Browsing by Subject "mikrokuidut"

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  • Dolar, Andraž; Selonen, Salla; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Perc, Valentina; Drobne, Damjana; Jemec Kokalj, Anita (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 772 (2021), 144900
    Microplastics and agrochemicals are common pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Their interaction during coexistence in soils may influence their fate and adverse effects on terrestrial organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate how the exposure to two types of microplastics; polyester fibres, and crumb rubber; induce changes in immune parameters of Porcellio scaber and if the co-exposure of microplastics affects the response induced by the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos. A number of immune parameters, such as total haemocyte count, differential haemocyte count, and phenoloxidase-like activity were assessed. In addition, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the haemolymph was evaluated as a measure of the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos. After three weeks of exposure, the most noticeable changes in the measured immune parameters and also a significantly reduced AChE activity were seen in chlorpyrifos-exposed animals. Both types of microplastic at environmentally relevant concentrations caused only slight changes in immune parameters which were not dependent on the type of microplastic, although the two types differed significantly in terms of the chemical complexity of the additives. Mixtures of chlorpyrifos and microplastics induced changes that differed from individual exposures. For example, alterations in some measured parameters suggested a reduced bioavailability of chlorpyrifos (AChE activity, haemocyte viability) caused by both types of microplastics exposure, but the increase of haemocyte count was promoted by the presence of fibres implying their joint action. In conclusion, this study suggests that immune processes in P. scaber are slightly changed upon exposure to both types of microplastics and microplastics can significantly modulate the effects of other co-exposed chemicals. Further research is needed on the short-term and long-term joint effects of microplastics and agrochemicals on the immunity of soil invertebrates.
  • Kärkkäinen, Niina; Sillanpää, Markus (Springer, 2021)
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 16253–16263 (2021)
    Microplastic fibres released in synthetic cloth washing have been shown to be a source of microplastics into the environment. The annual emission of polyester fibres from household washing machines has earlier been estimated to be 150,000 kg in a country with a population of 5.5 × 106 (Finland). The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the emissions of synthetic textile fibres discharged from five sequential machine washes (fibre number and length) and tumble dryings (fibre mass) and (2) to determine the collection efficiency of two commercial fibre traps. The synthetic fabrics were five types of polyester textiles, one polyamide and one polyacryl. The number of fibres released from the test fabrics in the first wash varied in the range from 1.0 × 105 to 6.3 × 106 kg−1. The fibre lengths showed that the fleece fabrics released, on average, longer fibres than the technical sports t-shirts. The mass of fibres ranged from 10 to 1700 mg/kg w/w in the first drying. Fibre emissions showed a decreasing trend both in sequential washes and dryings. The ratio of the fibre emissions in machine wash to tumble drying varied between the fabrics: the ratio was larger than one to polyester and polyamide technical t-shirts whereas it was much lower to the other tested textiles. GuppyFriend washing bag and Cora Ball trapped 39% and 10% of the polyester fibres discharged in washings, respectively.