Browsing by Subject "milk"

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  • Ahlberg, Sara; Grace, Delia; Kiarie, Gideon; Kirino, Yumi; Lindahl, Johanna (2018)
    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk of cancer and stunting as a result of AFM1 consumption in Nairobi, Kenya, using worst case assumptions of toxicity and data from previous studies. Almost all (99.5%) milk was contaminated with AFM1. Cancer risk caused by AFM1 was lower among consumers purchasing from formal markets (0.003 cases per 100,000) than for low-income consumers (0.006 cases per 100,000) purchasing from informal markets. Overall cancer risk (0.004 cases per 100,000) from AFM1 alone was low. Stunting is multifactorial, but assuming only AFM1 consumption was the determinant, consumption of milk contaminated with AFM1 levels found in this study could contribute to 2.1% of children below three years in middle-income families, and 2.4% in low-income families, being stunted. Overall, 2.7% of children could hypothetically be stunted due to AFM1 exposure from milk. Based on our results AFM1 levels found in milk could contribute to an average of −0.340 height for age z-score reduction in growth. The exposure to AFM1 from milk is 46 ng/day on average, but children bear higher exposure of 3.5 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day compared to adults, at 0.8 ng/kg bw/day. Our paper shows that concern over aflatoxins in milk in Nairobi is disproportionate if only risk of cancer is considered, but that the effect on stunting children might be much more significant from a public health perspective; however, there is still insufficient data on the health effects of AFM1.
  • Salomaa, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded amounts of camelina oil on milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets based on a mixture of grass and red clover silages. The experiment was carried out at the University of Helsinki research farm in Viikki 30th January 2009 – 23th April 2009. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows participated in this experiment and four of them were rumen fistulated. Experimental design used was 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments consisted of concentrate supplements containing various levels of camelina oil (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% on air-dry basis). All concentrates contained camelina expeller (20% on air-dry basis). The cows were offered daily 12 kg of experimental concentrate and silage ad libitum. The experimental periods lasted for 21 days. The first 14 days were adaptation period and the last 7 days formed sampling period. Increase of camelina oil level in the diet linearly decreased forage and whole diet dry matter intake (P?0,002). Camelina oil level did not affect organic matter, NDF and nitrogen whole-tract digestibility (P>0,10). Milk yield and milk protein- and lactose content linearly decreased when camelina oil level increased (P<0,001). Camelina oil level did not affect milk fat yield (P>0,100). Milk fat content (P=0,014) linearly increased and protein content (P=0,032) and urea content (P<0,001) linearly decreased when camelina oil level increased. Camelina oil level did not affect milk lactose content (P>0,100). Increase of camelina oil level linearly worsened milk taste panel scores (P=0,018). Camelina oil level did not affect plasma metabolite concentrations except that of total free fatty acids that linearly increased with camelina oil supplementation (P<0,001). Effects of camelina oil supplementation on rumen pH and rumen fermentation pattern were numerically negligible. Increase of camelina oil level linearly decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk fat (P<0,001) and linearly increased those of monounsaturated (P<0,001) and polyunsaturated (P<0,002) fatty acids. Increase of camelina oil level linearly decreased the content of mammary de novo synthesised short- and medium-chain 6-14-carbon fatty acid in milk fat (P?0,028). Camelina oil level had no effect on alphalinolenic acid content in milk fat (P>0.100). Increase of camelina oil level linearly increased trans fatty acids and CLA content in milk fat (P?0,008). Camelina oil supplementation did not affect neither the milk fat content of the final product of ruminal biohydrogenation of 18-carbon unsaturates stearic acid nor that of oleic acid (P>0,10). This is possibly due to biohydrogenation not proceeding to the end, ceasing to the last step before stearic acid. Milk fat trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents linearly increased at remarkably high levels when camelina oil level in the diet increased (P?0,008). This is possibly due to incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Camelina oil supplement improved milk fat composition by decreasing saturated and increasing the trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in milk. However, giving camelina oil at high levels decreased silage and whole diet dry matter intake and affected milk production negatively.
  • Lamminsalo, Anni; Lundqvist, Annamari; Virta, Lauri J.; Gissler, Mika; Kaila, Minna; Metsälä, Johanna; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2021)
    Bakground: It is suggested that early intake of cow's milk could be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Further, the different immunological background, gives a suggestion of an inverse relationship for the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the association between cow's milk allergy (CMA) and the risk of T1DM in a register-based case-cohort study. Methods: Data were obtained from Finnish nationwide health registers. The study included all children born in Finland between January 01, 1986 and December 31, 2008 and diagnosed with T1DM before the age of 16 years (n = 7754). A 10% random sample from each birth year cohort was selected as a reference cohort (n = 137,798). T1DM, CMA, and asthma were defined based on valid special reimbursements for the costs of drugs/special formulas needed in the treatment of the diseases. Child's sex, birth decade, asthma, maternal diabetes and asthma, smoking during pregnancy, and previous deliveries were considered as confounding factors. Time-dependent, weighted Cox regression was applied for statistical analyses. Results: Children with CMA had an increased risk of developing T1DM in fully adjusted model (HR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.02-1.34), but the association was no longer observed when including the use of special infant formulas in the definition of CMA in the sensitivity analysis (HR = 1.11; 95% CI 0.92-1.32). CMA was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in children without asthma (HR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.10-1.47), but not in children with asthma (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.92-1.27). Conclusion: Children with CMA may have an increased risk of T1DM.
  • Vuorio, Emma (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This study aims to find out if differentiation of the features of the 4P of the product milk can create value to customers in a particular customer segment. Creating value is in the core in every company´s actions. Customers buy products and services that create value to them and are willing to pay from the value they get. The more the product creates value, the more the customers are willing to pay. This study focused on the customer segment of young women with academic background who live in the capital region. Milk is a bulk product consumed widely in Finland. The product also has significant role in the nutritional history of the country and has a big role in Finnish nutritional recommendations. However the consumption of milk has decreased over the years. The theoretical background of this study is based on the following theories: marketing strategy and the 4P, customer value and differentiation. These theories formed the theoretical framework which gave the focus to the empirical experiment. The approach of the study was qualitative because qualitative research aims to understand the phenomenon it studies and the approach is more suitable for analysing verbal data. Qualitative research wants to get a deeper understanding and it gives room for individual´s thoughts and experience. The study was executed and a group interview using theme interview methods. For the study chosen features of the 4P of the product milk were differentiated and group interview focused on them. The differentiated features were the following. For product organic milk and milk with added protein, for price milk with a lower price, for place online shopping and for promotion advertising milk on social media. The findings of this study were that in some cases differentiation of the features if the 4P of the product milk can create value for customers but in most cases it does not. The focus group felt that the most valuable differentiated feature of the 4P was organically produced milk and other factors that supported the well-being of the production animals and the environment. If a company selling or producing milk tries to create value to its customers through differentiation of the features of the 4P, it needs to consider carefully which features to focus on.
  • Akesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjansdottir, Asa G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfalt, Elisabet (2013)
  • Ehlers, Pauliina (2022)
    Research around food-derived compounds possessing pharmacological effects and potentially also affecting health status beneficially has during the recent years increased. At the same time, new regulations have been put in place to direct the use of different claims on food products. Distinction between food and drugs needs to be clear and consumers and patients cannot be misled. One of the focus areas in research has been products affecting cardiovascular function. The aim of this licentiate thesis was to find out if already developed high blood pressure can be decreased and endothelial dysfunction improved by bioactive milk-derived tripeptides isoleucine-prolineproline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) and plant sterols in an experimental animal model (spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR). In addition, one of the aims was to investigate if combining tripeptides and plant sterols could have positive, synergistic effects on the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. As pre-clinical studies precede extensive clinical studies in humans also during the drug development process, some comparison between food-derived substances and blood pressure-lowering drugs was made and interfaces between functional foods and drugs was discussed. This licentiate thesis showed that long-term treatment with fermented milk enriched with tripeptides and plant sterols decreased systolic blood pressure, improved endothelial dysfunction and affected signaling pathways related to inflammatory responses in SHR with already established hypertension. Long-term treatment with plant sterols had only a slight but not significant effect for the development of hypertension. Plant sterols did not provide any beneficial effects on endothelial function in hypertensive rats; however, treatment with both plant sterols and tripeptides showed mild anti-inflammatory effects. To get a better picture of the magnitude of the effect of the studied food-derived substances on blood pressure and vascular function, further studies (either with animals or humans) would benefit from including both food-derived substances and drugs as different treatment arms in the same study. Taken together, there are some similarities between functional foods and drugs what comes to product approval processes or claims made on the products, research and effects on blood pressure, for example, but studying food-derived substances brings several challenges compared to drugs what comes to study set-up and interpretation of the results. However, reflecting on the results of the present studies and available literature, food-derived substances such as tripeptides from milk could be a good alternative for subjects with increased blood pressure who do not yet implicitly need drug treatment and can still try to improve their health status with lifestyle changes, such as nutrition.
  • Solala, Kari (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The literature review of this thesis deals with light, different light sources and their properties. LED (Light Emitting Diode) light was specially taken into consideration, because the use of LED lights will increase in general illumination. The literature review also deals with the quality changes of dairy products and potatoes caused by exposure to light. The aim of this study was to search for such a spectral distribution of light which would cause only minor changes in the sensory quality of milk and the surface colour of potatoes. Objective was to also find out if there is a difference between the effects of fluorescent light and LED light on the quality of milk and greening of potatoes. Reduced (1,5 %) fat milk and new potatoes were used as testing materials. The milk in commercial carton board packages was exposed to six different light sources: white fluorescent lamp, white LED and LED of four different colours. The potatoes packed in transparent LDPE (Low Density Poly Ethylene) bags were stored under five different light sources: white fluorescent lamp, white LED and LED of three different colours. The light intensity at the surface of the packages was about 1000 lx in both studies. In the milk study, the effects of light were evaluated with a sensory method using descriptive analysis. In the potato study, the light effects were analysed with colour measurements (avalue) using a spectrophotometer and with surface temperature measurements using a laser thermometer. Sensory evaluation of milk there resulted in few statistically significant differences in the intensity of the attributes between the milks stored under different light sources. Light exposure caused a rapid greening of potatoes in every illumination. According to colour change percentage, the greening order under different lights was: white LED < yellow LED < green LED < turquoise LED < fluorescent light. The potatoes which were stored in dark had no change in their surface colour. The surface temperature of potatoes increased most under white LED and turquoise LED lights. A spectral distribution of light which would have caused less changes in sensory quality of milk than commonly used fluorescent light was not found in this study. The results showed, however, that in addition to blue light which has always been considered the most harmful for milk the red light also caused remarkable quality changes. Based on the results of this study, it could be suggested that under the LED lights the quality of packed milk retained its quality characteristics at least as well as under the fluorescent light. There were differences between the effects of different lights on the greening of potatoes. White and yellow LED light caused less greening of potatoes than the other lights. The strongest greening of potatoes was observed under the fluorescent light.
  • Jaakkonen, Anniina; Castro, Hanna; Hallanvuo, Saija; Ranta, Jukka; Rossi, Mirko; Isidro, Joana; Lindström, Miia; Hakkinen, Marjaana (2019)
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni are notable health hazards associated with the consumption of raw milk. These bacteria may colonize the intestines of asymptomatic cattle and enter bulk tank milk via fecal contamination during milking. We studied the frequency of STEC O157:H7 and C. jejuni contamination in tank milk (n = 785) and the in-line milk filters of milking machines (n = 631) versus the frequency of isolation from cattle feces (n = 257) on three Finnish dairy farms for 1 year. Despite simultaneous isolation of STEC O157:H7 (17%) or C. jejuni (53%) from cattle, these bacteria were rarely isolated from milk filters (2% or = 11 months, and several other C. jejuni types were detected sporadically. The stx gene carried by STEC was detected more frequently from milk filters (37%) than from milk (7%), suggesting that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk. A questionnaire of on-farm practices suggested lower stx contamination of milk when major cleansing in the barn, culling, or pasturing of dairy cows was applied, while a higher average outdoor temperature was associated with higher stx contamination. Because pathogen contamination occurred despite good hygiene and because pathogen detection from milk and milk filters proved challenging, we recommend heat treatment for raw milk before consumption. The increased popularity of raw milk consumption has created demand for relaxing legislation, despite the risk of contamination by pathogenic bacteria, notably STEC and C. jejuni. However, the epidemiology of these milk-borne pathogens on the herd level is still poorly understood, and data are lacking on the frequency of milk contamination on farms with cattle shedding these bacteria in their feces. This study suggests (i) that STEC contamination in milk can be reduced, but not prevented, by on-farm hygienic measures while fecal shedding is observable, (ii) that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk although pathogen detection from both sample matrices may be challenging, and (iii) that STEC and C. jejuni genotypes may persist in cattle herds for several months. The results can be utilized in developing and targeting pathogen monitoring and risk management on the farm level and contributed to the revision of Finnish legislation in 2017.
  • Mäki-Asiala, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    It is necessary actively seek effective ways to reduce agricultural emissions so that the proportion of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in total national emissions does not increase. The aim of this study was to evaluate with carbon footprint calculators different options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of dairy production and the carbon footprint of energy-corrected milk. The scenarios included the changes in the dietary concentrate proportion, the proportion of grass in cultivation, the digestibility of roughage and the level of milk production. In addition, the effect of temperature on methane emissions from manure was examined. Data of a dairy farm located in Central Ostrobothnia from year 2020 were utilized in the study. The assessment was carried out by using the carbon footprint calculator developed by the European Commission and the Valio Carbo® environmental calculator. According to the results of both calculators, the effect of the changes in the concentrate proportion in the diet on the carbon footprint of milk was very small. Reducing the proportion of concentrate in the diet reduced total emissions. Reducing the proportion of rapeseed meal in feeding reduced total emissions more than reducing the proportion of barley. Increasing the proportion of grass in cultivation reduced the carbon footprint of milk and the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions with both calculators. According to the European Commission carbon calculator, increasing grass yield and also increasing the proportion of grain in cultivation reduced the carbon footprint of milk and the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions. With Valio Carbo® environmental calculator, increasing the proportion of grain in cultivation increased the carbon footprint of milk and the total emissions. According to European Commission calculator, the total emissions and the carbon footprint of milk decreased when the digestibility of roughage decreased. The increase of milk production level also clearly reduced the carbon footprint of milk with both calculators. However, the change in the milk production level had only a small effect on the amount of emissions produced. Reducing the conversion factor describing the effect of temperature on methane formation from slurry reduced the carbon footprint of milk. The decrease in the conversion factor reduced the emissions from the manure system by 51.3 percentage and reduced the milk carbon footprint from 1.21 to 1.15 kg CO2e/kg ECM. In conclusion, there are many feasible opportunities to reduce the carbon footprint. The most effective ways to reduce total emissions at farm level are to increase the proportion of grass in cultivation and to increase the yield of grass. Raising the milk production level effectively reduces the carbon footprint, but in the future the calculations must take into account that the dry matter intake is higher as the milk yield increases. The main differences between the calculators are currently in the coefficients they use. When comparing the results given by the calculators, it is important to note that the calculation principles cannot fully take into account the possible opposite effects of different factors. The results should be looked critically with a caution that the results given by different calculators are not directly comparable.
  • Siltari, Aino; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta (2019)
    Epidemiological studies have revealed that consumption of milk and fermented dairy products is inversely associated with elevated blood pressure and with many of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Previously, calcium was thought to be behind this phenomenon, but during the last 20 years, convincing evidence emerging from experimental, epidemiological and intervention studies has highlighted the important role of the small peptides formed during fermentation processes. This review provides an overview of the potential blood pressure lowering components present in dairy products with a special focus on casein-derived tripeptides.
  • Tapola, Tuire (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Milk fat contains a lot of (70–75 %) saturated fat, which is connected to Finnish public heart and coronary diseases. However, it is possible to alter the fatty acid composition of milk fat by giving cows lipid supplements such as crushed rapeseeds. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate how the lipids of crushed rapeseeds affect dairy cow’s milk fatty acid composition. The effects of rapeseed lipids on saturated and unsaturated fatty acid concentrations in milk fat were studied in particular. Additionally, it was investigated how dietary lipids affect cows’ dry matter (DM) intake and milk production as it is known that high amounts of lipids can reduce DM intake and fiber digestion in the rumen. The study consisted of two successive three week long periods of which the first one was control period and the second one test period. There were six ayrshire cows which had been on average 181 days in milk at the beginning of the study. The cows were given partial total mixed ratio (pTMR) containing grass silage as forage (60 % of diet DM) during the whole study. Concentrates comprised cereals, rapeseed meal, molassed sugar beet pulp and mineral supplements. Control diet’s barley was replaced by oats and most of the rapeseed meal was replaced by crushed rapeseed in the test diet. Crushed rapeseed was added 160 g/kg pTMR DM. Cows were also given complete feed 3kg/day at milkings. Lipids of crushed rapeseeds reduced the concentration of saturated fatty acids by 20 % in milk fat. Of all the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (C16:0) was decreased by 38 % and stearic acid (C18:0) was increased by 94 %. Of these two saturated fatty acids, C16:0 is linked to higher total plasma cholesterol levels whereas C18:0 is considered to have a neutral effect in humans. The concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid (cis-9 C18:1), which is known to be hypocholesteremic, increased by 78 % in milk fat. Test diet caused decline in DM intake and milk production. It is likely that the milk production decreased partly because the cows were in declining milk production phase. Test feed decreased the apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), because the amount of rapeseed lipids in the diet was high (48 g/kg diet DM). Crushed rapeseeds suit excellently to alter dairy cow’s milk fatty acid composition. The amount of lipid supplementation should not be too high in order to avoid decreases in DM intake and NDF digestibility as occurred in this study.
  • Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani (2020)
    Worldwide, the dairy sector remains of vital importance for food production despite severe environmental constraints. The production and handling conditions of milk, a rich medium, promote inevitably the entrance of microbial contaminants, with notable impact on the quality and safety of raw milk and dairy products. Moreover, the persistence of high concentrations of microorganisms (especially bacteria and bacterial spores) in biofilms (BFs) present on dairy equipment or environments constitutes an additional major source of milk contamination from pre- to post-processing stages: in dairies, BFs represent a major concern regarding the risks of disease outbreaks and are often associated with significant economic losses. One consumption trend toward "raw or low-processed foods" combined with current trends in food production systems, which tend to have more automation and longer processing runs with simultaneously more stringent microbiological requirements, necessitate the implementation of new and obligatory sustainable strategies to respond to new challenges regarding food safety. Here, in light of studies, performed mainly with raw milk, that considered dominant "planktonic" conditions, we reexamine the changes triggered by cold storage alone or combined with nitrogen gas (N-2) flushing on bacterial populations and discuss how the observed benefits of the treatment could also contribute to limiting BF formation in dairies.
  • Laatikainen, Reijo; Salmenkari, Hanne; Sibakov, Timo; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Turpeinen, Anu (2020)
    Unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk consumption are common. In addition to lactose, also other components of milk may be involved. We studied whether the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins would affect gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. In a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover intervention, subjects (n = 41) were given ordinary or hydrolysed high-protein, lactose-free milkshakes (500 mL, 50 g protein) to be consumed daily for ten days. After a washout period of ten days, the other product was consumed for another ten days. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded daily during the study periods, and a validated irritable bowel syndrome-symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) questionnaire was completed at the beginning of the study and at the end of both study periods. Blood and urine samples were analysed for markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability and immune activation. Both the IBS-SSS score (p = 0.001) and total symptom score reported daily (p = 0.002) were significantly reduced when participants consumed the hydrolysed product. Less bloating was reported during both study periods when compared with the baseline (p < 0.01 for both groups). Flatulence (p = 0.01) and heartburn (p = 0.03) decreased when consuming the hydrolysed product but not when drinking the control product. No significant differences in the levels of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6), intestinal permeability (fatty acid binding protein 2, FABP2) or immune activation (1-methylhistamine) were detected between the treatment periods. The results suggest that the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins (mainly casein) reduces subjective symptoms to some extent in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The mechanism remains to be resolved. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Jaakkonen, A.; Salmenlinna, S.; Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Lundström, H.; Heinikainen, S.; Hakkinen, M.; Hallanvuo, S. (2017)
    Shiga toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 (SF O157) has emerged as a cause of severe human illness. Despite frequent human findings, its transmission routes and reservoirs remain largely unknown. Foodborne transmission and reservoir in cattle have been suspected, but with limited supporting evidence. This study describes the outbreak of SF O157 that occurred in Finland in 2012. The outbreak originated from a recreational farm selling unpasteurized milk, as revealed by epidemiologic and microbiological investigations, and involved six hospitalized children and two asymptomatic adults with culture-confirmed infection. An identical strain of SF O157 was isolated from patients, cattle and the farm environment, and epidemiologic analysis suggested unpasteurized milk as the vehicle of transmission. This study reports the first milkborne outbreak of SF O157, provides supporting evidence of cattle as a reservoir and highlights the health risks related to the consumption of unpasteurized milk.