ecosystems related to climate change. To overcome these challenges, we collected best-practice methods emerging from major ecological research networks and experiments, as synthesized by 115 experts from across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Our handbook contains guidance on the selection of response variables for different purposes, protocols for standardized measurements of 66 such response variables and advice on data management. Specifically, we recommend a minimum subset of variables that should be collected in all climate change studies to allow data re-use and synthesis, and give guidance on additional variables critical for different types of synthesis and upscaling. The goal of this community effort is to facilitate awareness of the importance and broader application of standardized methods to promote data re-use, availability, compatibility and transparency. We envision improved research practices that will increase returns on investments in individual research projects, facilitate second-order research outputs and create opportunities for collaboration across scientific communities. Ultimately, this should significantly improve the quality and impact of the science, which is required to fulfil society's needs in a changing world.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Tallberg, Teemu; McKie, Linda; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Niemistö, Charlotta (Hanken School of Economics, 2009)
    Working Papers
    This Working Paper reports the background to the first stage of the ongoing research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, conducted under the auspices of the Academy of Finland research programme The Future of Work and Well-being (2008-2011). This collaborative project provides national and transnational data, analysis and outputs. The study is being conducted in the Department of Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Finland, in collaboration with Glasgow Caledonian University, University of East London, Heriot-Watt University and Reading University, UK. The project examines policies and practices towards the enhancement of work-related well-being in growth industries, and contradictory pressures and tensions posed in this situation. The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies in four selected growth industries. These sectors – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of European Union and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in employment. In this working paper we outline the background to the research study, the initial research plan, and how the survey of employers has been constructed. The working paper concludes with a brief discussion of general ongoing research issues arising in the project.
  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2021)
    How do we thoroughly historicize the voice, or integrate it into our historical research, and how do we account for the mundane daily practices of voice ... the constant talking, humming, murmuring, whispering, and mumbling that went on offstage, in living rooms, debating clubs, business meetings, and on the streets? Work across the humanities has provided us with approaches to deal with aspects of voices, vocality, and their sounds. This article considers how we can mobilize and adapt such interdisciplinary methods for the study of history. It charts out a practical approach to attend to the history of voices-including unmusical ones-before recording, drawing on insights from the fields of sound studies, musicology, and performativity. It suggests ways to"listen anew"to familiar sources as well as less conventional source material. And it insists on a combination of analytical approaches focusing on vocabulary, bodily practice, and the questionable particularity of sound.