Browsing by Subject "mitochondrial genome"

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  • Zheng, Shuyu; Poczai, Peter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Tang, Jing; Amiryousefi, Ali (2020)
    Understanding the complexity of genomic structures and their unique architecture is linked with the power of visualization tools used to represent these features. Such tools should be able to provide a realistic and scalable version of genomic content. Here, we present an online organelle plotting tool focused on chloroplasts, which were developed to visualize the exclusive structure of these genomes. The distinguished unique features of this program include its ability to represent the Single Short Copy (SSC) regions in reverse complement, which allows the depiction of the codon usage bias index for each gene, along with the possibility of the minor mismatches between inverted repeat (IR) regions and user-specified plotting layers. The versatile color schemes and diverse functionalities of the program are specifically designed to reflect the accurate scalable representation of the plastid genomes. We introduce a Shiny app website for easy use of the program; a more advanced application of the tool is possible by further development and modification of the downloadable source codes provided online. The software and its libraries are completely coded in R, available at https://irscope.shinyapps.io/chloroplot/.
  • Jiang, Lichun; Peng, Liqing; Tang, Min; You, Zhangqiang; Zhang, Min; West, Andrea; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei; Merilä, Juha (2019)
    This is the first study to describe the mitochondrial genome of the Himalayan Griffon, Gyps himalayensis, which is an Old World vulture belonging to the family Accipitridae and occurring along the Himalayas and the adjoining Tibetan Plateau. Its mitogenome is a closed circular molecule 17,381 bp in size containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA coding genes, two rRNA-coding genes, a control region (CR), and an extra pseudo-control region (CCR) that are conserved in most Accipitridae mitogenomes. The overall base composition of the G. himalayensis mitogenome is 24.55% A, 29.49% T, 31.59% C, and 14.37% G, which is typical for bird mitochondrial genomes. The alignment of the Accipitridae species control regions showed high levels of genetic variation and abundant AT content. At the 5 ' end of the domain I region, a long continuous poly-C sequence was found. Two tandem repeats were found in the pseudo-control regions. Phylogenetic analysis with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood based on 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the relationships at the family level were (Falconidae + (Cathartidae + (Sagittariidae + (Accipitridae + Pandionidae))). In the Accipitridae clade, G. himalayensis is more closely related to Aegypius monachus than to Spilornis cheela. The complete mitogenome of G. himalayensis provides a potentially useful resource for further exploration of the taxonomic status and phylogenetic history of Gyps species.
  • Kinkar, Liina; Laurimae, Teivi; Simsek, Sami; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Varcasia, Antonio; Lavikainen, Antti; Miguel Gonzalez, Luis; Rehbein, Steffen; Van der Giessen, Joke; Sprong, Hein; Saarma, Urmas (2016)
    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis. The disease is a significant global public health concern and human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) genotype G1. The objectives of this study were to: (i) analyse the genetic variation and phylogeography of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in part of its main distribution range in Europe using 8274 bp of mtDNA; (ii) compare the results with those derived from previously used shorter mtDNA sequences and highlight the major differences. We sequenced a total of 91 E. granulosus s. s. G1 isolates from six different intermediate host species, including humans. The isolates originated from seven countries representing primarily Turkey, Italy and Spain. Few samples were also from Albania, Greece, Romania and from a patient originating from Algeria, but diagnosed in Finland. The analysed 91 sequences were divided into 83 haplotypes, revealing complex phylogeography and high genetic variation of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in Europe, particularly in the high-diversity domestication centre of western Asia. Comparisons with shorter mtDNA datasets revealed that 8274 bp sequences provided significantly higher phylogenetic resolution and thus more power to reveal the genetic relations between different haplotypes.