Browsing by Subject "migration"

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  • Elmgren, Ainur (2021)
    The reception of the first generation of Finnish Tatars by representatives of the majority population in Finland, including state authorities, intellectuals, political movements and the press, shows that geopolitical circumstances and local interests outside the Tatars’ own power determined to what extent they were perceived as enemies or brothers-in-arms. Events such as the independence of Finland and the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 influenced public perceptions of Muslims in Finland. Minority spokespersons felt pressured to address mutual fears, justify their presence in Finland, and put the majority representatives at ease. This did not always succeed without ruffling feathers within their own communities. Behind the “success story” of the Finnish Tatars we find one and half a century of struggles that were not always happily resolved.
  • Sinha, Snehadri; Narjus-Sterba, Matilda; Tuomainen, Katja; Kaur, Sippy; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Salo, Tuula; Mannerström, Bettina; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2020)
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are commonly isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue. Depending on the tissue of origin, MSCs have different characteristics and physiological effects. In various cancer studies, MSCs have been found to have either tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting action. This study investigated the effect of adipose tissue-MSCs (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) on global long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation, the expression level of microenvironment remodeling genes and cell proliferation, migration and invasion of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Additionally, we studied the effect of human tongue squamous carcinoma (HSC-3)-conditioned media on LINE-1 methylation and the expression of microenvironment remodeling genes in AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Conditioned media from HSC-3 or MSCs did not affect LINE-1 methylation level in either cancer cells or MSCs, respectively. In HSC-3 cells, no effect of MSCs-conditioned media was detected on the expression ofICAM1, ITGA3orMMP1. On the other hand, HSC-3-conditioned media upregulatedICAM1andMMP1expression in both types of MSCs. Co-cultures of AT-MSCs with HSC-3 did not induce proliferation, migration or invasion of the cancer cells. In conclusion, AT-MSCs, unlike BM-MSCs, seem not to participate in oral cancer progression.
  • Wide, Elisabeth (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This master’s thesis examines migrant care and domestic work in private households in Finland as affective labour. This particular spectrum of reproduction is approached from the perspectives of migrant workers and employers. Firstly, the thesis analyses how workers express affective and precarious aspects of their labour. Secondly, the thesis demonstrates how the demand for privately employed care and domestic work is produced, and discusses what this bought service consists of. Finally, everyday boundary making between workers and employers in the private household is studied. The research material consists of 16 semi-structured thematic interviews, half of which are conducted with individuals from the Philippines, who have moved to Finland and are working with care and domestic work in private households, and half with individuals living in Finland who employ a migrant care and domestic worker from the Philippines. A qualitative, theory-driven reading of the material is done in the analysis. The analysis departs from a theoretical perspective on emotions as affects that are organised in order to express social power relationships. The analysis is based on research discussions on affect, affective capitalism, precarisation, reproduction and the neoliberal organisation of care. The thesis is situated in an area of sociological care research and research in affective labour. The thesis shows how affects are organised in social reproduction, of which they are an integral part. The analysis demonstrates how the informants working with care and domestic labour express affects such as love, happiness, gratitude and humility in relation to their work. These are interpreted as precarious affects that express the particular neoliberal and postcolonial context that the workers move in, and the migratory experiences and the legally insecure positions of the workers. The informants are affected in a way that constructs them as productive workers, which touches upon the affective dimension of value production. The worker affects the children, the household and the employer, not only liberating time but also producing positive affects in the home, directly increasing the well-being of the employer and thus also their productive capacity. Social reproduction is consequently linked to value production in society. The workers not only reproduce the household and the individuals, but also society as a whole. In addition, the analysis shows, on the level of individual employers, how the demand for private care and domestic work is produced in a contemporary Finnish context through a combination of different structural factors. The private day care allowance and the tax reduction are practices through which the state encourages private employment. Cuts to social and health care services cause unavailable public day care. The precarisation of work life and the gendered division of labour in the household makes combining family with work harder for (female) informants. What is bought is mainly inexpensive time, which is spent together with the children or in order to work for longer hours. Finally the thesis examines how affects are manifested in the relationship between workers and employers, through everyday boundary making practices in the private household. The relationship shows the imprint of social power structures and of mutual but also asymmetric dependence, which is expressed through ambivalences and tensions. The precarious juridical position of the worker implies a conditional character for the relationship. The social order is re-created through everyday practices, such as a worker disappearing when guests enter the house, or a worker who stays longer to care for the children when the employer once again is working over-time. The analysis is situated in a context defined by contemporary capitalism, in which migrating persons are produced as flexible, inexpensive workers and reproductive labour is poorly valued. This context make up the frame for the affective reactions of the workers. The analysis emphasises that the demand for private care and domestic labour depends on high income earners who receive subsidises and allowances for employing. In addition, it requires the production of a flexible feminine migrant labour force, which perform diverse work tasks in exchange for a low salary.
  • Gonda, Yuko; Namba, Takashi; Hanashima, Carina (2020)
    The formation of the neocortex relies on intracellular and extracellular signaling molecules that are involved in the sequential steps of corticogenesis, ranging from the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells to the migration and dendrite formation of neocortical neurons. Abnormalities in these steps lead to disruption of the cortical structure and circuit, and underly various neurodevelopmental diseases, including dyslexia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this review, we focus on the axon guidance signaling Slit-Robo, and address the multifaceted roles of Slit-Robo signaling in neocortical development. Recent studies have clarified the roles of Slit-Robo signaling not only in axon guidance but also in progenitor cell proliferation and migration, and the maturation of neocortical neurons. We further discuss the etiology of neurodevelopmental diseases, which are caused by defects in Slit-Robo signaling during neocortical formation.
  • Mauramo, Matti; Onali, Tuulia; Wahbi, Wafa; Vasara, Jenni; Lampinen, Anniina; Mauramo, Elina; Kivimäki, Anne; Martens, Stefan; Häggman, Hely; Sutinen, Meeri; Salo, Tuula (2021)
    Previous studies indicate that bilberry with high amounts of phenolic compounds can inhibit carcinogenic processes of colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, no studies have focused on the effects of bilberry on oral cancer. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of bilberry powder on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of 0, 1, 10, and 25 mg/mL of whole bilberry powder on the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC (HSC-3) cells were examined and compared with 0.01 mg/mL of cetuximab. Two oral keratinocyte cell lines served as controls. Tumor area was analyzed in zebrafish microinjected with HSC-3 cells and treated with 2.5, 10, or 25 mu g/mL of bilberry powder. Metastases in the head or tail areas were counted. Bilberry powder inhibited the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of HSC-3 cells (p < 0.05), which was more pronounced with higher concentrations. Cetuximab had no effect on HSC-3 cell migration or invasion. Compared to controls, the tumor area in zebrafish treated with bilberry powder (10 and 25 mu g/mL) was reduced significantly (p = 0.038 and p = 0.021, respectively), but the number of fish with metastases did not differ between groups. Based on our in vitro and in vivo experiments, we conclude that whole bilberry powder has anti-tumor effects on OSCC cells.
  • Kitaba, Yuri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Female migration has been widely studied in Europe. Previous studies had found that migration is gendered, thus, the experience of migrants differs depending on issues such as gender, class and ethnicity along with career and familial relations. The position of the migrants in the post-migration time period is influenced by the recognition of their skills and the assessment of human capital they possess in the host society, which has a considerable effect on the position of immigrant women. Thus, I employ a feminist extension of Bourdieu’s forms of capital in migration studies as a theoretical framework to examine the position of immigrant women and to better understand their experience in a host society. In addition, I utilize the ideas of emotional capital to discuss the importance of studying caring practice, including everyday activities and the caring work done for other family members, and its interactions with the outside of the household, the local community and, possibly, with integration. My focus is on the position of immigrant woman in Finland, a country where the Nordic welfare regime, which is built on egalitarian practices, creates a paradox for immigrant integration, as national belonging is built on labour market participation and the idea of gender equality. I pay specific attention to the Cash for Care scheme in relation to high female labour participation and the choices of childcare provision. Thus, my intention is to explore immigrant women’s decision making on childcare, what kind of activities the women engage in while taking care of their child, and their progress in integration. My research questions are: 1) do immigrant women utilize caring practice in capital accumulation; and if so, how? and 2) how do they generate various forms of capital and transform them into other types of capital and, ultimately, into economic capital? The sub-questions include: how does the notion of national belonging related to labour market participation and gender equality in Finnish society intertwine with individuals’ decision making with regards to the process of capital accumulation and transformation? I employed a feminist standpoint to conduct 6 in-depth interviews using a narrative approach. The interviewees are all from outside of the European Union, are highly skilled, have at least one child whose age is under three years old, have experienced staying at home with a child and currently live in the Helsinki metropolitan area. I utilized thematic analysis to explore the experiences of the immigrant women. The results show the potential for immigrant women to be subjects of capital accumulation, as well as objects where their capital is utilized in supporting and enhancing the lives of other family members. First, the results establish the importance of a local and neighbouring context in capital accumulation in relation to how caring for a child goes beyond the household, and is linked to the generation of social and cultural capital. The choice on the length of stay with one’s child at home intertwines with the social and economic statuses of the interviewees, but remains primarily a matter of individual preference. Second, two of the cases demonstrate the transformation of accumulated capital into economic capital through caring for other members of the family, which works as a resource of emotional capital. At the same time, the position of these women is constrained by social and cultural barriers, as they lack appreciated capital, the most important of them being a sufficient knowledge of Finnish language and culture along with relevant social networks. The position of immigrant mothers can also be observed from an objective viewpoint: there are limitations on the women’s ability to accumulate capital for themselves due to them taking care of the child. However, at the same time, the women can engage in transmission of capital and enhancing their children’s capital development. This thesis shows that the caring work of mothers goes beyond the household, contributing to the generation of capital in their integration process as well as for their children. Caring practice in research demands further investigation to better understand the paths of immigrant women and, possibly, the involvement of their spouses in this practice, in order to improve the women’s social and economic positioning in Finnish society.
  • Krivonos, Daria (2018)
    This article analyses the position of young unemployed Russian-speaking migrants in Finland as being both racialised and racialising Others. Young Russian-speakers’ claims to whiteness are analysed against the backdrop of their racialised position as well as the neoliberal reshaping of class relations in Finland. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on young Russian-speakers’ employment in Helsinki, the article shows that young Russian-speakers’ racialisation of Others is a modality through which their own racialised class position is lived and narrated. Through such boundary-making processes young Russian-speakers resist being classified as ‘welfare abusers’, the unemployed and low-skilled workers. The article argues that young Russian-speakers’ efforts to be recognised as white should be understood as a struggle against classification, through which they generate alternative value as deserving citizens and respectable workers.
  • Morrison, Catriona A.; Butler, Simon J.; Robinson, Robert A.; Clark, Jacquie A.; Arizaga, Juan; Aunins, Ainars; Balta, Oriol; Cepak, Jaroslav; Chodkiewicz, Tomasz; Escandell, Virginia; Foppen, Ruud P. B.; Gregory, Richard D.; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frederic; Kålås, John Atle; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindström, Ake; Moshøj, Charlotte M.; Nagy, Karoly; Nebot, Arantza Leal; Piha, Markus; Reif, Jiri; Sattler, Thomas; Skorpilova, Jana; Szep, Tibor; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Thorup, Kasper; van Turnhout, Chris; Wenninger, Thomas; Gill, Jennifer A. (2021)
    Wildlife conservation policies directed at common and widespread, but declining, species are difficult to design and implement effectively, as multiple environmental changes are likely to contribute to population declines. Conservation actions ultimately aim to influence demographic rates, but targeting actions towards feasible improvements in these is challenging in widespread species with ranges that encompass a wide range of environmental conditions. Across Europe, sharp declines in the abundance of migratory landbirds have driven international calls for action, but actions that could feasibly contribute to population recovery have yet to be identified. Targeted actions to improve conditions on poor-quality sites could be an effective approach, but only if local conditions consistently influence local demography and hence population trends. Using long-term measures of abundance and demography of breeding birds at survey sites across Europe, we show that co-occurring species with differing migration behaviours have similar directions of local population trends and magnitudes of productivity, but not survival rates. Targeted actions to boost local productivity within Europe, alongside large-scale (non-targeted) environmental protection across non-breeding ranges, could therefore help address the urgent need to halt migrant landbird declines. Such demographic routes to recovery are likely to be increasingly needed to address global wildlife declines.
  • Richter, Katharina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Recently, two phenomena have received increasing attention across the social science disciplines which investigate European integration: Europeanization and migration. Within sociology, the Europeanization of identities in particular has become a 'growth industry' (Checkel 2007). This thesis focuses on the nexus between Europeanization and migration by looking at the relationship between European identity, cross-border interactions and transnational family background of European Union (EU) citizens. Specifically, three different groups of EU citizens (with European transnational family background, non-European transnational family background, and without any transnational family background) are compared in their levels of European identity and engagement in cross-border interactions. Using a set of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions it is then analyzed whether transnational family background fosters European self-identifications and cross-border interactions if variables identified as influential in the literature is controlled for. Results indicate that transnational family background is a positive predictor of European identity and cross-border interactions, alongside education, suggesting that higher cross-border migration may be beneficial for future societal integration in the EU beyond the first generation movers. All calculations are computed using a Eurobarometer survey from 2010 (EB 73.3) which includes individual-level data from the EU-27 countries.
  • Pakkanen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In Finland, the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will start in the 2020s where spent nuclear fuel will be disposed 400-450 meters deep into the crystalline bedrock. Disposal will follow Swedish KBS-3 principle where spent nuclear fuel canisters will be protected by multiple barriers, which have been planned to prevent radionuclides´ migration to the surrounding biosphere. With multiple barriers, failure of one barrier will not endanger the isolation of spent nuclear fuel. Insoluble spent nuclear fuel will be stored in ironcopper canisters and placed in vertical tunnels within bedrock. Iron-copper canisters are surrounded with bentonite buffer to protect them from groundwater and from movements of the bedrock. MX-80 bentonite has been proposed to be used as a bentonite buffer in Finnish spent nuclear fuel repository. In a case of canister failure, bentonite buffer is expected to absorb and retain radionuclides originating from the spent nuclear fuel. If salinity of Olkiluoto island´s groundwater would decrease, chemical erosion of bentonite buffer could result in a generation of small particles called colloids. Under suitable conditions, these colloids could act as potential carriers for immobile radionuclides and transport them outside of facility area to the surrounding biosphere. Object of this thesis work was to study the effect of MX-80 bentonite colloids on radionuclide migration within two granitic drill core columns (VGN and KGG) by using two different radionuclides 134Cs and 85Sr. Batch type sorption and desorption experiments were conducted to gain information of sorption mechanisms of two radionuclides as well as of sorption competition between MX-80 bentonite colloids and crushed VGN rock. Colloids were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle concentrations were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS). Allard water mixed with MX-80 bentonite powder was used to imitate groundwater conditions of low salinity and colloids. Strontium´s breakthrough from VGN drill core column was found to be successful, whereas caesium did not breakthrough from VGN nor KGG columns. Caesium´s sorption showed more irreversible nature than strontium and was thus retained strongly within both columns. With both radionuclides, presence of colloids did not seem to enhance radionuclide´s migration notably. Breakthrough from columns was affected by both radionuclide properties and colloid filtration within tubes, stagnant pools and fractures. Experiments could be further complemented by conducting batch type sorption experiments with crushed KGG and by introducing new factors to column experiments. The experimental work was carried out at the Department of Chemistry, Radiochemistry in the University of Helsinki.
  • Höckerstedt, Layla Maria; Siren, Jukka Pekka; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2018)
    Both theory and experimental evolution studies predict migration to influence the outcome of antagonistic coevolution between hosts and their parasites, with higher migration rates leading to increased diversity and evolutionary potential. Migration rates are expected to vary in spatially structured natural pathosystems, yet how spatial structure generates variation in coevolutionary trajectories across populations occupying the same landscape has not been tested. Here, we studied the effect of spatial connectivity on host evolutionary potential in a natural pathosystem characterized by a stable Plantago lanceolata host network and a highly dynamic Podosphaera plantaginis parasite metapopulation. We designed a large inoculation experiment to test resistance of five isolated and five well-connected host populations against sympatric and allopatric pathogen strains, over 4years. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find consistently higher resistance against sympatric pathogen strains in the well-connected populations. Instead, host local adaptation varied considerably among populations and through time with greater fluctuations observed in the well-connected populations. Jointly, our results suggest that in populations where pathogens have successfully established, they have the upper hand in the coevolutionary arms race, but hosts may be better able to respond to pathogen-imposed selection in the well-connected than in the isolated populations. Hence, the ongoing and extensive fragmentation of natural habitats may increase vulnerability to diseases.
  • Samaletdin, Yasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Migration is becoming broader and more complex by the day. After the refugee crisis in 2015, the state policies revolving integration were revised in order to better meet the needs of the situation at hand. The revision lead to a strong focus on labour market integration, and consequently a narrower understanding of integration. Previous research shows that employment is the gateway to society, but at the same time it is widely acknowledged that sensing belonging is crucial for well-being, hence also a building block for integration. However, sensing belonging is constantly challenged due to migration. People move to Finland due to very different reasons, and also have different needs, therefore integration needs to be inspected from a broad perspective, taking into account various factors. Questions revolving what the objectives are with integration, and what it means for the individual as well as for the society are predominant when doing research on integration. The aim of this thesis is to place the immigrant in the centre of the discussion, to gain a deeper understanding of what is perceived as meaningful for integration and furthermore to investigate what value employment has within integration for the persons involved. The data was gathered during the spring of 2018, thematic in depth interviews were made with five informants, all of whom are first generation immigrants and have experience of working life in Finland. The results demonstrated that integration is a manifold process, that it was subjective and had a temporal connotation. A unanimous result showed that interactions with society, sensing belonging and employment are central for what is perceived as meaningful for integration. In regards to what the value of employment is within integration, a more shattered result was seen, central experiences were that employment gives financial security, purpose and daily routines. Furthermore, the result showed that perceptions of the value of employment were often loaded with faulty expectations that were not met in real life. The main result showed that employment was not a precondition for integration, neither was employment equal to integration, furthermore a differentiation between being employed and unemployed was far too easy to make, since today a lot of the benefits that a paid job gives can be found in other settings, for example through volunteer work. Despite this, financial security which only derives from a paid job was a precondition for all informants to be able to stay in Finland, and therefore employment was of great value for integration.
  • Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Korvala, Johanna; Åström, Pirjo; De Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Mofatto, Luciana Souto; Bastos, Debora Campanella; Pereira Messetti, Ana Camila; Graner, Edgard; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula (2019)
    As one of the most abundant constituents of the tumour microenvironment (TME), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) display critical roles during tumour progression and metastasis. Multiple classes of molecules including growth factors, cytokines, proteases and extracellular matrix proteins, are produced by CAF to act as mediators of the stroma-tumour interactions. One of the main channels for this communication is associated with extracellular vesicles (EV), which are secreted particles loaded with protein and genetic information. In this study, we evaluated the effects of EV derived from CAF primary human cell lines (n = 5) on proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. As controls, EV from human primary-established normal oral fibroblasts (NOF, n = 5) were used. Our in vitro assays showed that CAF-EV significantly induces migration and invasion of OSCC cells and promote a disseminated pattern of HSC-3 cell invasion in the 3D organotypic assay. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of EV-treated cancer cells revealed changes in the pathways associated with tumour metabolism and up-regulation of tumour invasion genes. Our findings suggest a significant role of CAF-EV in promoting the migration and invasion of OSCC cells, which are related to the activation of cancer-related pathways.
  • Glushkova, Tatiana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The number of older migrants has been increasing in the world. Immigration to Finland has also been growing with Russia as one of the biggest nationalities. Older migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups since they might receive less attention than younger migrants, feel more insecure in a new environment, and deal with age-related processes, such as retirement, loss of a spouse, and declining health. Additionally, migration leads to relocation to a new society and adjustment to it, a language barrier, separation from family and friends, and other difficulties. A sense of belonging is crucial for migrants since it provides a feeling of comfort and affects their well-being, and negotiating cultural identity and belonging remains relevant even for those who lived in the country of settlement for decades. Creating a sense of belonging in the receiving society may be challenging for older people due to difficulties in learning a language, declining health, and socialization into origin ethnic culture long before migrating. That is why older migrants’ sense of belonging is a primary interest of this study. This thesis focuses on belonging through identity, which is defined as identification with a certain community, and on individual-level factors of belonging. In addition, the association between cultural orientations and types of belonging is examined. The thesis uses a quantitative approach and data from CHARM research. CATPCA is used to identify types of belonging and cultural orientations, and regression analysis is employed to examine the association between factors and types of belonging. Three types of belonging were found among older Russian-speaking migrants (50 years and above) in Finland : national belonging to Russians and Russian-speaking people in Finland, emotional belonging to communities of colleges, friends, neighbours in Finland, and belonging to Ingrian Finns. Worth noting that a core element of belonging to Ingrian Finns is a religion since it is one of the indicators of Ingrian Finns' identity. Similar to previous studies, local language may be one of the barriers to emotional belonging. However, “poor” Finnish or Swedish skills contribute to national belonging to Russians. Other significant predictors for all types of belonging health, religion, and economic situation. Additionally, orientations to Russian and Finnish culture are moderately and positively correlated, which indicates that migrants may orientate to both Finnish and Russian cultures simultaneously, and their cultural identities may be compatible. Orientation to Russian culture contributes to national belonging and belonging to Ingrian Finns. On the other hand, orientation to Finnish culture and belonging to Ingrian Finns are negatively associated. This thesis shows that older Russian-speaking migrants in Finland may have multiple types of belonging, and some of the most significant factors of national and emotional belonging as well as belonging to Ingrian Finns include language, health, and religion. Furthermore, the concept of cultural orientations is significant for migrants' sense of belonging, and the association between cultural orientations and a sense of belonging should be investigated in more detail
  • Pettay, Jenni E.; Lummaa, Virpi; Lynch, Robert; Loehr, John (2021)
    Because sex ratios are a key factor regulating mating success and subsequent fitness both across and within species, there is widespread interest in how population-wide sex ratio imbalances affect marriage markets and the formation of families in human societies. Although most modern cities have more women than men and suffer from low fertility rates, the effects of female-biased sex ratios have garnered less attention than male-biased ratios. Here, we analyze how sex ratios are linked to marriages, reproductive histories, dispersal, and urbanization by taking advantage of a natural experiment in which an entire population was forcibly displaced during World War II to other local Finnish populations of varying sizes and sex ratios. Using a discrete time-event generalized linear mixed-effects model, and including factors that change across time, such as annual sex ratio, we show how sex ratios, reproduction, and migration are connected in a female-dominated environment. Young childless women migrated toward urban centers where work was available to women, and away from male-biased rural areas. In such areas where there were more females, women were less likely to start reproduction. Despite this constraint, women showed little flexibility in mate choice, with no evidence for an increase in partner age difference in female-biased areas. We propose that together these behaviors and conditions combine to generate an "urban fertility trap" which may have important consequences for our understanding of the fertility dynamics of today including the current fertility decline across the developed world.
  • Blomberg, Anna S.; Vasko, Ville; Salonen, Saku; Petersons, Gunars; Lilley, Thomas M. (2021)
    Highly mobile species are considered to be the first to respond to climate change by transforming their ranges of distribution. There is evidence suggesting that Pipistrellus nathusii, a species capable of long-distance migration, is expanding both its reproduction and overwintering ranges to the North. We recorded the echolocation calls of bats at 16 sites in South-Western Finland on two consecutive winters, and detected calls of P. nathusii at one of the sites throughout the second winter. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost record of an overwintering P. nathusii, and contributes to evidence that the species is already responding to climate change.
  • Lindberg, Sebastian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Efter nationalsocialisternas maktövertagande i Tyskland 1933 började allt fler människor fly landet. De som flydde var främst politiska motståndare till den nya regimen och judiska flyktingar. Till Finland tog sig de första flyktingarna under våren 1938. Under sommaren samma år började en stundvis häftig polemik i den finländska pressen om förhållandet till flyktingarna. I denna pro gradu-avhandling jämförs sex större finländska dagstidningars syn på de centraleuropeiska flyktingarna samt mängden och genren av artiklar som tillägnades frågan. De studerade tidningarna är: Ajan Suunta, Helsingin Sanomat, Ilkka, Suomen Sosialidemokraatti, Svenska Pressen och Uusi Suomi. Dessa tidningar representerade antingen direkt eller indirekt de olika partipolitiska grupperingarna i landet och syftet med avhandlingen är att ge en möjligast representativ bild av flyktingdebatten i Finland. Källmaterialet har avgränsats till en tidsperiod från juli 1938 till slutet av augusti 1939, då flyktingdebatten gick som hetast i landet. Som teoretiska ramverk stöder sig avhandlingen på mentala uppdelningar av världen i ”Vi” och ”De”. För den nationalistiska högerpressen, Ajan Suunta och Uusi Suomi, representerade flyktingarna ett Andre, som framkallade typiska anti-immigrationsattityder och farhågor hos skribenterna. Då majoriteten av flyktingarna som tog sig till Finland dessutom var judar övergick kritiken mot flyktingarna även till antisemitiska stereotypier och karaktäriseringar. De mångfacetterade antisemitiska stereotypierna som förekom både i Ajan Suunta, och Uusi Suomi tyder också på att tidstypiska antisemitiska föreställningar var välkända i Finland under mellankrigstiden. En positivare syn på flyktingarna förmedlades dock också i pressen. Suomen Sosialidemokraatti yrkade på klasstillhörighet med de politiska flyktingarna, medan både Svenska Pressen och Suomen Sosialidemokraatti åberopade solidaritet med samtliga flyktingar. Flyktingarna ansågs därutöver utgöra ett konkret bevis på det nationalsocialistiska Tysklands orättfärdighet och flyktingarna användes även som ett antifascistiskt slagträ. Av de studerade tidningarna hängav Ajan Suunta och Suomen Sosialidemokraatti det absolut största intresset till flyktingfrågan. Det var även dessa tidningar som representerade bägge ytterligheter i den offentliga debatten om flyktingarna. Ilkka och Helsingin Sanomat tillägnade frågan det minsta spaltutrymmet och deras syn på flyktingarna var tämligen neutral. Av dessa hade dock Ilkka en försiktigt positiv syn, medan Helsingin Sanomat hade en mer kritisk inställning. De främsta argumenten som användes för att kritisera mottagandet av flyktingar var att dessa anlände i alltför stora mängder, att Finland inte hade råd med att ta emot ytterligare flyktingar, att man borde prioritera de så kallade finskbesläktade stamfrändeflyktingarna och att man ej ville skapa en inhemsk ”judefråga” genom att öka den judiska minoriteten i landet. Därutöver förekom stereotypier av judarna som stormrika och sluga affärsmän som inte var i behov av hjälp, utan endast utnyttjade situationen till egen vinning. I majoriteten av argumentationen som användes för att befrämja mottagandet av flyktingarna framfördes att flyktingarna var förföljda offer av nationalsocialistisk terror samt både Tyskland och finländska ytterhögern kritiserades för nonchalans i frågan. Motsättningsvis appellerade man till medmänsklighetskänsla, solidaritet och humanism hos läsarna.
  • Ruuskanen, Jutta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Arapaima gigas is one of the world’s largest freshwater fishes and it is native to the Amazon region. The species is over-exploited and sustainable long-term conservation strategies are needed to maintain the genetic diversity of the species. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Peruvian Arapaima gigas populations. The microsatellite data was collected as a part of a three-year project by the Regional Government of San Martín (GORESAM) and Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (FGFRI). The data consisted of 15 microsatellite loci and 324 samples from three populations, Iquitos, Paiche, and Pucallpa. The samples for Iquitos and Pucallpa were collected from populations in the Amazon basin. Samples of Paiche were collected from a captive population in a fish farming research center. The average numbers of alleles and genotypes ranged between 1.9-3.3 and 2.5-4.6, respectively. Population Pucallpa showed the highest average level of heterozygosity (0.41), whereas the lowest level was observed in population Iquitos (0.25). There were altogether 13 loci which showed a statistically significant excess of heterozygosity, and nine loci with significant deficiency of heterozygosity across the three populations. The FIS-values were in accordance with most of the significant deviations indicating the excess or deficiency of heterozygosity. The average FIT-value (0.226) indicated a slight increase of homozygotes. Populations Iquitos and Paiche were on a state of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but population Pucallpa showed a statistically significant deviation from the state of equilibrium. The pairwise FST-values ranged between 0.169-0.373, and they indicate that the three studied populations are genetically different. In addition, the values of Nei’s genetic distance (D) and full-pedigree likelihood analysis indicate a genetic differentiation between the populations. The number of migrants (Nm) between the three populations was estimated based on the mean frequency of private alleles (p(1) = 0.085) and the mean sample size (108 individuals). The number of migrants was 0.273 after the correction for sample size. The genetic diversity within and between the Peruvian populations resembles the results obtained in other studies of Arapaima gigas in the Amazon basin. Sustainable fish farming could offer a solution in maintaining the genetic diversity of the species.
  • Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina; Bocedi, Greta; Cote, Julien; Legrand, Dephine; Guillaume, Fredric; Wheat, Christopher West; Fronhofer, Emanuel A.; Garcia, Cristina; Henry, Roslyn; Husby, Arild; Baguette, Michelle; Bonte, Dries; Coulon, Aurelie; Kokko, Hanna; Matthysen, Erik; Niitepöld, Kristjan; Nonaka, Etsuko; Stevens, Virginie M.; Travis, Justin MJ; Donohue, Kathlin; Bullock, James M.; del Mar Delgado, Maria (2018)
    Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) review the empirical literature on the genetic basis of dispersal, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations of the evolution of dispersal have represented the genetics of dispersal, and (iii) discuss how the genetic basis of dispersal influences theoretical predictions of the evolution of dispersal and potential consequences. Dispersal has a detectable genetic basis in many organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. Generally, there is evidence for significant genetic variation for dispersal or dispersal-related phenotypes or evidence for the micro-evolution of dispersal in natural populations. Dispersal is typically the outcome of several interacting traits, and this complexity is reflected in its genetic architecture: while some genes of moderate to large effect can influence certain aspects of dispersal, dispersal traits are typically polygenic. Correlations among dispersal traits as well as between dispersal traits and other traits under selection are common, and the genetic basis of dispersal can be highly environment-dependent. By contrast, models have historically considered a highly simplified genetic architecture of dispersal. It is only recently that models have started to consider multiple loci influencing dispersal, as well as non-additive effects such as dominance and epistasis, showing that the genetic basis of dispersal can influence evolutionary rates and outcomes, especially under non-equilibrium conditions. For example, the number of loci controlling dispersal can influence projected rates of dispersal evolution during range shifts and corresponding demographic impacts. Incorporating more realism in the genetic architecture of dispersal is thus necessary to enable models to move beyond the purely theoretical towards making more useful predictions of evolutionary and ecological dynamics under current and future environmental conditions. To inform these advances, empirical studies need to answer outstanding questions concerning whether specific genes underlie dispersal variation, the genetic architecture of context-dependent dispersal phenotypes and behaviours, and correlations among dispersal and other traits.
  • Folkersma, Liisa Karoliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine migration of educated Dominicans in light of global processes. Current global developments have resulted in increasingly global movements of people, yet people tend to come from certain places in large numbers rather than others. At the same time, international migration is increasingly selective, which shows in the disproportional number of educated migrants. This study discovers individual and societal motivations that explain why young educated Dominicans decide to migrate and return. The theoretical framework of this thesis underlines that migration is a dynamic process rooted in other global developments. Migratory movements should be seen as a result of interacting macro- and microstructures, which are linked by a number of intermediate mechanisms, meso-structures. The way individuals perceive opportunity structures concretises the way global developments mediate to the micro-level. The case of the Dominican Republic shows that there is a diversity of local responses to the world system, as Dominicans have produced their own unique historical responses to global changes. The thesis explains that Dominican migration is importantly conditioned by socioeconomic and educational background. Migration is more accessible for the educated middle class, because of the availability of better resources. Educated migrants also seem less likely to rely on networks to organize their migrations. The role of networks in migration differs by socioeconomic background on the one hand, and by the specific connections each individual has to current and previous migrants on the other hand. The personal and cultural values of the migrant are also pivotal. The central argument of this thesis is that a veritable culture of migration has evolved in the Dominican Republic. The actual economic, political and social circumstances have led many Dominicans to believe that there are better opportunities elsewhere. The globalisation of certain expectations on the one hand, and the development of the specifically Dominican feeling of ‘externalism’ on the other, have for their part given rise to the Dominican culture of migration. The study also suggests that the current Dominican development model encourages migration. Besides global structures, local structures are found to be pivotal in determining how global processes are materialised in a specific place. The research for this thesis was conducted by using qualitative methodology. The focus of this thesis was on thematic interviews that reveal the subject’s point of view and give a fuller understanding of migration and mobility of the educated. The data was mainly collected during a field research phase in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic in December 2009 and January 2010. The principal material consists of ten thematic interviews held with educated Dominican current or former migrants. Four expert interviews, relevant empirical data, theoretical literature and newspaper articles were also comprehensively used.