Browsing by Subject "microenvironment"

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  • Barmaki, Samineh; Obermaier, Daniela; Kankuri, Esko; Vuola, Jyrki; Franssila, Sami; jokinen, Ville (2020)
    A hypoxic (low oxygen level) microenvironment and nitric oxide paracrine signaling play important roles in the control of both biological and pathological cell responses. In this study, we present a microfluidic chip architecture for nitric oxide delivery under a hypoxic microenvironment in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The chip utilizes two separate, but interdigitated microfluidic channels. The hypoxic microenvironment was created by sodium sulfite as the oxygen scavenger in one of the channels. The nitric oxide microenvironment was created by sodium nitroprusside as the light-activated nitric oxide donor in the other channel. The solutions are separated from the cell culture by a 30 µm thick gas-permeable, but liquid-impermeable polydimethylsiloxane membrane. We show that the architecture is preliminarily feasible to define the gaseous microenvironment of a cell culture in the 100 µm and 1 mm length scales.
  • Maliniemi, Pilvi; Laukkanen, Kirsi; Vakeva, Liisa; Dettmer, Katja; Lipsanen, Tuomas; Jeskanen, Leila; Bessede, Alban; Oefner, Peter J.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Ranki, Annamari (2017)
    Indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase 1 (IDO1) induces immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and is recognized as a potential therapeutic target. We studied the expression of both IDO1 and the related tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in several different subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and evaluated the kynurenine (KYN) pathway in the local TME and in patient sera. Specimens from the total of 90 CTCL patients, including mycosis fungoides (MF, n = 37), lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP, n = 36), primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL, n = 4), subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL n = 13), and 10 patients with inflammatory lichen ruber planus (LRP), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), quantitative PCR, and/or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Three CTCL cell lines also were studied. Expression of both IDO1 and TDO was upregulated in CTCL. In MF specimens and in the MF cell line MyLa2000, IDO1 expression exceeded that of TDO, whereas the opposite was true for LyP, ALCL, and corresponding Mac1/2A cell lines. The spectrum of IDO1-expressing cell types differed among CTCL subtypes and was reflected in the clinical behavior. In MF, SPTCL, and LyP, IDO1 was expressed by malignant cells and by CD33(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, whereas in SPTCL CD163(+) tumor-associated macrophages also expressed IDO1. Significantly elevated serum KYN/Trp ratios were found in patients with advanced stages of MF. Epacadostat, an IDO1 inhibitor, induced a clear decrease in KYN concentration in cell culture. These results show the importance of IDO1/TDO-induced immunosuppression in CTCL and emphasize its role as a new therapeutic target.
  • Kinaret, Pia Anneli Sofia; Scala, Giovanni; Federico, Antonio; Sund, Jukka; Greco, Dario (2020)
    Toxic effects of certain carbon nanomaterials (CNM) have been observed in several exposure scenarios both in vivo and in vitro. However, most of the data currently available has been generated in a high-dose/acute exposure setup, limiting the understanding of their immunomodulatory mechanisms. Here, macrophage-like THP-1 cells, exposed to ten different CNM for 48 h in low-cytotoxic concentration of 10 mu g mL(-1), are characterized by secretion of different cytokines and global transcriptional changes. Subsequently, the relationships between cytokine secretion and transcriptional patterns are modeled, highlighting specific pathways related to alternative macrophage activation. Finally, time- and dose-dependent activation of transcription and secretion of M1 marker genes IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor, and M2 marker genes IL-10 and CSF1 is confirmed among the three most responsive CNM, with concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mu g mL(-1) at 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. These results underline CNM effects on the formation of cell microenvironment and gene expression leading to specific patterns of macrophage polarization. Taken together, these findings imply that, instead of a high and toxic CNM dose, a sub-lethal dose in controlled exposure setup can be utilized to alter the cell microenvironment and program antigen presenting cells, with fascinating implications for novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Rodrigues, Joana M.; Nikkarinen, Anna; Hollander, Peter; Weibull, Caroline E.; Räty, Riikka; Kolstad, Arne; Amini, Rose-Marie; Porwit, Anna; Jerkeman, Mats; Ek, Sara; Glimelius, Ingrid (2021)
    We characterised patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) with poor prognosis based on differences in immune infiltration. Different expressions of the tumour cell markers Cyclin D1 and sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 11 (SOX11), and the immune markers cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), CD4, CD8, CD25, forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), T-box transcription factor TBX21 (T-bet), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD163 were investigated for all-cause mortality in 282 patients with MCL and time-to-progression (TTP) in 106 clinical trial patients. With increasing age, a significantly lower infiltration of CD3(+) T lymphocytes was seen. T-cell infiltration was independent of cellular tumour antigen p53 (p53) expression, Ki-67, morphology and frequency of tumour cells. The all-cause mortality was higher in patients with PD-L1-expression above cut-off [hazard ratio (HR) 1 center dot 97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1 center dot 18-3 center dot 25, adjusted for sex and MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI)] and a higher frequency of CD163(+) cells (continuously, HR 1 center dot 51, 95% CI 1 center dot 03-2 center dot 23, adjusting for age, sex, morphology, Ki-67 and p53). In patients treated within the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2/3 trials, TTP was shorter in patients with a higher frequency of FoxP3(+) cells (HR 3 center dot 22, 95% CI 1 center dot 40-7 center dot 43) and CD163(+) cells (HR 6 center dot 09, 95% CI 1 center dot 84-20 center dot 21), independent of sex and MIPI. When combined a higher frequency of CD163(+) macrophages and PD-L1(+) cells or high CD163(+) macrophages and FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells indicated worse outcome independent of established risk factors. The T-cell infiltrate was in turn independent of molecular characteristics of the malignant cells and decreased with age.