Browsing by Subject "methodology"

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  • Van Der Wel, Kjetil A.; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle; Korhonen, Kaarina; Martikainen, Pekka; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer (2019)
    Aims: Future research on health inequality relies on data that cover life-course exposure, different birth cohorts and variation in policy contexts. Nordic register data have long been celebrated as a ?gold mine? for research, and fulfil many of these criteria. However, access to and use of such data are hampered by a number of hurdles and bottlenecks. We present and discuss the experiences of an ongoing Nordic consortium from the process of acquiring register data on socio-economic conditions and health in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Methods: We compare experiences of data-acquisition processes from a researcher?s perspective in the four countries and discuss the comparability of register data and the modes of collaboration available to researchers, given the prevailing ethical and legal restrictions. Results: The application processes we experienced were time-consuming, and decision structures were often fragmented. We found substantial variation between the countries in terms of processing times, costs and the administrative burden of the researcher. Concerned agencies differed in policy and practice which influenced both how and when data were delivered. These discrepancies present a challenge to comparative research. Conclusions: We conclude that there are few signs of harmonisation, as called for by previous policy documents and research papers. Ethical vetting needs to be centralised both within and between countries in order to improve data access. Institutional factors that seem to facilitate access to register data at the national level include single storage environments for health and social data, simplified ethical vetting and user guidance.
  • Tahko, Tuomas (2008)
    In this paper I will offer a novel understanding of a priori knowledge. My claim is that the sharp distinction that is usually made between a priori and a posteriori knowledge is groundless. It will be argued that a plausible understanding of a priori and a posteriori knowledge has to acknowledge that they are in a constant bootstrapping relationship. It is also crucial that we distinguish between a priori propositions that hold in the actual world and merely possible, non-actual a priori propositions, as we will see when considering cases like Euclidean geometry. Furthermore, contrary to what Kripke seems to suggest, a priori knowledge is intimately connected with metaphysical modality, indeed, grounded in it. The task of a priori reasoning, according to this account, is to delimit the space of metaphysically possible worlds in order for us to be able to determine what is actual.
  • Hjelm, Titus (2021)
    This article explores new ways of looking at qualitative data in the study of religion. I call them the interstitial, inverted, and dialogical approaches. The interstitial approach provides an alternative to traditional triangulation by treating discrepancies between, say, self-reporting and observation of religious attendance not as a problem, but as an interstice where new information can be found. The inverted approach examines how discourses about “the other” – the other’s religion, in this case – enable researchers to analyze positive self-identifications, even when those are left unarticulated. Finally, the dialogical approach responds to a recurrent problem in qualitative religion research: researchers often assume that they ways in which people talk about religion have particular consequences. The dialogical approach enables researchers to demonstrate whether and how this is indeed so. The three approaches show how epistemological reframing – all three are, in different ways, constructionist approaches – enables novel thinking about “religion.”
  • Frog, Mr. (2021)
    Esse artigo delineia uma abordagem voltada à análise do discurso mítico, ilustrada por meio de um caso da mitologia escandinava que será discutido em sua relação à estrutura metodológica proposta. A mudança de se analisar um ‘discurso mítico’ ao invés de uma ‘mitologia’ está atrelada, por um lado, ao aumento do interesse em decifrar o papel das pessoas na transmissão da mitologiae à produção de fontes como estando ligadas àspráticas da vida em sociedadee, por outro, ao interesse pela diversidade percebida em ambas as variações sincrônica e diacrônica e as mudanças que estas acarretam na mitologia. A abordagem sistemática proposta aqui é desenvolvida numa abordagem semiótica da mitologia, que se foca em elementos da tradição como sendo unidades de ‘inteiros’que são reconhecidas por membros de uma sociedade como dotados de significado e, fazendo uma metáfora com a matemática, ao modo como estas são combinadas e recombinadas de modo a formarem ‘equações’. Essa estrutura pode ser aplicada a qualquer forma de tradição, não estando atrelada especificamente à mitologia. Eu a apresento aquijuntamente de um aparato técnico completo, ilustrando como essa metodologia funciona e pode ser aplicada, apesar de que seus princípios básicos possam ser aplicados a outros casossem estar necessariamente acompanhada dessas instruções técnicas, que podem muito bem permanecerem ao fundo de estudos de caso específicos. A apresentação dessa abordagem sistemática se inicia com a introdução das unidades formais que compõem uma tradição, dispostas em uma hierarquia de complexidade, e avança gradualmente para as discussões de como as tradições operam na sociedade e como os signos míticos de uma dada mitologia estão alinhados a identidades religiosas, sendo manipulados também em encontros entre diferentes religiões. This article outlines an approach to the analysis of mythic discourse, illustrated through Scandinavian mythology, which is reciprocally discussed in relation to the methodological framework. The turn from analyzing ‘myths’ to analyzing ‘mythic discourse’ is connected to the rise of interest, on the one hand, in the role of people in the transmission of mythology, the production of the sources and how it linked to practices and life in society, and, on the other hand, the interest in diversity and both synchronic variation and diachronic change in mythology. The framework outlined here is developed on a semiotic approach to mythology that focuses on elements of tradition as unitary ‘integers’ that are recognized as meaningful by people in society and, drawing a metaphor from mathematics, how these may be combined and recombined to form ‘equations’. The framework itself can be applied to any form of tradition, rather than being specific to mythology. It is here presented with a full technical apparatus in order to illustrate how the methodology works and how it can be applied, but the basic principles of the framework can also be employed withoutthe technical markup, which can easily remain in the background of specific studies. The presentation of the framework begins from formal units of tradition on a hierarchy of complexity and gradually advances to discussions of how the traditions operate in society and how mythic signs of mythology relate to alignments with religious identities and are manipulated in encounters between different religions.
  • Husa, Jaakko (Routledge, 2020)
    Comparative research expands over the traditional boundaries ofconstitutional law scholarship and deepens our understanding ofconstitutional change. This chapter addresses comparativemethodology in studying constitutional change. Discussion in thischapter is based on a theoretically and methodologically broad andflexible view shunning a narrow legal perspective. The chapteraddresses the methodology of comparative law, the purposes ofcomparative constitutional law, and the purposes of studyingconstitutional change comparatively. Also universalism andculturalism, the potential relevance of legal families, and legaltransplants are highlighted. It is argued that both qualitative andquantitative research methods can be used and that comparative studyof constitutional change allows different intellectual styles
  • Rinne, Tiina; Kajosaari, Anna; Söderholm, Maria; Berg, Päivi; Pesola, Arto J.; Smith, Melody; Kyttä, Marketta (Pergamon, 2022)
    Health and place
    Background The social ecological approach suggests that the spatial context among other factors influence physical activity behavior. Ample research documents physical environmental effects on physical activity. Yet, to date inconsistent associations remain, which might be explained by conceptual and methodological challenges in measuring the spatial dimensions of health behavior. We review methods applied to measure the spatial contexts in the social ecological physical activity literature. Methods Online databases and selected reviews were used to identify papers published between 1990 and 2020. A total of 2167 records were retrieved, from which 412 studies that used physical activity as a primary outcome variable, included measures of the physical environment and applied the main principles of the social ecological approach, were included. Results Subjective approaches were the dominant method to capture the spatial context of physical activities. These approaches were applied in 67% (n=279) of the studies. From the objective approaches an administrative unit was most prevalent and was applied in 29% (n=118) of the studies. The most comprehensive objective spatial methods that capture the true environmental exposure, were used only in 2% (n=10) of the studies. Conclusions Current social ecological physical activity research applies simple conceptualizations and methods of the spatial context. While conceptual and methodological concerns have been repeatedly expressed, no substantive progress has been made in the use of spatial approaches. To further our understanding on place effects on health, future studies should carefully consider the choice of spatial approaches, and their effect on study results.
  • James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Bertolacci, Gregory J.; Cunningham, Matthew; Henry, Nathaniel J.; LeGrand, Kate E.; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abedi, Aidin; Abegaz, Kedir Hussein; Abosetugn, Akine Eshete; Abushouk, Abdelrahman; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Advani, Shailesh M.; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Ahmad, Tauseef; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Ahmed, Rushdia; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour; Alema, Niguse Meles; Alemu, Biresaw Wassihun; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir; Ali, Saqib; Alinia, Cyrus; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Almasri, Nihad A.; Altirkawi, Khalid; Amer, Yasser Sami Abdeldayem; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anvari, Davood; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Arabloo, Jalal; Arab-Zozani, Morteza; Arefi, Zohreh; Aremu, Olatunde; Ariani, Filippo; Arora, Amit; Asaad, Malke; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Ayano, Getinet; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Azarian, Ghasem; Badawi, Alaa; Badiye, Ashish D.; Baig, Atif Amin; Bairwa, Mohan; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Balachandran, Arun; Banach, Maciej; Banerjee, Srikanta K.; Banik, Palash Chandra; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Barzegar, Akbar; Bayati, Mohsen; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Belete, Habte; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhe, Kidanemaryam; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhat, Anusha Ganapati; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bibi, Sadia; Bijani, Ali; Boloor, Archith; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Borzi, Antonio Maria; Boufous, Soufiane; Braithwaite, Dejana; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Brugha, Traolach; Budhathoki, Shyam S.; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Carvalho, Felix; Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castelpietra, Giulio; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cerin, Ester; Chandan, Joht S.; Chapman, Jens Robert; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Chattu, Soosanna Kumary; Chatziralli, Irini; Chaudhary, Neha; Cho, Daniel Youngwhan; Choi, Jee-Young J.; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Dinh-Toi Chu; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Coelho, Joao M.; Costa, Vera M.; Dahlawi, Saad M. A.; Daryani, Ahmad; Alberto Davila-Cervantes, Claudio; De Leo, Diego; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Demsie, Desalegn Getnet; Deribe, Kebede; Desai, Rupak; Nasab, Mostafa Dianati; da Silva, Diana Dias; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Hoa Thi Do; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Adema, Bereket Duko; Eagan, Arielle Wilder; Elemineh, Demelash Abewa; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Faris, Pawan Sirwan; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Ferrara, Pietro; Fischer, Florian; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Fomenkov, Artem Alekseevich; Foroutan, Masoud; Francis, Joel Msafiri; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle; Gebremariam, Hadush; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork; Gebremeskel, Leake G.; Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn; Gebremichael, Berhe; Gedefaw, Getnet Azeze; Geta, Birhanu; Getenet, Agegnehu Bante; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Ghamari, Farhad; Gheshlagh, Reza Ghanei; Gholamian, Asadollah; Gilani, Syed Amir; Gill, Tiffany K.; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Grivna, Michal; Guimaraes, Rafael Alves; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Gaurav; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hall, Brian James; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassan, Shoaib; Hassanipour, Soheil; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hendrie, Delia; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hijar, Martha; Ho, Hung Chak; Chi Linh Hoang; Hole, Michael K.; Holla, Ramesh; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Guoqing; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, M. Mofizul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jalilian, Farzad; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jha, Ravi Prakash; John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jones, Kelly M.; Joseph, Nitin; Joukar, Farahnaz; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Ali; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalankesh, Leila R.; Kalhor, Rohollah; Kamil, Teshome Abegaz; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kapoor, Neeti; Karami, Manoochehr; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassaye, Hagazi Gebremedhin; Kavetskyy, Taras; Kayode, Gbenga A.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khan, Maseer; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Junaid; Khanna, Tripti; Khazaei, Salman; Khazaie, Habibolah; Khundkar, Roba; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Daniel; Kisa, Sezer; Kisa, Adnan; Komaki, Hamidreza; Kondlahalli, Shivakumar K. M.; Koolivand, Ali; Korshunov, Vladimir Andreevich; Koyanagi, Ai; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Krishan, Kewal; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, Nithin; Kumar, Manasi; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Narinder; Kumaresh, Girikumar; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Lasrado, Savita; Latifi, Arman; Lauriola, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Xuefeng; Lopez, Alan D.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lyons, Ronan A.; Machado, Daiane Borges; Madadin, Mohammed; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Maled, Venkatesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Amir; Manda, Ana-Laura; Manjunatha, Narayana; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Maravilla, Joemer C.; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Melketsedik, Zeleke Aschalew; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Merie, Hayimro Edemealem; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirica, Andreea; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi; Mithra, Prasanna; Moazen, Babak; Moghadaszadeh, Masoud; Mohamadi, Efat; Mohammad, Yousef; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Jemal Abdu; Mohebi, Farnam; Bandpei, Mohammad A. Mohseni; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moodley, Yoshan; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Muluneh, Atalay Goshu; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Naik, Gurudatta; Naimzada, Mukhammad David; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Naserbakht, Morteza; Nayak, Vinod; Nazari, Javad; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Trang Huyen Nguyen; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Diep Ngoc Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Nikbakhsh, Rajan; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oghenetega, Onome Bright; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Bali, Ahmed Omar; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Orpana, Heather M.; Ota, Erika; Otstavnov, Nikita; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pakhale, Smita; Pakshir, Keyvan; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Park, Eun-Kee; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pathak, Ashish; Pati, Sanghamitra; Paulos, Kebreab; Peden, Amy E.; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino; Pereira, Jeevan; Phillips, Michael R.; Polibin, Roman; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Prakash, Swayam; Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga; Puri, Parul; Syed, Zahiruddin Quazi; Rabiee, Navid; Rabiee, Mohammad; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiee, Ata; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rajabpour-Sanati, Ali; Rajati, Fatemeh; Rakovac, Ivo; Rao, Sowmya J.; Rashedi, Vahid; Rastogi, Prateek; Rathi, Priya; Rawaf, Salman; Rawal, Lal; Rawassizadeh, Reza; Renjith, Vishnu; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezapour, Aziz; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Rickard, Jennifer; Rios Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Saddik, Basema; Safarpour, Hamid; Safdarian, Mahdi; Sajadi, S. Mohammad; Salamati, Payman; Salem, Marwa R. Rashad; Salem, Hosni; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sarveazad, Arash; Sathian, Brijesh; Sawhney, Monika; Sayyah, Mehdi; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Sha, Feng; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Shahabi, Saeed; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Sheikh, Aziz; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Jae Il; Shiri, Rahman; Siabani, Soraya; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Soheili, Amin; Soriano, Joan B.; Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Taddele, Biruk Wogayehu; Tefera, Yonatal Mesfin; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekulu, Gebretsadkan Hintsa; Tesema, Ayenew Kassie Tesema; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Thapar, Rekha; Titova, Mariya Vladimirovna; Tlaye, Kenean Getaneh; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Topor-Madry, Roman; Khanh Bao Tran; Bach Xuan Tran; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Tsai, Alexander C.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Ullah, Irfan; Ullah, Saif; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Upadhyay, Era; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Valdez, Pascual R.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wiangkham, Taweewat; Wolde, Haileab Fekadu; Woldeyes, Dawit Habte; Wondmeneh, Temesgen Gebeyehu; Wondmieneh, Adam Belay; Wu, Ai-Min; Wyper, Grant M. A.; Yadav, Rajaram; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaya, Sanni; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Youm, Yoosik; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Yu, Chuanhua; Yu, Yong; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zarei, Fatemeh; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Yunquan; Ziapour, Arash; Zodpey, Sanjay; Dandona, Rakhi; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Hay, Simon; Mokdad, Ali H.; Pigott, David M.; Reiner, Robert C.; Vos, Theo (2020)
    Background While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. Methods In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. Results GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes. Conclusions GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
  • Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti; Taimela, Simo; Kanto, Kari; Järvinen, Teppo L. N. (2017)
    Introduction: Arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is the most commonly performed surgical intervention for shoulder pain, yet evidence on its efficacy is limited. The rationale for the surgery rests on the tenet that symptom relief is achieved through decompression of the rotator cuff tendon passage. The primary objective of this superiority trial is to compare the efficacy of ASD versus diagnostic arthroscopy (DA) in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS), where DA differs only by the lack of subacromial decompression. A third group of supervised progressive exercise therapy (ET) will allow for pragmatic assessment of the relative benefits of surgical versus non-operative treatment strategies. Methods and Analysis: Finnish Subacromial Impingement Arthroscopy Controlled Trial is an ongoing multicentre, three-group randomised controlled study. We performed two-fold concealed allocation, first by randomising patients to surgical (ASD or DA) or conservative (ET) treatment in 2:1 ratio and then those allocated to surgery further to ASD or DA in 1:1 ratio. Our two primary outcomes are pain at rest and at arm activity, assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS). We will quantify the treatment effect as the difference between the groups in the change in the VAS scales with the associated 95% CI at 24 months. Our secondary outcomes are functional assessment (Constant score and Simple shoulder test), quality of life (15D and SF-36), patient satisfaction, proportions of responders and non-responders, reoperations/treatment conversions, all at 2 years post-randomisation, as well as adverse effects and complications. We recruited a total of 210 patients from three tertiary referral centres. We will conduct the primary analysis on the intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and Dissemination: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Pirkanmaa Hospital District and duly registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. The findings of this study will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. © 2017 Article author(s).
  • Peltonen, Matti (2004)
    I would argue that a problem lies in the way Foucault's texts were introduced in the mid to late 1980s. The problem is that most of the methodological work in the social sciences and cultural studies treats Foucault's method primarily as discourse analysis. This is, however, an excessively narrow view, especially when we take into account not just his methodological texts, but also his empirical works and in particular Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality. This failure holds the danger of forgetting what was most original and interesting in Foucault's thinking. In several of his more popular empirical studies Foucault was interested in a much wider phenomenon than discourse. He also studied practices and an abstraction that he called dispositifs, by which he meant historically specific totalities of discourses and practices. In English translations of Foucault's works dispositifis translated using various terms (apparatus, deployment, construct, alignment, positivities, etc.) which together make the central importance of the concept unnecessarily difficult to detect. Seeing Foucault only as a discourse theorist also gives the new cultural history an excessively narrow view of culture. This perhaps helps to explain why it has not led to the intellectual breakthrough expected in the late 1980s.
  • Kanduri, C.; Järvelä, I. (2017)
    Modern high-throughput studies often yield long lists of genes, a fraction of which are of high relevance to the phenotype of interest. To prioritize the candidate genes of complex genetic traits, our R/Bioconductor package GenRank ranks genes based on convergent evidence obtained from multiple layers of independent evidence. We implemented three methods to rank genes that integrate gene-level data generated from multiple layers of evidence: (a) the convergent evidence (CE) method aggregates evidence based on a weighted vote counting method; (b) the rank product (RP) method performs a meta-analysis of microarray-based gene expression data, and (c) the traditional method combines p-values. The methods are implemented in R and are available as a package in the Bioconductor repository. (http://bioconductor.org/packages/GenRank/). © 2017 Kanduri C and Järvelä I.
  • Halme-Tuomisaari, Miia Marika (2020)
    In the 1940s activists lobbied for the creation of a binding international bill of rights backed up by an interna- tional human rights court as the backbone of the postWorld War II order. Together, so the activists believed, these would guarantee peace and harmony to all mankind. Seven decades later this vision has been transformed into a cluster of UN human rights treaties and expert committees known as treaty bodies to monitor them. In practice treaty bodies process documents in ongoing bureaucratic cycles, which are located somewhere between an audit ritual and a court session. This duality is a source of strength as well as vulnerability and frustration, embodying an endless navigation between the ‘utopia’ of a robust and binding legal framework and an ‘apology’ for actual state conduct. This paper explores how this duality manifests itself in the practices of the most authoritative and ‘courtlike’ treaty body of the UN, namely the Human Rights Committee monitoring state compliance over the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), simulta- neously exploring how the vision is kept alive.
  • Tallqvist, Nina; Anttila, Heidi; Kallinen, Mauri; Koskinen, Eerika; Hämäläinen, Harri; Kauppila, Anna-Maija; Täckman, Anni; Vainionpää, Aki; Arokoski, Jari; Hiekkala, Sinikka (2019)
    Background and purpose: The purpose of the Finnish Spinal Cord Injury Study (FinSCI) is to identify factors related to the health and functioning of people with spinal cord injury, their challenges with accessibility, and how such factors are interconnected. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used as a structured framework in the study. Design: Protocol of mixed methods study. Results: Study participants were recruited from all 3 spinal cord injury outpatient clinics in Finland. The final target group consists of 1,789 subjects with spinal cord injury. The final questionnaire was formed from 5 different patient-reported instruments. The spinal cord injury-specified instruments are the Spinal Cord Injury Secondary Condition Scale, the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, and the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory Short Form. In addition, questions from the following generic instruments were chosen after a selection process: the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, PROM'S (R), and the National Study of Health, Well-being and Service, FinSote. Altogether, the final questionnaire covers 64 ICF categories and consists of 151 ICF-linked questions. Conclusion: The formulated questionnaire covers widely different aspects of health, functioning and accessibility. The questionnaire results and subsequent interviews will help in developing care and rehabilitation policies and services for people with spinal cord injury.
  • Halme-Tuomisaari, Miia Marika (2018)
    How can anthropologists negotiate access in high‐profile, bureaucratic apparatuses, such as a UN human rights monitoring mechanism – and what can a detailed account of these negotiations tell us of such apparatuses, their operational dynamics and the processes through which they exert an impact, broadly construed? This article addresses these questions through the notion of tactical subjectivity by anchoring its discussion on the category of the intern and detailing how this category became informative of the ‘fuzzy logic’ of the UN apparatus. The article outlines three techniques mobilised in the process – name‐dropping, ‘playing blonde’ and opportunism – all embedded in a tactical matrix of exaggerated transparency. The article further shares attempts to flesh out relations and thus form ‘liaisons’ between my interlocutors and myself at sessions of the UN Human Rights Committee, the most influential of all the UN treaty bodies overseeing how states comply with their covenant‐bound obligations. The ultimate aim was to become a conspicuous ethnographer with constant access – a volatile goal in the unpredictable microstructures of this awesome global apparatus.
  • Peng, Shikui (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
    A study of a 194.3 ha area of forest land dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine in central S. Finland. A general procedure is presented and discussed for integrating data from permanent sample plots and from satellite images for continuous forest inventory of large areas and for compartment estimations. Methods for estimation, updating and statistical analysis are examined.
  • Repo, Tapani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Welsh, John (2018)
    This article attempts a properly critical and political analysis of the “police power” immanent to the form and logic of academic rankings, and which is reproduced in the extant academic literature generated around them. In contrast to the democratising claims made of rankings, this police power short-circuits the moment of democratic politics and establishes the basis for the oligarchic power of the State and its status quo. Central in this founding political moment is the notion of the Arkhè, a necessarily asymmetric “distribution of the sensible” that establishes the basis of the political order, in this case an oligarchic political order. Drawing on Foucault and Rancière, the article argues for a necessary “dissensus” with both the ranking practice and its attendant academic literature, as the first step towards a politics of ranking that is properly critical, and therefore genuinely political.
  • Vuokko, Riikka; Vakkuri, Anne; Palojoki, Sari (2022)
    Background: Currently, there is no holistic theoretical approach available for guiding classification development. On the basis of our recent classification development research in the area of patient safety in health information technology, this focus area would benefit from a more systematic approach. Although some valuable theoretical and methodological approaches have been presented, classification development literature typically is limited to methodological development in a specific domain or is practically oriented. Objective: The main purposes of this study are to fill the methodological gap in classification development research by exploring possible elements of systematic development based on previous literature and to promote sustainable and well-grounded classification outcomes by identifying a set of recommended elements. Specifically, the aim is to answer the following question: what are the main elements for systematic classification development based on research evidence and our use case? Methods: This study applied a qualitative research approach. On the basis of previous literature, preliminary elements for classification development were specified, as follows: defining a concept model, documenting the development process, incorporating multidisciplinary expertise, validating results, and maintaining the classification. The elements were compiled as guiding principles for the research process and tested in the case of patient safety incidents (n=501). Results: The results illustrate classification development based on the chosen elements, with 4 examples of technology-induced errors. Examples from the use case regard usability, system downtime, clinical workflow, and medication section problems. The study results confirm and thus suggest that a more comprehensive and theory-based systematic approach promotes well-grounded classification work by enhancing transparency and possibilities for assessing the development process. Conclusions: We recommend further testing the preliminary main elements presented in this study. The research presented herein could serve as a basis for future work. Our recently developed classification and the use case presented here serve as examples. Data retrieved from, for example, other type of electronic health records and use contexts could refine and validate the suggested methodological approach.
  • Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Marshalko, Elena (American Geophysical Union, 2022)
    Space weather: the international journal of research and applications
    We present a methodology that allows researchers to simulate in real time the spatiotemporal dynamics of the ground electric field (GEF) in a given 3-D conductivity model of the Earth based on continuously augmented data on the spatiotemporal evolution of the inducing source. The formalism relies on the factorization of the source by spatial modes (SM) and time series of respective expansion coefficients and exploits precomputed GEF kernels generated by corresponding SM. To validate the formalism, we invoke a high-resolution 3-D conductivity model of Fennoscandia and consider a realistic source built using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) method as applied to magnetic field data from the International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effect network of observations. The factorization of the SECS-recovered source is then performed using the principal component analysis. Eventually, we show that the GEF computation at a given time instant on a 512 × 512 grid requires less than 0.025 s provided that GEF kernels due to pre-selected SM are computed in advance. Taking the 7–8 September 2017 geomagnetic storm as a space weather event, we show that real-time high-resolution 3-D modeling of the GEF is feasible. This opens a practical opportunity for GEF (and eventually geomagnetically induced currents) nowcasting and forecasting.
  • Mireles-Flores, Luis (2018)
    This essay is a review of the recent literature on the methodology of economics, with a focus on three broad trends that have defined the core lines of research within the discipline during the last two decades. These trends are: (a) the philosophical analysis of economic modelling and economic explanation; (b) the epistemology of causal inference, evidence diversity, and evidence-based policy, and (c) the investigation of the methodological underpinnings and public policy implications of behavioural economics. The final output is inevitably not exhaustive, yet it aims at offering a fair taste of some of the most representative questions in the field on which many philosophers, methodologists, and social scientists have recently been placing a great deal of intellectual effort. The topics and references compiled in this review should serve at least as safe introductions to some of the central research questions in the philosophy and methodology of economics.
  • Säily, Tanja (2016)
    This paper presents ongoing work on Säily and Suomela’s (2009) method of comparing type frequencies across subcorpora. The method is here used to study variation in the productivity of the suffixes -ness and -ity in the eighteenth-century sections of the Corpora of Early English Correspondence and of the Old Bailey Corpus (OBC). Unlike the OBC, the eighteenth-century section of the letter corpora differs from previously studied materials in that there is no significant gender difference in the productivity of -ity. The study raises methodological issues involving periodization, multiple hypothesis testing, and the need for an interactive tool. Several improvements have been implemented in a new version of our software.